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^arlingtorr, ^t: 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Vermont. 





"We are often asked from what originated the commencement of this -work. Vermontera 
are New Englanders, and like naturally to know about a thing that interests them, from the 
beginning to the end. We cheerfully acknowledge indebtedness to the Rev. P. H. White, 
of Coventry, present President of the Vermont State Historical Society, for the suggestion 
from which our work grew. We had the " Poets and Poetry of Vermont" well off hands, 
and were looking about for something of a Vermont character to do, when a newspaper 
from the eastern part of the State fell in our way in which there was an appeal to the St. 
Johnsbury citizens, urging them to take some measures toward the gathering up and pres- 
ervation of their local history ; and that appeal was from the pen of Mr. White, whose his- 
torical assistance is pledged to the Gazetteer for Orleans County. Ifwe remember rightly, 
the plan alluded to recommended that the towns should undertake to make up for them- 
selves a book of their own history ; and while this did not strike us then — nor ever has. 
since — as feasible, yet the fact pointed out that our historic material is becoming — and will 
continue to become — daily more and more indistinct and irrecoverable ; and that our past 
has been too rich and, in many points, or some, too unique and romantic to lose, impressed us, 
and that permanently ; and while we concluded many of the towns, from the lateness of their 
settlement or poverty of incident, could not reasonably be expected to furnish more than a 
small readable chapter, and no town in the State, material, when well digested, for more than 
a small book, they might nevertheless be gathered — all the local histories — as thoroughly 
and completely as they could be in each town now, and arranged in a series by counties 
into two or more large volumes, as might be required, which would be of permanent interest 
and utility. And as, to our knowledge then, no one had the work in hand, or seemed to 
care about taking it in hand, and we had become sufficiently interested in the project to be 
willing to undertake its arduous labors, and to have faith in its success, we entered upon it 
about three years before the commencement of our late Southern Rebellion. We had pub- 
lished but six numbers when, the work not receiving financial support sufficient to sustain 
it during war-days, we suspended the publication, at much sacrifice ; but peace and prosper- 
ity being established once more, we have resumed and concluded the work thus far, leaving 
it to the people of Vermont whether they will have two more volumes of equal magnitude, 
and which will cover the ground of the entire State, according to the plan seen in this work. 
How the work has developed upon our own hands, and with the writers.engaged on it, may 
be seen by any one who carefully traces the historic chapters from Addison County to Essex 
County inclusive ; and we have material already collected for another volume as large as this 
one, and as the Gazetteer always has and can command every pen desired upon it as we 
proceed from county to county, we need not hesitate to assure every well-wisher and friend 
we want only a generous patronage to enable us to give them a completed work, and one 
which the Chicago Historical Society and other historical men, or bodies of men in our 
own countfy have declared " will be a historic monument for the Green Mountain State 
such as no other State has." 

Three volumes will cover the whole ground of the State, as intended and even progress- 
ively developed from county to county, as consequent upon the progress of the work, and 


moreover embrace a history of the part Vermont and Vermont soldiers took in the late 

rebellion, — which papers, for the counties of this volume, have been generally deferred 

till they might be more matured, and for the second and third volumes. 

It has been a work demanding more labor, cares and anxieties, and expenditures every 

way of strength and energy and patience, as well as of the dollar, than any one may 

ever be like to consider ; but gladly now we give it to Vermont, to our people, to our State, 

not such as we would have made it with a publication fund, with the very necessary means 

to have made it better, but such as the good Providence over and around us has enabled us, 

after so long a delay, to make. We contribute it as a part of our poor labor of love for our 

native State, almost forgetting the weariness in that our labors are thus far accomplished. 

ABBY MARIA HEMENWAY, Editor and Compiler. 
Burlington, Vt. 


In honor of the fourteen present Counties of Vermont — 
may the number long remain intact — we most respectfully and 
cordially dedicate this historical volume unto the following 
fourteen Vermonters and citizens who have contributed, either 
by the pen or otherwise, toward the substantial benefit of this 
first volume the most efficiently and liberally, — viz. : The Hon. 
HiLAND Hall, of T^orth Bennington ; Rev. Thomas Good- 
wiLLiE, of Barnet ; Hon. David A. Read, of Burlington ; 
George F. Houghton, Esq., of St. Albans ; H. A. Cutting, 
of Lunenburgh ; E. A. Chapin, late of Rutland ; Geo. A. 
Merrill, of Rutland ; Hon. D. A. Smalley, of Burlington ; 
Hon. E. P. Walton, of Montpelier ; Prof. Geo. W. Benedict, 
of Burlington ; Plon. John W. Strong, of Addison; Hon. Geo. 
C. Cahoon, of Lyndon ; Rev. Fred. A. Wadleigh, of Arling- 
ton ; Russell S. Taft, Esq., of Burlington f Thomas H. 
Canfield, of Burlington. 



V aried havdsbips and privations 
E ally settlers struggled through, 
R elinquishing all former stations, 
M oving to a country new; 

O nee again to join life's battle, 

N ow felling trees, then rearing cattle, 

T oiling on with wealth in view. 

Q uietude was scarcely known, 
U ncontrolled the dusky savage, — 
A mong them all desire was shown 
R uthlessly to burn and ravage, 
T rackless forests spread around 
E very settler's humble clearing; 
R oads at that time were not found, 
L aborers went by compass steering, 

Y et a brighter dawn was nearing. 

G iant forests now have vanished, 
A 11 around contentment reigns, 
Z eal and industry have banished 
E arly hardships, toils and pains ; 
T asty villagers now nestle 
T hickly in each fertile vale, 
E ngines shriek and rail-cars jostle , 
E 'en where wound the Indian trail : 
R eader, would you know still further — 
This book tells the varied tale. 

NOTB The name Quarterly will be found upon the old covers of the earlier numbers, and occasionally 
appears in the body of the work, the desire being first to bring out the work as a Historical Quarterly ; 
which, however, the slow financial support and state of the times never admitted. — Ei. 



COUNTY ITEMS— From history of Middlebury, by Hon. Samuel Swift, 119, 
ADDISON— Hon. John W. Strong. Con. * E. C. Wines, D. D., LL. D., L, C. Thorn, 

Editor, 1—16. 
BRIDPORT— Editob and others. Con., Charlotte R. Cook, 16—19. 
BRISTOL — Hon. Haevey Munsill. Con., Amos Eastman, Mrs. Jas. Tucker, Mrs. M. H. 

Chase, Rev. C. W. Walker, Mrs. D. M. F. Walker, L. H. Thomas, M. D., Jennie B, 

Lowell, 19—23. 
CORNWALL — Rev. Lyman Matthews. Con., Joel H. Linsley, D. D., Chas. Linsley, Esq., 

S. B. Rockwell, Mrs. Mary Rockwell, E. Sumner Dana, 23 — 31. 
FERRISBURGH— R. E. Robinson. Con., Editor, Rev. S. H. Tupper, 31—35. 
GOSHEN— Nathan Capen. Con., James Cowen, 35—39. 
GRANVILLE— Hon. A. G. Allen. Con., Celia M. Ball, 39—43. 
HANCOCK— C. G. Robbins, Esq. Con., Henry Jones, Mary S. Robbins, 43—44. 
LEICESTER— John L. Perey, Esq. Con., Rev. B. D. Ames, A. E. Stanley, S. Clin, D. D., 

Rev. L. S. Walker, Ada McCanon, 44—48. 
LINCOLN— James T. Gove. Con., Editor, 48—50. 
MIDDLEBURY — From the before recently published History of Middlebury, by Hon. 

Samuel Swift — By the Editor. Con., E. D. Barber, Rev. B. M. Hall, Timothy 0. 

Flannagan, Thomas Merrill, D. D., N. H. Wright, Hon. Samuel S. Phelps, E. J. 

Phelps, Esq., Frank Phelps, Egbert Phelps, Louis McDonald, C. D. Noble, Philip Bat- 
tell, Esq., Hon. James Meacham, 50 — 65. 
MONKTON— 0. L. Nimblet, M. D. Con., Ebenezer Finney, Rev. H. H. Stowell, 65—68. 
NEW HAVEN— Rev. Waed Bullard. Con., Rev. Geo. N. Boardman, Mrs. L. S. 

Warner, 68—73. 
ORWELL — Editor. Con., Carlos Wilcox, Horace Wilcox, Rev. R. S. Cushman, E. Ilib- 

bard Phelps, Julia A. Barber, Sarah E. Hall, 73 — 77. 
PANTON— John D. Smith, Esq. Con., Harriet E. Bishop, Harriet A. Tappan, 77—85. 
RIPTON — Samuel Damon. Con., Rev. A. Hemenway, Daniel Chipman, James F. 

Mobbs, 85-88. 
SAILSBURY — From the history of John M. Weeks (recently published), by Geo. A. 

Weeks, Esq. Con., Editor, E. D. Barber, Rev. Charles Morgan Mrs. E. A. Severance, 

SHOREHAM-^rom the manuscript history of Rev. J. F. Goodhue (since published.) By 

the Editor. Con., Rev. K. Haven, Thomas Rowley, Hon. Silas H. Jennison, Byron 

Sunderland, D. D., 93—103. 
STARKSBORO— William Worth. Con., Bishop Hedding, I. Bushnell, Joseph Worth, 

Guy C. Worth, Esq., 103—106. 
VERGENNES— Editor. Con., Samuel Strong, M. S. R. Young, Mrs. Betsy A. Webster, 

Susan Grandy, lOB— 108. 
WALTIIAM— Editor. Con., N. A. Saxton, Esq., Mary Hawley, 108—109. 
WEYBRIDGE— Col. Isaac Drake. Con., Rev. Ward Bullard, President Van Buren (letter), 

Silas Wright, Dr. Edwin James, Refine Weeks, Gilbert Cook Lane, Mrs. Hattie Child 

Colby, 109—115. 
WHITING— Whitfield Walker, Esq. Con., Rev. J. Q. A. Ware, Hon. Jesse Walker, 

Mrs. J. B. Barlow, Clara L. Smith, 115—119. 

*Contributorfl or specimens from. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER— Hon. Hiland Hall, 121. 

ARLINGTON— Rev. F. A. Wadleigh. Con., Ethan Allen's Letter, from the Connecti- 
cut Courant, 121—135. 

BENNINGTON— Hon. Hiland Hall. Con., N. B. Hall, Esq., Almira Selden, Theodore 
S. Fay, Mrs. A. C. L. Botta, 135—182. 

DORSET— Hon. L. B. Armstrong. Con., Mrs. Porter Snell, Rev. P. S. Pratt, Mrs. Susan- 
nah C. Jackson, From Bangor Daily Evening Times, Wm. J. Maltby, R. F. HoUey, 
Sarah T. Landon, Notes by the Editor, Jackson Family by the Editor, 181 — 196. 

GLASTENBURY— Hon. Hiland Hall, 196—197. 

LANDGROVE— Dr. A. Benson, 197— }98. 

MANCHESTER— Henry E. Miner, Esq. Con., Juliet Swift Ford, From Wickham's 
Cmmemorative Discourse of Wm. A. Burnham, by the Editor, 198 — 207. 

PERU— Miss Nancy Haynes. Con., Mrs. Mary A. Simonds, 207—213. 

POWNAL— T. E. Brownell, Esq. Con., Hon. Hiland Hall, 213—219. 

READSBORO— W. H. Follet, Esq. Con., Rev. Wm. Marks, 219—221. 

RUPERT — Dr. Henry Sheldon. Con., M. L. K., Ichabod Smith Spencer, Mrs. Mai'ia 
Brown Cole, Mrs. Maria Beebe, 221—230. 

SANDGATE— Walter Randall. Con., Phineas Meeker, 230—231. 

SEARSBURGH— George J. Bond, 231—232. . 

SHAFTSBURY— Martin Mattison. Con., Myroa Clark, Hon. Hiland Hall, 232—237. 

STAMFORD— Rev. A. W. Goodnow, 237—238. 

SUNDERLAND— G. B. Bacon, Esq., 238—240. 


SUNDERLAND, Continued. Con., E. C. Tracy, Editor of Vermont Chronicle, 240—245. 
WINHALL — Oliver, Chamberlain. Con., Col. Jonathan Vaile, Nellie L. Butteriield, 

WOODFORD— Stephen Gleason, 248—250. 
COUNTY ITEMS— Hon. Hiland Hall, 250—254. 
MISCELLANEOUS GLEANINGS— By the Editor, 254—255. 
GENERAL ITEMS— Con., Hon. J. Strong, Hon. Samuel Swift, P. Battell, Esq., Rev. 

Bernice D. Ames, James Edmunds, Rev. Benjamin Larabee, 255 — 258. 
RECOGNITIONS- From Chicago Historical Society, Dr. Wm. Darlington, M. C, Dr. 

Edwin James, 258—259. 
BENNINGTON COUNTY VT. VOLS.— Co. A, 2d and 4th Regts., etc., 259—261. 
CALEDONIA COUNTY CHAPTER— Rev. Thomas Goodwillie, 261—271. 
BARNET — Rev. Thomas Goodwillie. Con., Rev. John Bole, Rev. James Beattie, Rev. 

M. B. Bradford, Rev. A. H. House, Henry Stevens, Esq., 271—302. 
BURKE — A. Burington, Esq. Con., S. N. Welch, Henrietta Adelaide Burington, Rev. 

R. Godding, A. W. Goddmg, Miss. D. W. Godding, and the Editor, 302—312. 
DANVILLE— M. T. C. Alexander. Con., Hon. A. McMillan, Judge Howard, Julia A. 

Eastman, 312—321. 
GROTON— Rev. 0. G. Clark. Con., Rev. Francis Morrison, 321—323. 
HARDWICK— Rev. J. Toerey. Con., Rev. E. Evans, Rev. C. S. Smith, Rev. A. C. Smith, 

A. M. Amsden, Miss A. Stevens, A. J. Hyde, M. D., Jane Ann Porter, Mrs. E. S. la- 
galls, 323. 
KIRBY— Charles H. Graves, 336—338. 
LYNDON— Hon. Geo. C. Cahoon, 338—341. 



LYNDON, Concluded— Con., Isaac W. Sanborn, Susannah S. Burt, 341—356. 

NEWARK— J. P. Smith, L. M. Sleeper, 356—358. 

PEACHAM— Rev. A. Boutelle. Con., Rev. D. Packer, Rev. T. Goodwillie, Mrs. L. H. 

Kendall, Rev. Leonard Worcester, Rev. David Merrill, Oliver Johnson, 358 — 374. 
RYEGATE — Rev. James Beattie. Con., Rev. James McArthur, Rev. James Milligan, 

Rev. Thomas Goodwillie, Rev. John Bole, Mary Jane Laughlin, Carrie S. Gibson, Mrs. 

M. S. Beattie, 375—386. 
ST. JOHNSBURY— Edward T. Fairbanks. Con., Josias Lyndon Arnold, Editor, B. F. 

Gage, 386—412. 
SHEFFIELD— Alfred S. Lamb. Con., S. P. Cheney, Eld. Moses Cheney, Rev. L. T. 

Harris, Editor, 412—425. 


WALDEN — Hoif. James D. Bell. Con., Hon. John Mattocks' Letter, 425 — 430. 

WATERFORD— T. A. Cutlee, 430—432. 

WHEELOCK— HoK. T. 0. Ceee, 432—434. 

GOSHEN GORE— Joseph Clabk, 434—436. 

MILITARY CHAPTER— Ho]sr. Eeastus Faiebanks, 436—441. 


MILITARY CHAPTER, Continued, 441—453. 

CHITTENDEN COUNTY CHAPTER— Hon. David Read, 453—475. 

MILITARY CHAPTER, Continued— Hon. David Read, 475 — 480.. 

BOLTON — Geoege W. Kennedy, Esq. Con., Gideon J. Tucker, Esq., Eev. B. J. Kennedy, 

BURLINGTON— R. S. Taft, Esq. Con., J. N. Pomeroy, Esq.. Henry Rolfe, Esq., Edi- 
torial Note, 487—521. 


UNIVERSITY OP VERMONT— Peof. N. G. Claek. Con., Pres. J. Torrey, 521—530. 

BURLINGTON ACADEMY— Rev. H. Hickock, 530—531. 

BURLINGTON FEMALE SEMINARY— Rev. John K. Conveese, 531—536. 

YOUNG LADIES' SCHOOL— Mes. J. H. Woecestee, 536. 


CHURCH HISTORY, Congeegationalism in Buelington — Rev. A. Fleming, 536 — 539. 

UNITARIAN ISM IN BURLINGTON— Rev. Joshua Young. Con., Jacob Williams, 

METHODISM IN BURLINGTON— Rev. A. Witheespoon, 546—547. 
BAPTIST CHURCH IN BURLINGTON— R. A. Fostee, Dea. E. A. Fullee, 547—548. 
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH— Rev. John A. Hicks, D. D., 548—650. 

GOESBEIAND, 550 — 551. 

PRINTING. The Buelington Sentinel— Wm. H. Hott, 551—554: 

TON— G. W. Benedict, 654—555. 


ETHAN ALLEN AND FAMILY— From an unpublished Lecture of Zadook Thompson, 
papers from Henry Stevens, etc. — By the Editoe, 560 — 674. 

WAR OF 1812, AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES— G. B. Sawyee, 574—590. 

HON. SAMUEL HITCHCOCK— Geo. T. Houghton, Esq., 590—692. 

STEPHEN RUSSELL, ESQ— G. T. Russell, 592. 

OZIAS BUELL— Rev. Heney P. Hickok, 692—593. 

THE CATLINS— Heney W. Catlin, 693—594. 

JOHN HOWARD— SiON Eael Howaed, 594—596. 

JOHN JOHNSON— From the family, 696—599. * 

SAMUEL HICKOK— Rev. H. P. Hickok, 599. 

PROF. JAMES DEAN, LL. D.— G. F. Houghton, Esq., 599—601. 

HON. ALVIN FOOTE— From the family, 601. 

HEMAN LOWRY— Hon. D. A. Smalley, 601—602. 

HEMAN ALLEN— Peof. Geoege Allen, 602—608. 

PHINEAS ATWATER— From the Burlington Times, 608. 

HON. CORNELIUS P. VAN NESS— Hon. David A. Smalley, 608—615. 

ALEXANDER DAVIDSON— Rev. Heney P. Higkok, 615. 

ELEAZER HUBBELL DEMING— By the family, 615—616. 

HON. CHARLES ADAMS— Rev. Joshua Young, 616—618. ' 


HON. CHAS. ADAMS, Concluded, 617. 

HON. WM. GRISWOLD AND SION EARL HOWAED— G. B. Sawtee, Esq., 618, 648. 
NATHAN B. HASWELL— From the family, 623—624. 
COL. ARCHIBALD W. HYDE— Lyman Cummings, Esq., 624—626. 
COCK— J. N. PoMEEoy, Esq. 


APPLETON JEWETT, 651— Geo. F. Houghton, Esq. 

DR. WILLIAM ATWATER— Dr. H. Atwate, 629—636. 

THOMAS CHAMBERLAIN, M. D.— From the family, 636. ■ . 

TIMOTHY FOLLETT— Louis Follett, 636—638. 

HARRY BRADLEY— From the family, by the late President John Wheelee, D. D., 

JAMES VAN SICKLIN, M. D.— From the family, 639—640. 

PHILO DOOLITTLE— Mrs. Catherine E. Doolittle, 640—646. 

REV. ZADOCK THOMPSON— Rev. P. H. White, 646. 

NATHAN WARD, M. D.— From the Vermont Chronicle. 650. 

ISAAC APPLETON JEWETT— Geo. F. Houghton, Esq., 651—652. 




H. Canfield, 656—707. 



MILITARY CHAPTER, Continued. The Battle of Gettysbuegh, &c.— T. G. Bene- 
dict, Lieuft. and A. D. C, 708—725 

BURLINGTON MISCELLANY: Jas. R. Hickok, Chas. Louis Hetde, Mrs. C. E. 
Doolittle, J. N. Pomeeoy, Esq., Rev. R. H. Howard, Cassius A. Castle, Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Hopkins, Rev. J. H. Hopkins, Jr., Mrs. Geo. P. Maesh, Mrs. Ellen F. 
Collins Blodgett, Dr. Cobb, 725 — 733. 

CHARLOTTE— Rev. Bernicb D. Ames. Con., Rev. C. M. Seaton, Rev. G. H. Bailey, 
Bishop Goesbriand, Henry Miles, Rev. S. H. Tupper, Peter E. Pease, Delia A. Horsford, 
Mrs H. E. Leavenworth, Mrs. Cornelia A. Van Vliet, Rev. 0. G. Wheeler, 733. 

COLCHESTER— Hon. David Read. Con., Rev. J. K. Converse, 754—778. 

ESSEX— L. C. Butler, M. D. Con., Mrs. S. B. Herrick, 778—791. 

HINESBURGH — Compiled from the Manuscript History of Eeastus Bostwick, Esq., by 
«Rev. C. E. Feerin, 792—812. 


HINESBURGH, Continued. Con., Prof. Torrey, Dr. David Goodyear, Electa BostwicK, 

Mrs. M. E. Leavenworth, Mrs. L. H. Stone, 801—812. 
HUNTINGTON— James Johns. Con., A. A. Forbes, 812—829. 
JERICHO— Geo. Lee Lyman, M. D., 829—839. 
MILTON — Hector Adams, I^q.. Con. Rev. Geo. W. Renslow, Rev. J. K. Converse, Rev. 

H. Cardinal, Lieut. Hunting and Norman Wright, 839 — 843. 
RICHMOND— S. H. Davis, Esq. Con., Albert Clark, Esq., 843—851. 
ST. GEORGE— Henry Lawrence, Con. Rev. E. E. Higbee, 851—854. 
SHELBURNE— Lyman Thayer, 854—886. Shelburne Battle, etc., «77 ; Trinity Church, 

879; Rev. Bethuel Chittenden, 879; Congregational Church, 883; Methodism, 883; 

Biography and Miscellany, C. F. Tabor, 884,— Biography of Hon. A. H. Read, 884 ; 

N. T. Colamer, 886. 
UNDERHILL— Guy H. Naeamore, Esq., 886 — 890. Congregational Church, by Rev. 

Simeon Parmelee, 888 ; Catholics, by the Bishop of Burlington, 888. 
WESTFORD— Rev. J. H. Woodward, 890—900. Con.' Mrs. S. B. Herrick, W. Gibbs. 
WILLISTON— Harey Mlllee, 900. 


WILLISTON, Continued, by Russell S. Taft, Esq., of Burlington, 901—930. Con., Rev. 

J. W. Hough. J. S. Cilley. Life and Times of Governor Thomas Chittenden, by Hon. 

David Read, of Burlington, 905—929. 
ESSEX COUNTY CHAPTER— Hieam A. Cutting, 943—949. 


CONCORD— J. E. WooDBUEY. Con., H. A. Cutting, 0. W. Turner, 966—985. 

BLOOMFIELD— Hon. Wm. Buebank, 950. Con., Rev. Abner Howard. 

BRIGHTON— N. P. Bowman, 952—960. 

BRUNSWICK— Mes. Maegaeet G. Maeshall, 960—966. Con., Mrs. M. M. Jolinson. 

EAST HAVEN— KiTEiDGE and D. C. Hudson, 985. 

GRANBY— Looms Wells, Esq. Con., Mary W. Rice, Jean Wells, 987—995. 

GUILDHALL— Milton Cutlee, 996—1014. 


GUILDHALL, Continued, 1001. 

LEMIN6T0N— Aethub Holbeook, 1014. 

LUNENBURGH— Hon. Jonah Beooks. Con.. Rev. M. Bullard, Rev. A. J. Walker, 

Rev. Wm. Sewall, Eliza W. Parsons, H. A. Clitting, 1015—1025, 
MAIDSTONE— Hon. Moody Rich. Con., William Hey wood, Esq., of Lancaster, N. H., 

Miss B. F. Rich, Editor, 1025—1045. 
VICTORY— Geoege A. Appleton. Con., Loomis Wells, Esq., 1048—1051. 
COUNTY ITEMS, 1065—1070. 
CANAAN, 1067. 


MEMORIAL, 1080. 





The town of Addison lies on the eastern shore 
of Lake Champhiin, its southern line being a 
little southeast of the old forts at Crown Point. 
It originally contained 8,000 acres more than a 
six-mile township. A small portion lying cast 
of Snake Mountain has been set off to Wey- 
bridge. It is very level, except the extreme east- 
em limit, where Snake Mountain lifts its head, 
and furnishes some splendid views of the sur- 
rounding country. The soil is principally clay, well 
overlaid with humus ; in the vicinity of the moun- 
tain, the soil is a strong loam, and on the shores 
of tlie lake the shell limestone crops out, giving 
a mixture of marl and loam. These two portions 
are well adapted to fruit-growing. Dead Creek, 
Hospital Creek, Ward's Creek, and Otter Creek, 
are its streams ; no valuable water-power is within 
its limits, though formerly several saw-mills and 
clothing-works were in operation. 

1609, July 4. On this day, afterwards so cel- 
ebrated in the general history of our country, 
Samuel Champlain entered the lake that now 
bears his name, having left Quebec the 18th of 
May previous. His party consisted of sixty 
Huron and Algonquin Indians, and two French- 
men. Having had to leave his shallop at the 
rapids above, his Indian allies furnished liim with 
twenty-four bark canoes. In these he proceeded 
up Hio lake as for as what is now known as 
Crown Point. Here, on the 20th of July, at 10 
o'clock, p. M., he was met by a party of Iroquois,* 
who came out from a cape projecting into the 
lake from the western shore, ( Sandy Point, oppo- 
site Addison.) At the first, Champlain and his 
party retreated into the lake. The Iroquois 
returned to the shore and landed, followed by the 
Hurons, who fastened their boats to stakes driven 
in the mud, about an aiTow-shot off. Both par- 
ties agreed to wait until morning before the battle 
should begin, and the night was spent in singing 
the war-song and other Indian rites preparatory 
to battle. In the morning, at daybreak, the bat- 

• For a full account of this battle, and its location, 
Bee Vergennes Citizen, "Local History," Dec. 26, 
1867. by J. S. j 

tie commenced. Champlain and his two men at 
first were kept out of sight. On the landing of the 
Hurons, the Iroquois came out from behind their 
bamcades, and more noble-looking men Cham- 
plain says he had never seen, two of their chiefs 
especially so. Champlain was now placed in 
front of his party, the two Frenchmen and some 
of the Hurons being hidden in ambuscade. Each 
of the white men was armed with a gun and 
two pistols. Champlain on landing had put four 
balls into his gun. When Champlain first stood 
in front of the Hurons, the Iroquois gazed in 
wonder on the first white man they had ever seen. 
Their two prominent chiefs stood close together, 
and about thirty paces distant. Champlain fired 
at them, kilUng both, and mortally wounding one 
other man. Tlie Iroquois were paralyzed with 
fear at tliis new instrument of death, breathing 
fire and smoke, from which their chiefs' arrow- "^ 
proof armor was no protection. The other 
Fi-enchmen poured in their fire, killing one. This 
completed the panic, and the Iioquois fled in every 
direction, crying, " The devil ! the devil ! " On 
examining the armor of the chiefs, it was found 
to be woven with a thread of cotton, (where did 
they get it ?) and a thread of bark. Tiiey were 
armed with tomahawks of metal. After the battle 
they crossed the lake to Chimney Point, (Addi- 
son.) Champlain here named the lake for him- 
self, and in the after part of the day started on 
their return for Canada. This battle was fought 
two months before Hudson discovered the river 
that bears his name, four years before the Dutch 
settlement at New York, and eleven years before 
the landing at Plymouth. 

1664, March 12. Charles II. granted to the 
Duke of York the province of New York, to 
include all lands west of the Connecticut River, 
south and west to the Delaware River. 

1665. From its discovery up to this time, 
Lake Champlain had remained, as it pre- 
viously was, the highway for the Iroquois and 
Hurons in their war excursions against each 
other ; the Iroquois having many settlements in 
the interior of Vermont, its eai-Uest name being 
Iroquoisia. On Dec. 19th of this year, a com- 
pany of 600 French, with a party of Algonquins, 
commanded by M. De Courcelles, started on an 



expedition against tlie Moliawks, at Fort St. 
Theresa, (near St. John's ;) eqpiiipped with snow- 
shoes, and other things necessary for a winter 

16G6, Jan. 21. They started up the lake, the 
^ Indian name of whicli is very significant, Cania- 
deri-Guaranti, (the gate of the countiy.) Arriv- 
ing at Buhvagga Bay, (opposite Addison,) they 
took the route across to the head-waters of the 
Hudson, where they arrived the 14th of February, 
the snow four feet deep. They followed the Hud- 
son down as far as Glens Falls, and then struck 
across to the Mohawk River, and came out near 
, the Dutch settlement at Schenectady. Here 
Courcelles fell into an ambush of the Mo- 
hawks ; and the expedition proved very disas- 
trous to the French. They returned by tlie same 
route they came, stopping two days at Chimney 
Point, for stragglers to come in. 

Sept. 28. M. De Tracy, with 600 regulars, 
the same number of habltans, and 100 Indians, 
asssembled at Fort St. Anne, previously erected 
by Capt. La Motte, on an island named for him, 
"Isle La Motte." Tliis was the first fort erected 
within the bounds of Lake Champlain. Oct. 3d 
they commenced their campaign ; going up the 
lake in bateaux and canoes, taking with them 
two pieces of cannon, which, with incredible per- 
severance, they took to the farthest village of the 

1687, Sept. 8. Gov. Donogan, of New York, 
in a letter to the- king, proposes to build a fort 
at Corlear's* Lake, at the pass in the lake 150 
miles north from Albany, (Chimney Point.) 

1690. A party of French and Indians came 
/ up the lake on the ice, crossed over and burned 
Schenectady, and were pursued by the English as 
far as Crown Point. Here they found the enemy 
had taken to their skates ; the whites returned, and 
some of the Indians. Others continued the pur- 
suit, and overtook and killed 25 of the French. 

March 26. The Mayor, Aldermen, and Jus- 
tices of the City and County of Albany, gave 
Capt. Jacobus D'Narm orders to take 17 men 
and pass by way of "Schuytook," and take 
from thence 20 savages, and Dick Albatrose. 
Brad was sent as guide and interpreter. They 
' were to go to Crown Point. 

March 31. Gov. Liesler wrote to the Bishop 
of Salisbury that he had sent to the pass, on the 
lake, fifty men to maintain it, as an outpost. 

April 1 . Capt. Abraham Schuyler was ordered 
to the mouth of Otter Creek with nine men ; 
La^vrence, the Mohawk chief, and his party of 
Indians, " to watch day and night for one month, 

* Corlear, a Dutchman living at Schenectady, at 
the time of Courcelles's defeat, was very kind to the 
captive French, ransoming them from the Mohawks, 
and sending them home to Canada; Courcelles 
invited him to visit Canada, and while on his way 
was drowned in the lake a little north of Otter 
Creek. This gave rise to the story that Champlain 
was drowned in the lake. The English and Dutch 
called the lake Corlear. 

and daily communicate with Capt. D'Narm." 
At the same time, D'Narm's orders were changed 
to select some otlier place at the Pass. This he 
did, and built a little stone fort at Chimney Point, 
in Addison ; this was the first possession or occu- 
pation by civilized men in Vermont. 

July 31. John Winthrop was commissioned 
to command an expedition against Canada, wliich 
proceeded as far as Kah-sha-quah-na, (White- 
hall,) and miserably failed ; after eight days they 
commenced their retreat. 

Aug. 13. Capt. John Schuyler, (fiither of 
Gen. Philip Schuyler, of Revolutionaiy ffme,) 
mortified at the entire failure of an expedition 
from which so much had been hoped, obtained 
permission to raise a volunteer force, and enlisted 
fi'om the army 120 Indians and 29 whites ; next 
day he met Capt. Glen, who had been sent to 
Tsin-on-drosie, (Ticondcroga, signifying noisy, or 
rushing water,) with 28 whites and 5 Indians. 
The Indians and 13 of the whites joined Schuy- 
ler's party. Schuyler proceeded down the lake, 
and reached Laprairie, opposite Montreal, the 
22d. Schuyler intended to have taken the fort 
by surprise, which no doubt he would have done 
but for the folly of his savages, who gave the 
warwhoop the moment the word to advance had 
been given. Most of the French succeeded in 
reaching the fort. Schuyler's party burned all 
the dwellings and bams, slaughtered 150 head of 
cattle, killed 6, and took 19 of the enemy prison- 
ers, and commenced a rapid retreat. 

24. Reached Fort La Motte; 25, reached 
Sand Point, (query, Colchester Point;) here 
they shot two elk ; 26, stopped at the little stone 
fort, which no doubt was the fort built by D'Narm 
and Schuyler. This was the first English war- 
party that passed through the lake. 

1691. Peter Schuyler also passed through the 
lake ou foray on Canada, and attacked Laprairie. 
De CalUeres, Governor of Montreal, brought 
800 troops against him and his 300 Mohawk In- 
dians. Schuyler succeeded in killing about 300 
of the enemy, with but a trifling loss on his 

1694. Godfrey Dellious, the Dutch minister 
at Albany, procured a grant of land from the 
Mohawks, commencing at the northwest bounds 
of Saratoga, extending north on the east side of 
Wood Creek and Lake Champlain, to "Rock 
Retzio," (Button Bay;) its eastern line crossed 
the falls at Mkldlcbury. This was the first paper 
title to lands in Addison County. 

1696, Sept. 3. Charles II. confirmed the title 
to Dellious. This was afterwards revoked. This 
revocation Dellious resisted, and sold his title to 
Lydius, his successor in the ministry at Albany. ■ 

1730. The Fi-ench built a small fort at Pt. ^ 
la Chevelure, (now Chimney Point,) and proba- 
bly repaired the little stone fort built by D'Narm in 
1690. At this time there were two islands 
opposite here, one directly west, the other off 
against Hospital Creek ; the French called them 


Aux Boiteux. All trace of these islands has 
long since vanished. The old embankments of 
this fort are many of them still visible. 

1731. This year the French built a fort on 
the opposite side of the lake, which they called 
Fort Frederic, for Frederic Maurepas, then Sec- 
retary of State. 

1742. In a grant to Benning Wentworth, 
New Hampshire was extended west to the lake. 

1743, April 20. The king of France granted 
to Hocquart, (Intendant of New France,) a 
seigniory of four leagues front on the lake, by 
five leagues deep, and the south line half a mile 
south of the south line of what is now Addison, 
and the north line near Adams Ferry, in Panton ; 
registered at Quebec, Oct. 7, 1743. 

1749. Kalm, the Swedish naturalist, visited 
Fort Frederic and Hocquart. He says of Pt. a 
la Chevelure or Hocquart : " I found quite a set- 
tlement, a stone wind-mill and fort in one, with 
five or six small cannon mounted; the whole 
inclosed by embankments." 

Within the inclosure was a neat church, and 
throughout the settlement well-cultivated gardens, 
with some good fruit, as apples, plums, currants, 
&c. During the next ten years, these settlements 
were extended north on the lake some four miles ; 
the remains of old cellars and gardens still to be 
seen show a more thickly settled street than occu- 
pies it now. 

1750. The Schaghiticoke Indians left; their 
residence at Schaghiticoke, and went to Canada 
to reside. 

1754, Aug. 28. These, with other Canadian 
Indians, made an imroad upon the English settle- 
ments, and destroyed Hoosick. They were, no 
doubt, the leaders in all the Indian forays in this 
section, until Canada was conquered. 

1755. A strong efibrt was made this year by 
the Colonies, to drive back the French from 
Crown Point. The French sent " Dieskau," with 
over 3,000 men. Gen. Johnson with 2,850 men, 
proceeded as far as Lake George. He here encoun- 
tered Dieskau, defeated and took him prisoner, 
yet made no attempt on Crown Point. A few 
extracts from the reports of Rodgers and Put- 
nam, employed as scouts to spy out Crown Point, 
show not only the strength and position of the 
French, but the daring character of the men.* 

1755, Sept. 17. "At evening, discovered the 
wheat-fields, and four houses, about two miles 
south of Crown Point Fort. In the night went 
to the intrenchment, made from the fort, encom- 
passing a little hill, the trenches not finished, but 
reach about 30 rods from the fort. The intrench- 
ment begins at the S. W. comer of the fort, run- 
ning S. W., is about two rods wide at the fort, 
and fifteen at the other end. Went i nto the trench 
and stayed there until morning. Went on to the 
mountain, a mile west of the fort ; could see the 

•These old reports are in the State archives at 

fort and all its appurtenances. There was an 
addition to the fort about twenty-five rods from 
the N. W. comer, which reached to the water. 
It inclosed some buildings ; — many tents set up 
in it. A wind-mill about sixty rods south of the 
fort, between which and the fort many tents were 
set up, — saw the troops exercised ; there were 
about six hundred. Robert Rodgers. 

Oct. 18. Arrived at the mountain west of 
Crown Point, where I lay all night and the next 
day, observing the enemy ; saw ambuscades built 
about 30 rods S. W. of the fort. In the evening 
went down to the houses south of the fort, and 
on the lake ; went into a barn well filled with 
wheat, and left three men there, and with one 
man went on towards the fort, to make further 
discoveries. Found a good place to ambush; 
went back and got the other three men, and am- 
bushed about 60 rods from the fort; lay here 
until about ten o'clock next morning ; saw the 
enemy moving about, — judged there were 500 
of them. At length a Frenchman came out of 
the fort, towai-ds us, without his gun. He came 
within fifteen rods of where we lay, and I and 
another man ran up to him in order to captivate 
him ; but he refused to take quarter ; so we killed 
him and took hif scalp, in plain sight of the fort ; 
then run, in plain view, about 20 rods, and made 
our escape. Robert Rodgers. 

1756. Jan. 29. Started to look into Crown 

Feb. 2. Arrived at the mountain -west, which 
we called Mount Ogden. In the evening went 
down and through a small village, half a mile 
south of the fort ; laid in ambush until nine the 
next morning ; took one Frenchman prisoner as 
he came down the road, and two more a-coming 
towards us, discovered us, and ran ; we pursued 
them within gunshot of the fort. We immedi- 
ately set fire to the barns and houses, where was 
abundance of wheat and other grain ; we killed 
their cattle, horses, and hogs, in number about 
fifty ; left none living in said village, to our knowl- 
edge ; we came off leaving the village on fire. 

Robert Rodgers. 

Israel Putnam was with Rodgers in all these 

1757. Montcalm, with 12,000 men encamped 
at Crown Point and Ticonderoga. 

Aug. 3. Invested Fort William Henry. Gen. 
Webb commanded the British forces, and lay at 
Fort Edward. Webb refused to send any succor 
to Monroe, at Fort William Henry, and left them 
to their fate ; which was a massacre that has left 
a stain upon the otherwise fair fame of Montcalm, 
that no explanation can efface. 

1758. Abercrombie's disastrous expedition to 
take Ticonderoga and Crown Point, marks tlus 
year, and can be found in any of our histories. 

1759. After the taking of Ticonderoga by 
Amherst, the French, Aug. 1, burned their fort at 


Crown Point, and Chimney Point, the settlers 
abandoning their farms, and going with the troops 
to Canada. Gen. Amherst commenced those stu- 
pendous fortifications at Crown Point that were 
three years in building, and cost two million 
pounds sterling. It is pentagonal in form ; the 
walls are of solid masonry, 25 feet thick, and 20 
feet high, and half a mile in circuit, inclosing ex- 
tensive stone barracks, two stories liigh, extending 
the whole length on the east and west sides, 
with a large parade-ground between. In the 
N. E. corner, a well, blasted 90 feet through solid 
limestone, to a beautiful sand bottom, furnished 
a never-failing fountain of water. Tliis impreg- 
nable fortress was accidentally burned, April 21, 
1773, which accounts for the fact of no battle 
being fought there during the Revolution. 

1761, Oct. 14. The proprietors of Addison 
procured a charter of Beuning Wentworth, Gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire, of this township, on 
account of a bend in the lake. 

Nov. 3. Panton also procured a charter. Un- 
fortunately for them, it lapped on to Addison 
nearly four miles iu width on the lake. The 
proprietors of Panton run out their township first, 
and no doubt finding that there would be a clash- 
ing of title, ordered it fenced, so as to hold it by 
possession. Benjamin Kellogg, one of Amherst's 
soldiers, from Connecticut, used to frequent the 
Salt Licks below, where old Gen. John Strong's 
mansion now stands, for the purpose of pro- 
curing venison for the officers of the army then 
at Crown Point, and was favorably struck with 
the advantages for settlement in this country. 
The little clearings made by the French, and now 
abandoned, were strong inducements to a new 
settler. This he told to his neighbors on his 
return home in 1760. 

1762, Kellogg came up to his old hunting- 
ground in the fall of this year, and also in '63 
and '64. 

In '64, some of the proprietors of Panton 
came with him. 

1763, April 7. Gilles Hocquart deeded to M. 
Michel, Chartier De Lotbiniere, all of his seign- 
ioiy lying north of Hospital Creek. Lotbiniere 
petitioned the British Government from time to 
time to be reinstated in his lands ; and to quiet 
the matter, received, Feb. 13, 1776, a seigniory 
in Canada, on the St. Lawrence, in exchange for 
his on the lake. 

Oct. 7. A grant of land was made by the 
Governor of New York, to Col. David Wooster, 
beginning near the south line of Addison, nin- 
ning east to Dead Creek, and north to D. V. 
Chambers's land ; also to Col. Charles Forbes, 
from Wooster's to Potasli Bay ; and one to Lieut. 
Ramsay, north beyond the bounds of Addison. 
Directly east of Forbes and Ramsay's was a 
grant to J. W. Hogarty ; and east of Wooster's, 
a grant to Sir John Sinclair and Mr. Wilkins. 

1765. In the spring of this year, Zadock 

Everest, David Vallance, and one other settler, 
came on and begun a clearing about three miles 
north of Chimney Point. In September, Benja- 
min Kellogg came up to his fall hunt. John 
Strong came with him, to look for a home in the 
Vermont wilderness. They went to where Ever- 
est and Vallance were at work, stayed with them 
a few days, and helped them get in their fallow 
of wheat, then took a look of the country as far 
cast as Middlebury ; probably the first white men 
who ever looked upon it. On their return to the 
lake, Strong concluded to build him a house 
there. 'This, with the help of Kellogg and the 
other three men, he did, selecting the foundations 
of an old French house (cellar and chimneys) as 
the site. Tliis was on the farm where he after- 
wards lived and died. This was the first house 
built by an English settler, north of Massachu- 
setts. The party now all returned to Con- 

1766, February. Strong came on with his fam- 
ily, by way of Lake George and Lake Champlain. 
He had a wife and three children ; Asa, six years 
old, Samuel, and Polly. In June following, 
John Strong was bom, — the first English child 
born in Addison county. 

May. T. Everest, T. Vallance, John Chip- 
man, and six others, with their families, came on 
by way of Otter Ci'eek. Chipman stopped in 
Middlebury; the others came on to the lake, 
some Settling in Addison, and some in Panton. 
The settlers had bought their lands of Panton, 
and supposed they were within the bounds of 
Panton ; and so they were, and in the bounds 
of Addison, also ; and, Addison being the oldest 
charter, of course held.* 

1767 and 1768. In the latter year Col. "Woos- 
ter came on to look for his land, and found five 
families on it, — John Strong, Benjamin Kellogg, 
Phineas Spalding, David Vallance, and Pang- 
bora. Some agreed to leave, and some he sued 
before the court in Albany. The setilers were 
much distressed for want of grist-mills, having 
to go to Stillwater, N. Y., for their grinding. 
Tliis reduced them to the necessity of con- 
structing large wooden mortars, made from a 
hard-wood log, set one end firm in the gi-ound, 
the other hollowed out by kindling a fire of coals 
in the centre, and keeping it up until sufficiently 
large, and then smoothed out, and the pestle 
worked by a sweep like the old-fashioned mill- 

1773, Aug. 12. Strong, Kellogg, Everest, 
and ten other Addison boys were of Allen's 
party who dispossessed Reid at the Falls near 

On their return home, the Addison men found 
Col. Wooster, with his sheriff, serving writs of 
ejectment on those that were on his land. Their 
indignation rose to the highest pitch, that whilst 

* Mr. S , of Panton, will dwell somewhat on this, 
and I leave it for him. 



they had been diiving off the Yorkers for their 
neighbors, their ovpti homes had been invaded. 
They finally took him and his sheriff, and tied 
them to a tree, and threatened to give them the 
"Beech Seal." After blustering a good deal, 
Wooster saw they were in earnest, and that his 
threats of New York law did not intimidate them. 
He gave in, sent off his sheriff, and took up liis 
copies of writs he had left, and promised not to 
disturb them again. The whole was sealed over 
a stiff mug of flip ; and in the morning the 
Colonel left. He was aftei-wards a Major-General 
in the Revolutionary army, and mortally wounded 
at Ridgefield, April 27, 1777. 

Probably no settlers in Vennont held their 
lands by so precarious a title as the settlers in 
that part of Addison claimed by Panton.' In 
Washington County, New York, the Eev. Jolm 
Lydius was prosecuting the Dellius title ; then 
there was the French title, which had been favor- 
ably reported on by the Home Government ; then 
"Wooster's title, which by suit he was trying 
to enforce, with the gan-ison at Crown Point to 
back him. And as they had bought their lands 
of Panton, there was the elder title of Addison, 
issuing from the same fountain as the one they 
claimed under. Their stubborn resistance to the 
proprietors of Addison induced them to grant 
the settlers the 8,000 acres which they held more 
than a six-mile township. TMs was located on 
that part of Addison claimed by Panton, and the 
whole difficulty amicably adjusted. No country 
ever produced a more hardy, industrious, resolute, 
and fearless race of men than Western Vermont. 
Chimney Point was laid out into a town of one 
acre to every proprietor's right, with grounds for 
public buildings, common, etc.; the streets at 
right angles, and a broadway, ten rods wide, lead- 
ing north through the town. It was expected 
from its vicinity to the fort, to be the centre of 
trade for all the surrounding country. 

1775. The news of the battle at Lexington 
had thrilled through the hearts of the people like 
electricity. Col. Ethan Allen, who had hereto- 
fore stood between the settlers and ruin, was call- 
ing for volunteers. Addison answered promptly. 
Among those who went, was Lieut. Benjamin 
Everest. {See Biography.) 

May 9, Allen, with his Green Mountain boys, 
aided by Arnold and Warner, took Ticonderoga, 
and the next day Warner took Crown Point. 

The conquest of Canada was planned, which 
promising so fair at the first, resulted so disas- 
ti-ously to the Americans in the eni 

1776, July 12. The retreating Americans 
arrived at Crown Point ; the smallpox had made 
and was making terrible havoc amongst them. 
Out of all the regiments sent to Canada, only 
7,006 returned to Crown Point, and gi-eat num- 
bers died after reaching there. Gen. Gates took 
the command, and a hospital was built on 
the north side of the mouth of Hospital 
Creek, (hence its name,) The numbers that 

died here were so great that pits were dug, 
into which the dead were thrown, without coffins, 
until filled, and a light covering of earth 
thrown over the whole. Gen. Gates imme- 
diately commenced to build his fleet. The set- 
tlers in Addison engaged with zeal in getting out 
timber and other material, so that on the 18tb of 
August, one sloop, three schoonci-s, and five gun- 
boats were ready. They carried 55 guns, 70 
swivels, and had a complement of 395 men. 
Arnold took the command. 

Oct. 10. The British, commanded by Capt. 
Pringlc, had 4 sloops, — iSie Maria, Carleton, 
Thunderer, and Inflexible, with gun-boats, flat- 
boats and bateaux, mounting eighty cannon and 
several howitzers, and manned by 700 seamen. 
The American fleet was posted between Valcour 
Island and the western shore. A skirmish ensued, 
in wliicli the Washington, commanded by Water- 
bury, suffered severely ; one scliooner was burned, 
and a gunboat sunk. The British lost three gun- 
boats, — two sunk and one blown up. In the 
night Arnold retreated. The British overtook 
him the next day near Fenis, now Adams Ferry. 
An engagement of four hours ensued. AVater- 
bury was obliged to surrender. Arnold, seeing 
the day was lost, ran his vessels ashore, burning 
some, blowing up some, and scuttling the rest. 
At the head of liis men he took his march for 
Crown Point. On amving at Z. Everest's, about 
four miles from the scene of action, he halted, 
and Everest, with his known hospitality, fur- 
nished them with refreshments. 

Gen. Gates recalled all the troops from Crown 
Point, and Carleton took possession. He issued 
a proclamation to the settlers on the eastern shore, 
offering protection papers, on condition of re- 
maining neutral. Some took the protection, 
others did not ; and quite a number abandoned 
their farms and went to their former places of 
residence. This abandonment has given rise to 
many mistakes as to the time the settlers left the 
countiy ; some writers fixing it in the fall of '76, 
and some in '77, — the truth being a partial flight 
in '76, and a total abandonment in '77. 

1776, July 24. Addison was one of the 
thirty-five towns that met at Dorset, and again 
on the 25th of September, and again Jan. 15, 
1777, at Westminster, when they declared 
themselves a free and independent State. Addi- 
son was represented in these conventions by 
David Vallance. All west of the mountains, to 
Canada line, was formed into one county, — 

1777. This year is memorable for the invasion 
of Burgoyne. Early in May he came up the lake 
as far as the River Bouquet, on the York side. 
He here encamped, gathered large bodies of Indi- 
ans to his army, issued a very pompous proclamO' 
tion, and the first of June broke up his encamp- 
ment, and fled in earnest; and in such haste 
that many left their tables standing just as they 
rose from their breakfast ; some burned their 



household utensils, etc. Gen. St. Clair, wlio 
commanded the Americans at Crown Point, fui'- 
nishcd the settlers with boats at Chimney Point, 
to take them to Whitehall. A party of Indians 
that came down througli the woods, reached the 
point just as the last boats were leaving, and fired 
upon them ; fortunately wounding none, although 
the balls fell like hailstones all about them, 
striking the boats in several places. From White- 
hall the settlers dispersed in every direction ; — 
most of those from Addison going up east, into 
Pawlet, Dorset, and other towns in Bennington 
county. • 

1778. Major Carleton made a descent from 
Canada, and took 39 men and boys prisoners. 
Among them were Nathan and Marshal Smith, 
of Bridport, Benjamin Kellogg, and Ward and 
JosephEverest, of Addison; Holcomb Spalding, 
two Fenises, and Grandy, of Panton ; Hiuckly, of 
Shoreham. Grandy and Hinckly were liberated, 
to take care of the women and children, these 
and other families having come back to tlieu- 
farms on the defeat of Burgoyne; all now 
abandoned the settlement, except three families, 
and did not return mitil after the war. The 
prisoners were taken to Quebec, where they 
arrived Dec. 6. 

1779. Kellogg and a number of others died 
in prison during the winter. They all sufiered 
unaccountable hardships. In the spring they 
were taken down the river some 90 miles. May 
13, about midnight, eight of them made their 
escape. On reaching the south shore, they 
divided into two parlies, fovu- in each. On getting 
opposite Quebec, one party was betrayed by a 
Frenchman, and again taken prisoners. Three 
of them again made their escape that night, — 
Ward and the two Smiths, — and after being again 
taken by the Indians, and again escaping, pur- 
sued by the Indians for fourteen days and nights, 
all their knowledge of Indian craft and devices 
being put to the utmost trial, they finally succeeded 
in throwing oft' then" pm^suers, and arrived in 
Panton, where they met three Americans, on a 
scout, from whom they got provisions ; which 
was the first food they had tasted since their last 
escape, except such as they procured in the woods, 
— in all, twenty days. The next day they 
stopped at Hemenway's, in Bridport. (Heraen- 
way never left liis farm through all the war.) 
After one day's rest, they pxished on to Pittsford. 

1781. Gen. St. Leger, at the head of a British 
force, went up the lake, and took poeition at 
Ticonderoga. No fui-ther fighting was had in 
this section until the close of the war. 

1783. The close of the war gave every secur- 
ity to settlers. The return of the old, and the 
great influx of new, gave such an impetus to 
the prosperity of the town, that it at once took 
the lead in the county. The eastern part of the 
town now began to be settled. The Willmarths, 
Clark, Pond, and Ward, were among the earliest. 
The Smiths, Seger, and others, followed soou 

after. Their descendants still occupy a large por- 
tion of that part of tlie town ;* and hke their 
fathers, are prominent citizens in the political and 
business relations of the town. The early set- 
tlers had much to contend with from the want of 
mills, stores, and roads ; perhaps not as much as 
those in the west part, who came so much earlier, 
but yet enough to lay the present generation 
under a debt of gratitude hardly to be estimated. 

1784. John Strong was elected to represent 
the town in the legislature, which had not been 
represented since '77. 

1785. Addison county was incorporated and 
extended north to Canada. Addison and Col- 
chester were half-shke to^vns. The first court 
was holden the first Tuesday in March, in the 
tavern-house of Z. Everest. In November follow- 
ing, it was holden at Colchester. The next year 
it was held in the brick house built by Jonah 
Crane, (now owned by H. Crane, Esq.,) and was 
the first brick house in the county. The court 
held its sessions here until removed to Middle- 
buiy. John Strong was presiding judge, and 
Gamaliel Painter and Ira Allen assistant judges, 
Samuel Chipman, Jr., Clerk, and Noah Chitten- 
den, sheriff. 

1786. Quite a change in the constituting of 
the coui-t took place ; there were four side judges, 
— William Brush, Abel Thompson, Samuel 
Lane, and Judge Allen. Judge Painter was 
appointed sheriff, Roswell Hopkins, clerk, Scth 
Stoors, State attorney. A Probate Com-t was 
established, John Strong, judge. , 

1787. Chittenden county was taken from 
Addison county ; Hiland Hall was appointed in 
place of Judge Allen, and Judge Painter again 
placed on the bench. Since that time, only two 
assistant judges have ever sat on the bench at 
one time. 

1790, New York and Vermont settled their 
controversy about land titles and jurisdiction, 
Vermont paying $30,000 in full. 

1791, Feb. 18. Congress, wthout debate, or 
dissenting vote, admitted Vermont to tlie Union. 

March 4. Her Senators and Representatives 
took their seats. 

1792, April. This was the last time the court 
held a session at this place. Located at the 
extreme western point of the county, without 
water-power, around wliich villages spring up, 
the fort bm-ned and abandoned, Addison took 
her place as an agricultural town, and early 
became celebrated for the large crops of wiieat 
and the fine horses she produced. A race-course 
was established at Chimney Point, and was 
resorted to from all parts of the State. Some 
excellent blood-horses were introduced, and large 
numbers raised. A Grammar School was incor- 
porated ; a building 50 feet by 34 feet was built ; 
the lower part used for the meeting of the Congre- 
gational Church, and the upper part for the acad- 
emy. It flourished for several years under the 
direction of the Rev. Justice Hough. 


1800-1812. The fiirnicrs ia Addison became 
more and more thrifty ; the log house gave way to 
tlie frame dwelling, or the more costly brick man- 
sion ; the wilderness to cultivated fields. The 
clarion blast of war showed that the sons of 
worthy su-es had not degenerated. Two com- 
panies were raised to repel the enemy from Platts- 
burgh, and under General Samuel Strong, of 
Vergennes, did essential service. Dr. P. D. 
Cheny, of Addison, was surgeon of the regi- 
ment, and rendered material aid to the wounded 
after the battle on the lake. 

1813-1860. The history of Addison, like the 
history of most agricultural towns, in times of 
peace, is of that even, peaceful tenor, that the 
history of one year is the history of all. Addison 
was long noted for her excellent crops of winter 
wheat, until the midge, (generally called the 
weevil,) made its appearance, since when, it is 
too precarious to be gone into extensively ; and 
yet the soil is as well adapted to it as ever. 

Messrs. Robert Chambers and E. Swift intro- 
duced the first Durham bull ever brought into 
the county. 

A. Crane and C. Strong soon after introduced 
others ; and Addison has always been noted for 
good cattle and sheep, taking her full proportion 
of premiums at the various Agricultm-al Faks. 



was bom in Salisbury, Conn., a. d. 1738, and 
when 21 years of age was married to Agnes 
McCure, also born in Salisbury, the only daugh- 
ter of J. McCure, a wealthy landholder of Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, who, being deeply implicated 
in the Rebellion of 1715, fled to tliis country, 
having first, (to prevent confiscation,) put into 
the hands of a friend his large property. He 
died in a few years, leaving two young chil- 
dren, a son and daughter. His wife survived 
him but a few weeks. He was in the receipt of 
rents until the time of his death, after which no 
further remittances were made, and Agnes ^as 
put out to service, where she remained until she 
married. Her brother John was killed in a naval 
action soon after the death of her parents, so that 
she was early inured to hardship. Though 
fragile in form and constitution, when their in- 
creasing family demanded some extra efibrt, the 
proposition to encounter the danger and priva- 
tions of removal to the wilds of the West, was 
met with cheerfulness and alacrity. 

In February, 1766, they started, all his worldly 
goods consisting of an old pair of mares and a 
sleigh. His wife and three children, and all his 
household goods, found ample space in the sleigh. 
Their route lay through Albany and across the 
Hudson to Fort Gurney ; then on the ice on Lake 
George to Ticonderoga ; then on the ice on Lake 
Champlain to their house erected the fall before. 
He at once commenced chopping a fallow, and 

as soon as the spring opened, com and potatoes 
were planted, and the clearing kept on, to be ready 
for the winter wlicat. Al)Out the 1st of June he 
was taken with chills and fever, (fever ague,) but 
a wife and children were dependent on his con- 
stant exertions, far away from resources. Kind 
neighbors had come in, but they were no better 
off" than iiimself. So when the fit came on, he 
would lie lown by a log heap until it was partly 
over, and then up and at it again. Wild animals 
were very troublesome, especially bears, with 
which he had many encounters. In September, 
Mrs. Strong, whilst her husband and a few neigh- 
bors had joined together and gone up the lake 
in a bateau, and thence to Albany, to procure 
necessaries for the settlement, one evening was 
sitting by the fire with her children al)out her. 
The evenings had become somewhat chilly. The 
kettle of samp intended for supper had just been 
taken from tlie fire, when, hearing a noise, she 
looked towards the door, and saw the blanket 
that served the pirpose of one, raised up, and an 
old bear protrudmg her head into the room. The 
sight of the fire caused her to dodge back. Mrs. 
Strong caught the baby, and sending the older 
children to the loft, she followed and drew the 
ladder after her. The floor of this loft was made 
by laying small poles close together, which gave 
ample opportunity to see all passing below. The 
bear, after reconnoitring the place several limes, 
came in with two cubs. They first upset the 
milk that had been placed on the table for supper. 
The old bear then made a dash at the pudding- 
pot, and thrusting in her head, swallowed a large 
mouthful and filled her mouth with another, be- 
fore she found it was boiling hot. Giving a fu- 
lious growl, she struck the pot with her paw, up- 
setting and oreaking it. She then set herself up 
on end, endeavoring to poke the pudding from 
her mouth, wliining and growling all the time. 
This was so ludicrous, the cubs setting up on end, 
one on each side, and wondering what ailed their 
mother, that it drew a loud laugh from the chil- 
dren above. This seemed to excite the anger of 
the beast more than ever, and with a roar she 
rushed for the place where they had escaped, up 
aloft. This they had covered up when they drew 
up the ladder, and now commenced a struggle ; 
the bear to get up, the mother and children to 
keep her down. After many fruitless attempts, 
the bear gave it up, and towards morning moved 
off. After Strong's return, a door made from the 
slabs split from the basswood and hung on wooden 
hinges gave them some security from Uke inroads 
in future. 

At another time^ Strong and Smalley were 
crossing the lake from Chimney Point to McKen- 
sies, in Neviah, in a canoe, and when near Sandy 
Point, they saw something swimming in the 
water, which they at once supposed to be a deer, 
and gave chase. As they drew near, they found, 
instead of a deer, it was an enormous black bear 
that they were pursuing. Tliis was a different 



affair, and a consultation was held. They had 
nothing but an axe, but they had too much pluck 
to back out, so it was planned that Smallcy was 
to get into the wake of the bear, and run the 
canoe bows on, whilst Strong, standing in the 
bow with the axe, was to knock Bruin on the head. 

•' The best laid scheme of mice and men, gang aft a- 

Smalley brought the boat up in good style, 
and Strong, with all the force of a man used 
to felling the giants of the forest, struck the 
bear full on the head. The bear minded it 
no more than if it had been a walking-stick in- 
stead of an axe, but instantly turning, placed 
both fore paws on the side of the boat and upset 
it, turning both the men into the lake. The bear, 
instead of following them, crawled up on to the 
bottom of the boat, and took possession, quietly 
seating himself, and looking on with great gravity, 
whilst the men were floundering in the water. 
Smallcy, who was not a very good swimmer, 
seeing the bear so quiet, thought he might hold 
on by one end of the boat, until it sliould float 
ashore ; but no. Bruin would have none of their 
company ; and they were obliged, each with an 
oar under his arms to sustain him, to make 
the best of their say to Sandy Point, the nearest 
shore. From here they had to go around the 
head of BuUwagga Bay, and north as far as Point 
Heni-y, where they found their boat, minus thek 
axe and other baggage, and were very glad to 
come off so well. 

One more beai* story, and that will do. 

One fall the bears were making destructive 
work in his cornfield ; he found where they 
came in, and placed his trap in their road. The 
second morning he found his trap gone, and plenty 
of signs that a large bear had taken it ; he got 
two of his neighbors, Kellogg and Pangborn, to 
go with him. They had two gims and an axe, 
and three dogs. After folio wring the track for 
some two miles they heard the dogs, and as they 
came up they found the bear with her back against 
a large stub, cuffing the dogs whenever they came 
within reach. The trap was on one of her hind 
legs. Kellogg proposed to shoot the bear, but 
Strong said he could kill her with his axe as well 
as to waste a charge of ammunition, which was 
scarce and difficult to get. So taking the axe, 
and remembering his encounter on the lake, 
he turned the bit of the axe, intending to split he'r 
head open. He approached cautiously, and when 
near enough, gave the blow with tremendous 
force, but the bear, with all the skill of a prac- 
tised boxer, caught the axe as it was descending ; 
with one of her paws knocking it out of his hand, 
at the same time catching him with the other, 
she drew him up for the death-hug ; as she did so, 
endeavoring to grab his throat in her mouth. One 
moment more, and he would have been a man- 
gled corpse. The first effort he avoided by bend- 
ing his head close upon his breast ; the second, by 

running his left hand into her open mouth and 
down her throat, until he could hook the ends of 
his fingers into the roots of her tongue. This 
hold he kept until the end, although every time 
the bear closed her mouth his thumb was crushed 
and grourid between her grinders, her month being 
so narrow that it was impossible to put it out of 
the way. He now called on Kellogg for God's 
sake to shoot the bear, but this he dared not do, 
for fear of shooting Strong ; for as soon as he 
got the bear by the tongue, she endeavored to get 
rid of him by plunging and rolling about, so that 
one moment the bear was on top, and tlie next 
Strong. In these struggles they came where the 
axe had been thi-owu at first. This Strong seized 
witli liis right hand, and striking the bear in the 
small of the back, severed it at a blow. This so 
paralyzed her that she loosened her hug, and he 
snatched his hand from her mouth, and cleared 
himself of her reach. The men then dispatched 
her with their guns. His mutilated thumb he 
carried, as a memento of the fight, to his dying 

Indians in their visits caused more fear than 
wild beasts, especially after the commencement 
of the Revolutionary struggle. Although through 
the policy of some of the leading men of the 
Grants the British had been induced to treat the 
settlers on the cast side of the lake witji mild- 
ness, and had forbidden the Indians to molest 
them, yet their savageness was ready to burst 
forth on the slightest provocation. So much was 
this the case, that, if a party of Indians made 
their appearance when the men were absent, the 
women allowed them to help themselves to what- 
ever they liked. At one time a party came in 
when Mrs. Strong was alone. They first took 
the cream from the milk and rubbed it on their 
faces ; then rubbing soot on their hands, painted 
themselves in all the hideousness of the war- 
paint, and sang the war-song with whoop and 
dances. Just as they were leaving, one of them 
discovered a showy colored short-gown, that her 
husband had just made her a birthday present of. 
This he took, and putting it on, seemed greatly 
delighted, and with yells and whoops they de- 
parted. She had a place between the outer wall 
of the house and the chimney, where, wlienever 
Indians were seen about, she used to hide her 
babe. A barrel of sour milk was kept, where a 
set of pewter dishes (a rare thing at that time) 
was, as soon as used, put for secm-ity. One day 
an Indian came in and saw a small plate, which 
he took, and making a hole in it, put in a string 
and wore it off as an ornament. They would 
sometimes, when hungry, kill a hog or beef. The 
following will show that their fears were not 
groundless : One morning in June, just when 
the sky takes on that peculiar hue that has given 
it the term, " gray of the morning," Mrs. Strong 
arose and went to the spring, a few rods from the 
house, standing on the bank of the lake. The 
birds had just commenced thek morning matins. 


making " woodland and lea " vocal with song. 
The air was laden with the perfume of the wild 
flowers. Not a breath stirred a leaf or ruffled 
the glass-like surface of the waters of the lake. 
She stopped a moment to enjoy it. As she stood 
listening to the song of the birds, she thought 
she heard the dip of a paddle in the water, and 
looking through the trees that fringed the bank, 
saw a canoe filled with Indians. In a moment 
more the boat passed the trees in full view. A 
pole was fastened upright in the bow, on the top 
of wliich was the scalp of a little girl ten years 
old, her flaxen ringlets just stirred in the morn- 
ing air, wMle streams of clotted blood all down 
the pole showed it was placed there whilst yet 
warm and bleeding. Whilst horror froze her to 
the spot, she thought she recognized it as the hair 
of a beautiful child of a dear friend of hers, 
living on the other side of the lake. " She saw 
otlier scalps attached to their waist-belts, whilst 
two other canoes, farther out in the lake, each 
had the temble signal at their bows. The In- 
dians, on seeing her, gave the war-whoop, and 
made signals as though they would scalp her ; 
and she fled to the house like a frightened deer. 
The day brought tidings that their friends on the 
otlier side had all been massacred and scalped, 
six in number, and their houses burned. 

The morning previous to the taking of Crown 
Point by Burgoyne, Mrs. Strong was sitting at 
the breakfast-table. Her two oldest sons, Asa 
and Samuel, had started at daylight to hunt for 
young cattle that had strayed in the woods. 
Her husband had gone to Rutland to procure 
supplies of beef for the American forces at Ti- 
conderoga and Crown Point, when a daughter of 
Kellogg, (afterwards Mrs. Markham,) came rush- 
ing in with, " The Indian? are coming, and we 
are all flying. There are bateaux at the Point 
to take us otf, and you must hurry ! " And back 
^he ran to, help her own folks, her father then 
being a prisoner in Quebec. Mrs. Strong was in 
very feeble health, totally unable to encounter 
hardship or fatigue ; her husband away, her two 
oldest sons in the woods, and no one to warn or 
seek them. There was no way but to try and 
save the children that were with her. She took 
her youngest, a babe of six months, (Cyrus,) and 
putting him in a sack, with his head and shoul- 
ders out, fastened him on the back of her eldest 
daughter, and making up a bundle for each of 
the other children of the most necessary clotliing, 
started them for the Point, charging them not to 
loiter or wait for her, and she would overtake 
them. After putting out the fire she closed the 
house, leaving the breakfast-table standing as it 
was when they first heard the news. She trav- 
elled on as fast as she was able until she came to 
the north bank of Hospital Creek. Here, en- 
tirely exhausted, she sat down, when Spalding, 
of Panton, who had waited to see all off, and 
also the approach of the foe, came riding at full 
gallop up the road, and seeing her dkting 

where she was, said, "Are you crazy? The 
Indians are in sight, — the lake is covered, 
and the woods are full of them ! " She told him 
she could go no farther. He dismounted, and 
placing her on the pillion, remounted, and putting 
his horse to his speed, arrived just as the last 
bateau, containing her children, was putting off, 
— it having remained as long as they dared on 
her account. She was put on board, Spalding 
going on with his horse. That night they ar- 
rived at Whitehall. Here the settlers scattered 
in many directions, — some returning to Connec- 
ticut, others going east. Zadock Everest and 
family, with other neighbors, went east, and she 
went with them. Asa and Samuel, as they re- 
turned towards night, saw, by the colunms of 
smoke coming up from every house, that the In- 
dians must have been there. They hid them- 
selves until dark, and then, cautiously approach- 
ing, found their house a blazing ruin. Believing 
that the f^imily had escaped, they retraced their 
steps, and made the best of their way east towards 
Otter Creek. At daylight they found themselves 
near Snake Mountain. Fortunately, when they 
left home the morning previous, they took a gun 
and ammunition. They shot a partridge and 
roasted it, saving a part for their dinner, and 
pushed on, and in about a week found their mother 
and the rest of the childi-cn. They then hired a 
log-house, the older boys working out, and 
each doing what they could for their support. 

Strong, hearing that Burgoyne had taken Crown 
Point, left his cattle at -Brandon, and hastened 
for his home. On coming within sight of the 
forts he secreted himself until night. Ho then 
moved on cautiously, for fear of the Indians. On 
reaching the centre of a narrow ridge of land, 
just south of Foard's Creek, with a marsh on 
either side, covered with a dense growth of alders 
and willow, a yell, as demoniac as though the 
gates of the infernal regions had opened upon 
him, burst forth, and instantly he was sunouuded 
by more than 200 savages, whooping and swing- 
ing their tomahawks over his head. Instant 
death seemed inevitable. A Toiy was in com- 
mand. Having heard that he was expected in 
with cattle, he had got the assistance of this band 
of Indians to intercept him. After a few mo- 
ments he partially stiljed the Indians, and ad- 
dressing Strong, asked, " Where are your cattle ? " 
Strong answered, " Safe." This short and dis- 
appointing answer fairly drove him mad with 
rage, and no doubt he would have sacrificed liim 
on the spot, if an old chief, who knew Strong, had 
not intci-jDosed. Strong then told them to take 
him to the fort, and whatever was proper for him 
to answer, he would cheerfully do. He was then 
bound and taken to the other side, and placed in 
the guard-house until morning. When he was 
brought before the commanding officer, who was 
Col. Frasier, (afterward killed at Stillwater,) 
Strong explained who he was, the uncertain fate 
of his family, and his anxiety on their account. 



Frasier generously let him go on parole, until 
the middle of November, when he was to be at 
Crown Point to go with the army and prisoners 
to Canada. After thanldng him, and just as he 
was leaving, he said, " Colonel, suppose the aiiny 
never return, how then ? " Frasier, smiling in- 
credulously, said, " Then you are released from 
all obligation." And ordei-ing him a supply of 
provisions for his journey, dismissed him. He 
now procured a boat and went to his house, which 
he found in ashes. After searching for any re- 
mains that might be left, in case liis wife and 
children had been burned in the house, he re- 
tui-ned to the fort, wlicre he procured a passage 
up the lake to Whitehall. He was here com- 
pletely at fault as to which way his family had 
gone, but was induced to believe they were in 
Connecticut, where he went, but found they had 
not been there, and returned and went in another 
direction, and, after weeks of fruitless search, had 
almost despaired of finding them, "ft^hen-one even- 
ing, weary and foot-sore, he called at a log-house 
in Dorset, Vt., for entertainment for the night. 
It was quite dark. A flickering light from the 
dying embers only rendered things more undistin- 
guishable. He had just taken a scat, when a 
smart little woman, with a pail of milk, came in, 
and said, " Moses, can't you take the gentleman's 
hat 1 " That voice ! He sprang towards her. 
"Agnes ! " And she, with outstretched arms, 
" John, John ! " How quick the voice of loved 
ones strikes upon the ear, and vibrates through 
the he^rt ! That was a happy night in the little 
log-house. The children came nishing in, and 
each in turn received their father's caress. Smiles 
of happiness and tears of joy mingled freely, for a 
father and husband was restored as from the dead. 
They had received no tidings of him after he 
left his cattle and went to look for them, and 
they mourned him as dead. The next year 
he hired a farm. He represented Dorset in the 
legislature from 1779 to 1782, in '81 was elected 
Assistant Judge for Bennington county, and 
also in '82, in '83 returned to Addison, on to 
the old farm where his descendants have ever 
since remained, — was elected to the legislature 
from Addison in '84, '85, and '86, — in '85 elected 
first Judge of the comt in Addison county, — and 
in '86 Judge of Probate and member of the Coun- 
cil. These offices he held until 1801, 16 years ; 
in 1791 was a member of the convention that 
ratified the Constitution of the United States on 
the admission of Vermont to the Union. In 
1801 his failing health warned him to retire from 
the cares of political life, and he resigned the 
many and important offices he then held, and in 
June, 1816, gave up his life "to God who gave 
it." As a Christian he was consistent. The 
Congregational church, of which he was a mem- 
ber, liave good reason to remember his liberality. 
As a patriot and statesman he had the confidence 
of those who acted with him, wherever he re- 

was born in Connecticut. In the summer of 1 765 
he came on to Addison, in company with two 
others, and commenced a clearing, and in Sep- 
tember sowed it with wheat. This was the first 
clearing made by English settlers in this county. 
They returned to Connecticut in the fall, and the 
following May, Everest moved on by way of Otter 
Creek, and located himself in what was then 
thought to be Panton, and was an active participant 
in the straggles which the early settlers of this town 
had to endure. . He opened the first pubUc lious© 
in this county. On the coming down of Bur- 
goyne, he fled with his family and the settlers, 
Onreaching Whitehall, he turned eastinto Pawlet, 
where he remained until 1784, when he returned\ 
to his former residence in Addison, the farm now 
owned by R. W. Eaton, Esq. He was elected 
a representative from Pawlet, March 12, 1778, 
and in 1785 from Panton, in '88 and '89, from Ad- 
dison, and again in '95 ; and held prominent offi- 
ces in town for a long series of years. He died 

in , respected as one of the fathers of the 

town and church. Some very ancient rehcs were 
found on this farm several years ago. Gen. C. C. 
Everest, in digging a well on the height of land, 
perhaps 150 feet above the present level of the 
lake, after digging some 20 feet through an al- 
most impervious hard pan, came upon a strata 
of pebbles and sand, with every appearance of 
having once been the beach of the lake. Among 
these pebbles he found a short piece of rope, and 
an oak chip. The rope was of two strands. Its 
maker was not ascertained, as a curious old fellow 
picked it all to pieces before any one was aware 
what he was about. The chip was half an inch 
in thickness, and seven or eight inches long, ia 
shape and appearance every way like a chip taken 
from a good-sized log, the chopper standing on 
the log and using an axe foi-med like ours. 
Where did the chip come from, and of what race of 
men were the choppers 1 It was deposited there 
centuries ago. Another curiosity was discovered 
on the farm of J. N. Smith. In cutting down a 
very old and large tree, a stone was found em- 
bedded near the heart, that probably had been 
placed there 150 years before. Did this county 
formerly belong to the Oneidas ? Was this one 
of their boundary marks 1 It is a stone placed 
in a notch made by the blows of an axe in a tree. 
There were five divisions of this tribe, distin- 
guished from each other by the further devices 
of the plover, the bear, the tortoise, the eel, 
and the beaver. There were farther subdivisions, 
marked by the potatoe, the falcon, the lark, and 
the partridge. 

was born in Seabury, Conn., and moved with 
his father to Addison when sixteen years of age. 
This was in 1769. Three years after his brother, 
Zadock Everest, came to this country, who was 
one ofi the first settlers. As a boy and young 
man, iJenjamin was noted for his prowess and 




acti^ ity in all athletic exercises. There was not 
one in all the settlement that could run, jump, or 
wrestle with him. With a heart that never knew 
the sensation of fear, and a frame capable of en- 
during any hardship, he was by natm-e well fitted 
to take a part in those troublous times. In Au- 
gust, 1773, when AUen, Warner, and Baker 
came up to lielp the settlers drive off Col. Keid 
and his Yorkers from their position at Vcrgennes, 
Everest with his brother Zadock and other neigh- 
bors joined them. After liaving torn down the 
mills, burned the dwellings, and destroyed the 
settlement, and being all ready to return, Allen 
made such an Impression on Benjamin, then- spir- 
its wore so mjich in unison, that Everest wished 
to go with Allen, as more trouble with the York- 
ers was expected. Allen was glad of his service, 
and vciy soon gave him a sergeant's warrant in 
his band. From this time until the opening of 
the Revolution he was with Allen more or less. 

On receipt of intelligence of the battle of Lex- 
ington, Everest immediately repaired to Allen's 
head-quarters, where he received a commission 
as Lieutenant, which was afterwards confirmed. 
He was very active and useful in procuring men 
and information to aid in the capture of Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point, and was with Allen 
when he entered tlie fort at Ticonderoga, and 
went up with Warner to take Crown Point. 
After Allen was taken prisoner at Montreal, 
Everest and his company was incorporated into 
Col. Seth Warner's regiment. He was with War- 
ner at the battle of Hubbardton, and with his com- 
pany as rangers held the British in check by skir- 
mishing in the woods from point to point, facilitat- 
ing and covering the re::reat of Warner. Warner 
was not at Bennington at the commencement of 
,the battl,e, but having information from Stark of 
the approach of Baum, with orders to hasten to 
his aid, he did so, and arrived just at the most 
critical time. Col. Baum having been mortally 
wounded, and his troops bi-oken and flying, the 
militia, under the impression that the battle was 
over, had dispersed in every direction in search 
of plunder, when Col. Breymen, who had been 
sent to Baum's relief, arrived on the ground. 
Soon after Warner arrived, and at a glance saw 
the peril of our troops, and gave the word to 
" Close ! " when,, like an eagle swooping to its 
prey, so he and his Green Mountain Boys came 
down on the enemy, and scattered them like dust 
before the wind. Night closing in favored the 
escape of the enemy, but they lost 207 killed and 
about 700 prisoners. Everest received the public 
thanks of Warner for the bravery of liimself and 
men. After the captm-e of Burgoyne, Everest ob- 
tained a furlough, with the intention of visiting 
Addison to look after his father's property, — his 
father having gone back to Connecticut with his 
family. Not knowing how matters stood in that 
eection, he approached warily, keeping on the 
highlands between Otter Creek and the lake, in- 
tending to strike the settlement at Vergcnnes, 

and then turn back to Addison. Arriving at the 
Falls at dark, he kindled a fire and lay down. 
About midnight he was awoke by the war-whoop, 
and found himself a prisoner to a party of In- 
dians that were on their way to Lake Mcmphra- 
magog, to attend a council of most of the tribes 
of Canada, New York, and New England. He 
suffered much from the thongs with which he 
was bound, at the first, but understanding the na- 
ture of the Indians very well, he so gained their 
confidence, that they showed him more leniency 
afterwards. On the breaking up of the council 
he was brought back to the western shore of Lake 
Champlain, near Whallons Bay, where they en- 
camped for the winter. He had been pondering 
in his mind for a long time various plans for 
escape, but concluded to wait until the lake was 
frozen. It was now December, and the lake had 
been frozen some two or three days, the ice as 
smooth as glass ; the sun shone out quite pleas- 
antly, and the air was comfortable. The Indians 
prepared for a frolic on the ice ; many of them 
had skates and were very good skaters. "Everest 
asked to be permitted to go down and see the 
sport, as he had never seen any one skate ; they 
gave him leave to go, two or three evidently 
keeping an eye on liim. He expressed his wonder 
and delight at their, performances, so naturally 
that all suspicion was lulled. After a time, when 
the Indians began to be tired, and many were 
taking off their skates, he asked a young Indian 
who had just taken off a very fine pair, to let liim 
try and skate. This the Indian readily consented 
to, expecting to have sport out of the white man's 
falls and awkwardness. Everest put on the skates, 
got up, and no sooner up than down he came, 
striking heavily on the ice ; and again he essayed 
to stand and down he fell, and so continued to 
play the novice until all the Indians had come 
in from outside on the lake. He had contrived 
to stumble and work his way some 15 or 20 rods 
from the nearest, when he turned and skated a 
rod or two towards them, and partly falling he 
got on his knees, and begun to fix and tighten 
his skates. This being done, he rose, and striking 
a few strokes towards the eastern shore, he bent to 
his work, giving, as he leaned forward, a few 
insulting slaps to denote that he was off. With 
a whoop and a yell of rage, the Indians that had 
on their skates started in pursuit. He soon saw 
that none could overtake him, and felt quite con- 
fident of his escape. After getting more than 
half across the lake, and the ice behind him cov- 
ered with Indians, he looked toward the east 
shore and saw two Indians coming round a point 
directly in front of him. This did not alarm him, 
for he turned his coui'se directly up the lake. 
Again he looked and saw his pursuers (except- 
ing two of their best skaters, who followed di- 
rectly in his track) had spread themselves in a 
line from shore to shore. He did not at first un- 
derstand it, but after having passed up the lake 
about thi'ee miles, he came suddenly upon one of 



those immense cracks or fissures in the ice that so 
frequently occur when the ice is glare. It ran 
in the form of a semicircle from shore to shore, 
the arch in the centre and up the lake. He saw 
he was in a trap. The Indians on his flanks had 
already reached the crack, and were coming 
down towards the middle. He flew along the 
edge of the crack, but no place that seemed pos- 
sible for human power to leap was there. But 
the enemy were close upon him ; he took a short 
run backward, and then shooting forward like 
lightning, with every nerve strained, he took the 
leap, and just reached the farther side. None of 
the Indians dared to follow. Finding snow on the 
ice at Panton, he left it, and made good his way 
to his regiment. He commanded the fort at Rut- 
land during the summer of 1778. Carleton having 
come down the lake in the fall of this year, un- 
dertook some repairs at Crown Point. The 
Americans wished to obtain some certain infor- 
mation in regard to it. Everest was asked to go. 
He was bold, active, and well acquainted with 
the locality. He went. Doffing his uniform, he 
procured a tory dress, (gray,) and boldly entered 
the garrison and offered his services as a work- 
man. He was set to tend masons, and made 
himself very acceptable by his industry. He had 
acquired about all the information he wanted, and 
would have left in a day or two, when, as ill-for- 
tune would have it, a man by the name of Ben- 
edict, also an early settler in Addison, but who 
espoused the British cause, came into the fort, 
saw Everest and knew him, but Everest did not 
eee Benedict. Benedict gave notice to the officer 
in command that one of his men was a spy, a lieu- 
tenant in the American army, and before Everest 
was aware that he was suspected, he was arrested, 
thrown into prison, and there kept for nine days. 
Major Carleton, in the mean time, had collected 
39 men and boys as prisoners, and most of them 
neighbors and acquaintances of Everest, con- 
cluded to take Everest to Canada before he was 
tried, and ordered him on board the vessel just 
ready to sail for Canada. On board this vessel 
was Kellogg, Spalding, his younger brother 
Josepli, and other of his neighbors. It was now 
the latter part of November ; a severe storm from 
the northeast came on, sleet and snow, with the 
wind blowing furiously. The vessel had run up 
to Ticonderoga to take on board some freight. 
During the day Everest had bribed one of the 
sailors to bring on board a bottle of liquor, which 
was secreted by Everest. At sunset the vessel 
was taken into the middle of the lake and an- 
chored there. The night was very wild and tem- 
pestuous. At the solicitation of the prisoners, 
the captain had ordered a tent pitched on deck, 
to shield them from the storm. Everest now pro- 
posed to his fellow-prisoners to tiy to escape. 
They were anchored about half a mile north of 
the bridge that crossed the lake at that place, and 
he proposed to invite the sentry to take a drink 
or two out of the bottle and shelter themselves 

from the storm, whilst they should watch their 
opportunity and let themselves into the lake and 
swim to the bridge. Only two dared to think of 
trying it. Wlien every tiling was quiet, Everest 
gave the sentry a drink out of the bottle, and in 
a little while asked liim to come under the tent 
and have another glass. This was complied with, 
and in a short time Everest, saying " What a 
storm it is," went out as if to take a look. He 
took off his clothing and tied it about his head, let 
himself down into the water near the stem, and 
struck out for the bridge. It almost made him cry 
out aloud when he first went into the water, it 
was so piercing cold. Spalding followed next, 
but the water was so cold when he touched it, that 
he shrank back and crawled on board again. No 
other one attempted it. He succeeded in reach- 
ing the bridge, on which he crawled, and where, 
before he could dress himself, he came near per- 
ishing, being much colder than in the water. 
Seeing and hearing nothing of liis companions, 
he concluded they had not started, or perished 
in the attempt. There was a party of British on 
the east shore at the end of the bridge, and In-s 
dians at the west end. Everest thought he could 
pass the Indians the best. His dress was gray, 
the tory uniform, and he resolved to make the 
Indians think he came from the British encamp- 
ment, and was on his way with special orders ; but 
just before reaching the shore, and where a quan- 
tity of goods had been piled ready for shipping, 
and so covering the bridge that there was only a 
very narrow pass, stood or rather leaned a senti- 
nel. Everest looked about for a stick or some 
weapon, but could find nothing. He recollected 
he had a razor in his pocket, and opening it, ap- 
proached very cautiously. He saw the man was 
asleep. With his razor ready, and his face to- 
wards the sleeper, he passed within six inches of 
him, ready, if the man stirred, to cut his throat. 
He passed the Indian camp without suspicion on 
their part, but soon after fell into one of the 
ditches of the fort, getting thoroughly wet. 
He now took a northwest course for about 
four or five miles, and came upon a fire where 
a party of Indians had camped the day before. 
After he had satisfied himself that no one 
was lurldng in the neighborhood, he came to 
the fire, built a good one, and warmed him- 
self and thoroughly "dried his clothes. Just be- 
fore daybreak the storm ceased, the moon came 
out, and he started north, keeping along the 
range of mountains. About sunrise he came to 
Put's Creek ; here he stopped and rested awhile ; 
and then keeping back on the hills, yet still in 
sight of the lake, until he came to Webster's, an 
old acquaintance, who lived where Cole's Mills 
now are, (about four miles north of Fort Henry.) 
Webster was in the woods chopping when Ev- 
erest came to him. They started to go do^vn to 
the house, but on coming into the clearing they 
saw the British fleet conjiing down the lake, with 
a very light breeze. Everest immediately went 



back and secreted liimself in the woods ; — Web- 
ster carried him some food, for he had eaten noth- 
ing for twenty-four hours. Webster agreed to 
keep a look out until after dark, and when the 
coast was clear to come to the door and chop 
a few sticks of wood, and whistle a tune agreed 
upon. The fleet anchored right opposite Web- 
ster's, and when all was quiet, at the signal, 
Everest came out. Webster let him have his 
canoe, and Everest giving the fleet a wide berth, 
landed safely on the east shore, and made his way 
to Castleton. He was afterwawis taken prisoner 
by seven Indians, but escaped the next day. After 
the war he went to Connecticut, and moved his 
mother and the younger children up to Pawlet, his 
father having died previously. He resided here 
some two or three years, and was manied. Soon 
after, they came back on to the old fai-m in Ad- 
dison, where some of his descendants now live. 
He died at a good old age, a member of the 
Baptist church, and much respected. 

came into Addison soon after the close of the 
Revolution, and settled on the farm previously 
owned by Kellogg. He afterwards removed to 
the farm on the north bank of Ward's Creek, 
where he lived until a few years previous to his 
death, when he moved to Bridport, where he died 
May 10, 1850, at the age of 93. He was a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Conventions of 1793, 
1814, '36, and '43 ; represented Addison in 1790, 
'92, 93, '97, '98, 1808 to 1815, and '24. He was 
a shrewd politician, and always one of the lead- 
ing men in the town ; possessed considerable con- 
versational powers, spiced with a quiet vein of 
humor. I recollect his account of having the 
lake fever soon after he came into town, and as 
it illustrates the practice of the day, I give it. It 
was whilst he lived on the Kellogg farm, a few 
rods from where J. W. Strong's house now stands. 
He was taken very sick, — pulse bounding, 
eyes bloodshot and starting from their sockets, 
the blood coursing thi-ough his veins like liquid 
fire. The doctor waS sent for ; on arriving, or- 
dered every window and door closed, although it 
was in the hottest of dog days, — cold water for- 
bidden, warm drinks ordered. Thus days and 
nights of intolerable suffering, went by, and when 
he begged for just one drop of water, it was denied. 
One night two neighbors, weary and tired from 
the harvest field, came in to watch through the 
night. One of them soon dropped off^ to sleep ; 
the other, more enduring, still kept ■\yatch. 
At midnight, after giving the General his med- 
icine, he brought in a pail of water, fresh from 
the well. How quick the sick man would have 
given the wealth of the Indies for one draught of 
that sparkling water. Could he not by stratagem 
secure it t He feigned sleep ; and the tired man, 
fixing himself as comfortable as possible, was 
soon in a sound sleep. Whitney now crkwled 

from the bed on his hands and knees, and made 
his way to the pail. With what eagerness he 
clutched the cup and drained it, draught after 
draught. He then wished he could breathe a 
little fresh air, it was so stifling where he was. 
The man still slept ; he opened the door. How 
still and quiet every thing lay in the moonlight. 
The dew on the grass sparkling like diamonds — 
the chirp of the cricket alone broke the silence. 
How delicious was the night-wind, as it fanned 
his fevered cheek and burning brow. The idea of 
escape from his prison, as he regarded it, pre- 
sented itself, and instantly he started, crossing 
the road and through a thicket hedge that grew 
beside the fence, into a meadow, and plunging 
down amid the tall wet grass, he clapped his hands 
for joy, as he rolled from side to side. But now 
the fever is upon him; the fire is quenched, 
and his strength is gone. He cannot rise. The 
watchers have missed him. They shout his name. 
He tries to answer, but is too weak. They find 
and cany him to the house, and in alarm run for 
the doctor. He does not get there until morning. 
A quiet, refreshing sleep has removed all symp- 
toms of fever. The doctor would give him pill 
and potion, but the General would none of it, 
and told him that he had got a new doctor, old 
Dame Nature, who seemed to understand the 
case altogether the best, and he should trust to 
her. Returning health showed bis judgment in 
choosing. Ague and fever, and bilious intermit- 
tents, prevailed extremely in the early settlement 
of the town, but for quite a number of years 
little or none has been known. 


was among the early settlers of the town. He 
built the first brick house in the county, in which 
H. Crane, Esq., now lives. It was kept as a 
public house ; the courts of the county were 
held here for several years. Loyal Case, a son 
of his, was sheriff" for several years. A daughter 
of his married the Hon. Horatio Seymour, of 


was one of the early proprietors of the town, 
and a large land-owner and speculator. He built 
the old tavern stand at Chimney Point, the frame 
of which is now enclosed in the brick building 
of H. Barnes, Jr. 


came into town previous to the Revolution. 
On the breaking out of the war he sided with 
the Crovra. After the peace, he acquiesced in the 
Government, and took the oath of allegiaDce, 
and became a warm supporter of our free in- 




was a soldier in the Revolution, and died in , 

on the farm where he had long lived, now owned 
by J. W. Smith. One of his daughters married 
Rev. Justus Hough, first settled minister in the 
Congregational churcli in Addison, and first prin- 
cipal in the county Grammar school. . Another 
daughter married Rev. ' Mr. Messer, for a long 
time pastor of the Congregational church in 



was another old Revolutionary patriot, 
served during nearly the whole war. 


was also an old pensioner. He preached for 
the Congregational church at different times for 
many years, and was the founder of the Congre- 
gational church in Moriah, and preached to them 
for very little pay for a long time. He was simple 
in his dress and living, but his purse was always 
open to promote the cause of God, whether of his 
peculiar denomination or not, and he will be long 
remembered for his benevolence, his many ec- 
centricities, and keen wit. A young man with a 
good deal of pomposity, proclaiming his infidel 
belief, among other things stated that man was a 
mere machine. Chapin, who was sitting by, 
said, " So, young man, you think you are nothing 
but a machine." "Yes, and I can prove it." 
Chapin replied, "A great bellows, I suppose. 
Ah, it needs no proof, it is evident you are right ! " 
Roars of laughter followed, and the young fellow 
was ever after glad to keep his infideUty to him- 
self, when Father Chapin was about. Mr. 

Chapin died in 18 — , at the age of . 

J. S. 
E. C. WINES, DD., LL.D. 

Enoch Cobb Wines, — born at Hanover, N. J., 
fitted at Castleton Academy, and graduated at 
Middlebury College, 1827, — was Professor of 
Mathematics in the U. S. Navy two and a half 
years ; five years Principal of the Edgehill School, 
Princeton, N. J. ; five years Professor of Mental, 
Moral, and Political Philosophy, in the Central 
High School, Philadelphia, Penn.; five years 
Principal of the Oakland School, Burlington, 
N. J. ; preached in Cornwall about a year ; in East 
Hampton, L. I., three and a half years. 

[Extract from a letter of President Winps.] 

City University, j 
St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 9, 1860. ) 

I think the work proposed an important one, 
and the plan of it excellent. I hope that it will 
meet all the encouragement which such a work 
ought to receive. 

You are mistaken about Addison being my 
native county. I was bom in Hanover, New 
Jersey ; but my father removed to Addison coun- 
ty, Vermont, when I was about seven years old. 
tn addition to the items mentioned in the cata- 

logue, to which you refer, I may state that I con- 
tinued to serve as pastor of the church in East 
Hampton, Long Island, for a period of three and 
a half years, when I received and accepted an 
invitation to the Professorship of Greek in Wash- 
ington College, Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1853. 
In connection with my professorship, I performed 
the duties of pastor to the Upper Ten-mile 
Church, a small congregation in the countiy. In 
July, 1859, I was called to the presidency of a 
new institution in this city, under the corporate 
title of the " City University of St. Louis." This 
call I accepted, and entered upon the duties of 
my new position in October last. 

The list of my published works is as follows. 

1. Two Years and ^ Half in the Navy, 2 vols. 

2. Hints on a System of Popular Education, 
1 vol. 12mo. 

3. How shall I govern my School? 1 vol. 

4. Letters to School-Children, 1 vol. 16mo. 

5. A Trip to Boston, 1 vol. 12mo. 

6. A Peep at China, in Mr. Dunn's Chinese 
Collection, 1 vol. 8vo. 

7. Commentaries on the Laws of the Ancient 
Hebrews, vol. 1, 8vo. 

8. A Sermon on Adam and Christ. 

9. A Sermon on a Prohibitory Liquor Law. 

10. An Historical Discom-se commemorative 
of the Upper Ten-mile Congregation. 

11. A Farewell Sermon. 

12. An Address before the Suffolk County 
Temperance Society, L. I. 

13. Monthly Journal of Education. 

14. An Essay on the Mode and Advantages 
of Studying the Classic Languages. 

15. A Report on Normal Schools. 

16. A Lecture on Education as a Source of 

17. Girard College : a Lecture before the Amer- 
ican Institute of Instruction. 

18. Numerous Contributions on Literary, Ed- 
ucational, Social, and Theological subjects, to 
the periodical literature of the day. 

I received the honoraiy degree of D. D. from 
Middlebury College, in 1853, and that of LLl D. 
from Washington College, on retiring from the 
professorship, which I held there for six years. 
Yours respectfully, 

E. C. Wines, 

We owe Mr. Wiues an apology for publishing an 
extract from his letter without leave-asking ; but we so 
much value his opinion of the object and plan of our 
work, we wish to give others the benefit thereof. 



One word on the political condition of Naples, 
and I have done. I have not brought with me 
from the shores of Europe the conclusions to 



which I once listened from the lips of an eloquent 
divine, who, in the warmth of his admiration, 
scarcely stopped short of becoming the advocate 
and apologist of the tottering institutions and an- 
cient abuses of European governments. I own 
that one of the greatest advantages of foreign 
travel consists in its tendency to obliterate na- 
tional prejudices. I own that no folly can be 
■greater, no prejudice narrower, than that of sup- 
posing that our own country is the limit of all 
that is wise in policy, noble in patriotism, and 
generous in virtue. The intelligent traveller often 
meets with excellences, where he had expected 
blemishes, and finds cause of admiration, where 
he had looked for grounds of censure. He learns 
that eminent worth and virtue can and do flour- 
ish in the sterile and exhausted deserts of tyranny, 
as well as in the more genial and generous soil of 
freedom. But even charity has its limits, and to 
surrender the judgment on the altar of a false 
liberality, betrays a weak, rather than a magnan- 
imous mind. Frolic, laughter, gayety, humor, 
are seen in the lower orders of the Neapolitan 
population, and might impress a superficial ob- 
server with the idea that they are happy. But 
as to those pleasures which belong to our intel- 
lectual and moral constitution, those enjoyments 
which spring from the well of knowledge, that 
high spiritual happiness which our nature thirsts 
for with intense desire, the lives of these people 
are well-nigh a blank. 

Those who are willing to sink the rational in 
the animal nature, those who are fain to receive 
their opinions by authority, and to have fetters of 
iron put upon thought and speech, — those, even, 
who are content to limit their pleasures to pic- 
tures, statues, and operas, and to gazing on pal- 
aces and cathedmls resplendent with gems, gold, 
marbles and rnosaics, can get along well enough. 
But as for those generous spirits — and thank 
God, there are many such in Naples — who desire 
to rise to the full dignity of their nature, and the 
free enjoyment of their rights, their life is spent 
in secret sighs and unavailing wishes ; and the 
labors of Sysiphus, endless but useless, seem no 
unapt emblem of the struggles with which their 
bosoms are familiar. And when I recall the 
burning words of indignation against their ty- 
rants, which I have heard from their lips, and the 
ardent aspirations for liberty with which I have 
seen their bosoms heave, I can but exclaim, with 
a fervent emotion of gratitude to God, — Happy, 
proud America ! land of my birth and home of 
my heart ! Though no Virgil or Tasso has mar- 
ried thy mountains, thy valleys, and thy streams 
to immortal verse, though no patrician palaces or 
royal galleries adorn thy soil, though the splendor 
of courts is unknown to thy plebeian yeomanry, 
yet I would not exchange thy democratic rude- 
ness, thy free heart, and thy home-bred virtues, 
for all that Europe boasts of ancestral dignity 
and modem magnificence. E. C. Wines. 



Their plebeian grandsire in an easy chair 

So quiet Bits, you 'd scarce observe him there ; 

His simple mind recurs to olden time, 

E'er Fashion's code had labor made a crime. 

He hears proscribed the man who daily ioils, 

His stagnant blood with youthful vigor boils; 

A straggling tear bedews his aged face ; 

He weeps, — 'tis for his own degenerate race. 

His stricken heart for sympathetic friends 

Precedes his limbs, the garret stairs ascends; 

Slow move his limbs; bereft of youthful skill, 

Slowly they hear and slow obey his will ; 

His noisy staff wakes echoes all around ; 

He heeds it not, — he's rapt in thought profound; 

With snail-like step he climbs the garret stairs, 

His trusty staff the burden mostly bears. 

Kind friends, ascend the garret now with me, 

And listen to his lonely monody. 

By dust and cobwebs partially concealed, 

A rustic heap of ancient tools revealed; 

Yet o'er the heap again the good man weeps, 

Again the tears bedew his aged cheeks : — 

"Friendsof my youth, 'tis fitting Time should traoe 

His broad, deep lines across my aged face ; 

'Tis also fit, as there you useless lie, 

Signs of decay I now in you descry. 

No boaster's fame I crave — you know it 'well; 

If speech were granted, each would freely tell. 

To score the oak, or fell the mighty pine, 

No arm excelled this shrunken arm of mine. 

My daily toil secured me daily health, 

And led at length to competence and wealth ; 

My children now (I tell it, though, with sham«) 

Ignore the source from whence their fortune came. 

When pampered youth maliciously conspire. 

Insult the calling of their plainer sire, 

My stagnant blood with youthful vigor boils. 

My sympathies are with the man who toils. 

I blame you not, my much beloved tools. 

The thrift you won has made my children fools. 

No youthful cheek should ever blanch with shame, 

No son should blush to hear his parent's name. 

Or deem it worthy of a passing note, 

Should it be said he sponged and made a coat; 

All honest men who live by honest trade, 

Should own with pride whate'er their hands havi 

Whate'er they do, should never blush to tell. 
Provided always that they do it well. 

Leonard C. Thorn. 

It was a mild October afternoon as we were 
drJven slowly down the lake street from Panton 
to Addison, five to eight miles. We had heard 
of the valley of the Champlain ; but it, is one 
thing to read of Beulah, and another to walk 
tlirough her borders of beauty. On the left of 
the smooth and excellent highway, handsome 
rural residences held the most charming sites, to 
almost every one of which we gave the palm in 
succession as we passed by ; now to this quaint 
cottage, that with modest pretensions peeped out 
from 'mid an orchard of red-ripe fruitage ; next 
to one that crowned a moderate elevation, over- 
looking a little bend or cove in the lake, where we 
saw the WTeck of an old boat, half sunken in the 
water; and our young diiver told, in a manly, in- 



teresting style, of three boats wrecked there one 
stormy night. Thus on our left lay one pano- 
rama of changing loveliness, while on the right, 
Champlain — lake of bright waters — heaved and 
swelled gently in toward the fair shore, now hid- 
den from view by skirting trees, or sliglit swells 
of land, wliich our road soon came round, and 
hugged more closely to the pebbly shore, wound 
along near aside a pleasing way. This was one 
of the journeys that pay, where earth and air 
and water give unmeasured recompense ; where 
one feels not the feather-weight of care, but luxu- 
riates in the calm, ricli gladness that stirs the 
boughs of the goodly trees, sings in the low mur- 
murs of the lake-waves, looks down from the soft 
Indian summer sky, and maps the whole beauti- 
ful landscape. It was one of the afternoons in a 
lifetime, when one is satisfied with earth as it 
is, — when the augury of hope prophesies in the 
heart : " The human mind takes color and tone 
by wliat it feeds upon^ Where the loveof the beau- 
tiful thus predominates and thus is cherished, — 
where art skilfully joins handiwork with nature, — 
your mission will be welcomed." And we found 
the spontaneous presentiment happy cei-tainty. 
Our first night, wo slept in the old Strong man- 
sion, where five generations of the Strong family 
have been bom ; well may they who dwell here 
feel an honest pride in the venerable mansion, — 
substantial stfll, built in the days when carpen- 
ters did work upon honor. On the moiTOW, we 
surveyed, with reverential admiration, the spacious 
olden liall, with its broad staii-way of antique 
banisters, the massive doors and ancient mould- 
ings, and at the rear window, gazed out upon one 
of the finest lake-views in the country. At 
East Addison we also found cordial welcome, 
and particularly appreciated the excellent, terra 
firma, the veritable superior land,* and the 
sleek cattle and horses that grazed in the i-ich 

AVe looked upon Addison, and remembered she 
was once a county town, with reasonable expec- 
tations of becoming one of the first business 
towns in the State ; we found her with only a 
weekly or semi-weekly mail ; but avc also found 
an entertainment and free stages that more than 
made amends for lack of public conveyance ; and, 
must confess we like Addison better as she is. 
To us, this town, where the first Vermont settle- 
ment was made, is sacred ground. It is a pleas- 
ant truth, that, secluded from the taint of a large 
and changing population, shut out from the evil 
that destroys, rich in beauty, rich in soil, rich in 
flocks and herds, she retains what is most praise- 
worthy of all, much of her primitive simplicity of 
manners, unaffected com-tesy, and whole-hearted 

*Soil generally marl or clay, and productive. 
The magnetic oxide of iron is found here in small 
octsedric crystals in argillite, and also the Eulphuret 
of ivon.— Thompson. 


1761. Bridport, a post town of 42 square 
miles, was chartered Oct. 10, 1761, to 64 proprie- 
tors, mostly of Massachusetts, of whom Eph. 
DooUttlc and Benj. Raymond were active in the 
early settlement. The first attempt to settle the 
town was made in 1768, but abandoned or ac- 
count of difficulties that arose from the New York 
claims. The first permanent settler was Philip 
Stone, who, at the age of 21, came from Groton, 
Mass., purchased a lot of land, and commenced 
clearing it. Mr. Stone was aftei-ward the first 
Colonel in the county. Two families, Richard- 
son and Smith, settled about the same time under 
New York titles, and three, Towner, Chipman, 
and Plumer, under New Hampshire titles. 

1772. Ethan Allen, having been declared an 
outlaw by the New York government, and a 
bounty offered for his apprehension, called, in 
company with Eli Roberts, of Vergennes, at the 
house of Mr. Richards, of this town. In the 
evening came also 6 well-armed soldiers from 
Crown Point, and determined to secure the boun- 
ty ; but as Allen and his companion were also 
well armed, they concluded to defer their attempt 
at capture till after they had retired to their slum- 
bers. Airs. Richards overheard their anange- 
ments to take Allen, but kept her own counsel 
till bedtime, when, opening a window, they 
silently made their escape. All remained quiet, 
till the soldiers, anxious to secure their prisoners, 
proceeded to the sleeping apartment, and found 
the game had flown, the room vacant. Very 
angrily they reprimanded Mrs. Richards, who 
adroitly replied, " It was for the safety of my 
house. Had they been taken here, the Hamp- 
shire men would have torn it down over our 

There are other versions of this story. The 
following we find in Mr. Goodhue's history of 
Shoreham, in which manuscript of Mr. Good- 
hue we first find Eli Roberts's name given as the 
companion of Allen, and then erased and that of 
Seth Warner substituted. 

MR. Goodhue's version. 

In 1772, Ethan Allen and Seth Warner, of 
Vergennes, put up at the house of Mr. Richards, 
in Bridport. In the evening, six soldiers, from 
Crown Point, all armed, as were Allen and War- 
ner, stopped also for the night, having come with 
the intention of apprehending them, and securing 
the bounty offered by the governor of New York. 
Different versions of the escape have been given. 
One is, that on being lighted to bed, they passed 
out at a window ; the other, that Mrs. Richards 
set the guns of Allen and Warner by the side of 

*To Thompson's Gazetteer, Demming's Vermont 
officers, and the Eev. Mrs. Olmstead of Bridport, we 
areindebted for the material, considerable of which is 
rendered verbatim, from which this chapter is col- 



a window, with their liats on them. While the 
lady was bu y about house, and the company 
engaged in conversation, Allen stepped out with- 
out hat or gun, and in a short lime Warner 
followed, without attracting attention. When 
missed, the Yorkers remarked, " Tlicy havii't 
their hats, they havn't their guns," and f.U lo 
talking again ; but as they did not rctu;n, they 
examined into the matter, and found both hats 
and guns were gone. This is the version of tlie 
story given by Moore's flimiiy, in Sliorehani, to 
whose house they immediately fled. 

This year, 1772, was born Rob. Hamilton, Jr., 
the first born in town. 

1773. Nov. 25, Samuel Smith, from New 
York, moved his family into town, the second 
permanent settler here. This same day was also 
noted for the first marriage in town, that of Philip 
Stone, the first settler, to a Miss AVard, of Adill- 
8on, whose family had recently moved into that 
town fiom Dover, N. Y., and the ensuing winter 
Mr. Victory came with his fimlly. There is a 
melancholy account of his death. Taking his 
son, a lad of fourteen years, with him, he had 
gone up Lake George in a skilF, wliere, seized 
with au inflammatory fever, too sick to lift and 
ply a homeward oar, he landed on a solitaiy 
island, and, alone with this young son, who could 
only bathe his fever-parched lips with cool water 
from the lake and sorrowfully hold his dying 
head, he fainted by the way, was stricken in the 
wilderness, and died on the lonely isle of the lake. 
The affectionate son could not leave his dead 
father, perchance to some beast of prey, but stayed 
by the lifeless form till providentially a boat came 
so near he hailed it. The men landed, drew near, 
and, touched by the sight they saw, buried the 
body tenderly and decently as they couM, without 
coflSn or shroud, and took the fatherless boy off 
from the island. 

The families of the settlers were liable, at any 
time, to be subjected to the most dreaded of all 
visitors, Indian parties of plunder. At one time 
the house of Mr. Stone was thus visited, Mr. 
Stone having just time to escape to the woods. 
These savage plunderers first stripped the house 
of everything of value, then their leader, San- 
hoop, put on as a frock, the best shirt he could 
find, and led his party out to the sty, where he 
selected the best, and officiated as chief butcher ; 
and while his followers, whooping and dancing, 
carried off the butchered pig to their canoe, *hc 
stood flourishing his bloody sleeves. At anotlier 
time, a party creeping stealthily up the bmk 
toward the house, were discovered by Mis. Stone 
in season to throw some things which she knew 
they would be sure to cany off, if found, out of a 
back window into the weeds, and, concealing some 
valuables in her bosom, sat down to carding be- 
fore they came prowKng in. The Indians, not 
satisfied with what they found on the premises, 
drew near Mrs. Stone, who had beeu sitting, { 
during this fearful visitation, with her children 

around her, carding all the wiiile, apparently as 
unconcerned as though surrounded liy friends, in- 
stead of Indians and thieves. Oiie young savage, 
su pecting she had some tilings concealed about 
her person, attempted to run his hand into her 
1)0 ;om, whereupon she so dexterously cuffed him 
in the facewiih the teeth-side of her card, that he 
quickly recoiled from the invasion. Another 
young Indian flourislied his tomahawk over her 
head ; but an old Indian, struck with admiration 
at the coolness and bravery of the woman, laugh- 
ing in derision .at the defeat of his companion, 
ejaculated heartily, " Good squaw ! good squaw ! " 
when he interfered and led off the predatoiy 
party, and Mrs. Stone kc^pt quietly carding on, 
till quiic sure they had made good their de- 

1775. The war of the Revolution commenced. 
A Tory, who was a tenant in the house of a Mr. 
P. ind;e, set fire to the house and left, implicating 
Mr. Stone in the robbery and burning. IMr. 
Sione, anticipating mischi f, scented himself 
atnoug the bushes on the bank near his house, 
where he was discovered by the British, who fired 
upon him ; but the volley of grape-shot struck 
among the trees above him. They also fired upon 
his house, and some of the balls entered the room 
where his family wei-e. They then sent a boat 
on shore, captured Mr. Stone, and took him 
to Tieonderoga, where he remained three weeks. 
Mrs. Stone, expecting he would be sent to Que- 
bec, that she might again see her husband before 
his departure, shut up her two little children alone 
in their cabin, bidding the elder, which was but 
four years of age, to take good care of tlie baby till 
mohcr came back, who was going to take 
poor papa his clothes, went in a canoe to cany 
them, a distance of 12 miles, accompanied only 
by her brother, a lad of ten years. After she 
arrived, in order to gain admittance to her husband, 
she must remain over night. The mother thought 
of her babes alone in the cottage in the woods 
through all the long night ; but could she turn 
from the door of her husband's prison, and per- 
haps see him no more ? No, her babes the tender 
mother committed, in her heart, to the Good 
Father, and tarried till the morning ; and upon 
her return found her little children safe, the elder 
having understood enough of her directions to 
feed and take care of the younger. 

1784. Bndport was organized March 29th of 
this year. John N. Bennct, first Town Clerk ; 
Constable, M. Smith ; Selectmen, John Barber, 
Moses Johnson, Daniel Hoskins, Isaac Barrows, 
and Marshall Smith. 

1786. The town was first represented by Na- 
than Manly. 

1790. June 30, the Congregational church, of 
12 members, was organized by Rev. Lemuel 
Haynes, from W. Rutland; and Feb. 26, 1794, 
Rev. Increase Graves was installed, who ofiicia- 
ted as pastor 25 years, and died strong in the faith 
in which he had lived and preached, at his own 



home in Bridport, Dec. 24, 1827, aged 79. The 
last three years his colleague, Rev. Mr. McEwen, 
bore the burden of the whole charge. Rev . Dana 
Lamb was pastor from 1831 to 1S47. Rev. F. 
W. Ohnstead, present pastor, was installed Juiy 
11,1343. In 1842, the church numbered 200; 
present number, 104. Their meeting-house stands 
in the village, and was erected in 1S13. The 
Methodist church was organized in 1800, in 1853 
consisted of 60 members ; their liouse of worship, 
in the village, was built in 1S31 ; and there has 
also been a small society of Protestant Methodists 
here. The Baptist chm-cli organized in 1804; 
numbered 80 in 1 853. Their meeting-house stands 
about a mile from the lake. 

1813. This was the most mortal year ; 50 died 
of the prevailing epidemic. The next most fotal 
year was 1822, in whicli 25 died of dysentery. 

There arc 12 seliool districts. Justice Miner 
is recorded as holding the office of justice 39 
years. Hon. Calvin Solace (father-in-law of John 
G. S.axe) has been Justice 32 years. The oldest 
person deceased in town. General Wliitney, aged 
98. The oldest persons now living in town arc 
Wm. Baldwin, 90 ; Mrs. Cure, a sister, 87 1-2 ; 
and Mr. and Mi-s. Walker, 90 and 92. There is 
also a celibate family, which consists of an aunt, 
two nieces, and a nephew, their respective ages 
91, 63, 60, and 61. 

The surface of the town is very level ; the soil 
generally brittle marl or clay ; the liills a loam 
and red slaty sandstone, a range of shelly blue 
slate extending through the town for the most 
part a little below the surface. The timber is in 
the east part, mostly maple and beach, and in the 
west, oak, with white and some Norway pine 
along the lake border. Many of the springs are 
impregnated with Epsom salts, and water for fam- 
ily use is obtained by large cisterns set in the 
ground to preserve the rainwater. Of the water 
from these brackish springs, some of which at low 
water will yield a pound of salt to a pailful of 
water, cattle arc extremely fond ; and salt has 
been formerly, considerably raanufiictured here. 
The town has also its medicinal spring, impreg- 
nated with sulphuretted hydrogen. There are 
several landing-places for boats on the shore. 
The population, in 1850, was by census 1393. 
The people may be styled shepherd farmers, as 
the raising of sheep is the chief occupation of 
the people. And here, too, is the home of David 
Hill, the owner of the famous Black Hawk, which 
some 12 or 15 years since began to attract so 
much notice through the country for his superior 
fleetness and beauty, and whose bones, we are 
told, are now preserved in tlie Boston Museum, 
and whose liistory is, or ought to be, written 
among the annals of the noblest of American 

The village is small, but pleasantly located, 
and has a neat, trim look. The view from the 
common, of the mountains and lake scenery, 

is truly fine. And there are several handsome 
views on the stage-road between Middlebuiy and 
Bridport. The first and only time we ever visited 
this town, we took the stage in the edge of the 
evening at Middlcbury. It so happened, our only 
lady-travelling companion was a sensible, thought- 
ful woman, of middle age, witli whom we gradu- 
ally fell into conversation, and found one who 
loved the night with its silent worship, its altars 
of stars and shadows, with the same grand prefer- 
ence we liad ever given the darker part of day. 
The calm, earnest v<ray in which she xmveiled this 
sentiment, attracted us instinctively toward her ; 
we recognized each other, and without formal in- 
troduction were acquainted. With the familiarity 
of one who knew, like a well-read book, the local- 
ities around, she pointed out tlie wayside pictures, 
talking quietly, slowly on in that delicious under- 
tone, where the lips unconsciously measm'c the 
heart-beats below. " I love to journey veiy much, 
and gather up, as I pass by, little landscape pic- 
tures. There is notliing in the world so bcautifiil 
to me as these inimitable pictures." Slowly the 
stage crept through a wooded defile, where jutting 
hills on either side, with rock and tree, shaded 
the naiTOW road-way. " See," said our friend, 
"the most beautiful picture we shall see to-night; 
the most picturesque view between Middlcbufy 
and Bridport. I never pass thi-ough without 
admiring." God's pictures are beautiful, and 
that was one. The shadows of nature's walls 
deepened to the carriage-side, but there was a 
bright curtain of stars straight up, and the soft 
moonlight touched the tree-tops fiir above, and 
silvered the vista that opened and widened in 
front as the stage rumbled on, and left only its 
daguerreotype to memoiy and us. 


The Spring already has appeared, in robes of richest 
green ; 

In every leaf and blade of grass is heavenly wisdom 

The growth of plants, the springing grain, and open- 
ing beauties rife, 

Show vegetation's mighty heart beat with renewed 

The light and heat of nature unfolds the budding 

And vital life appears renewed by every gentle 

And, had man remained immortal, and never known 

of sin. 
This world so very beautiful, had still an Eden been! 

Such scenes of wonarous beauty here, forever meet 

our view, 
And day by day doth knowledge add, in varied forms 

and new; 
Yet all that is most beautiful, we daily see in this, 
Are but the faint foreshadowings of that purerworld 

of bliss. Charlotte K. Cook. 





This town, by name of Pocock, was chartered 
by Benning Wcntworth, of New Hampshire, 
June 26, 1762, (26,000 acres,) to Samuel Averill 
and 62 others. Its name was changed to 
Bristol, Oct. 21, 1789 ; and 4,400 acres were set 
off to Lincoln, Nov. 18, 1824. It hes S. W. from 
Montpelier, and S. E. from Burlington, about 25 
miles. Bristol Flats, and land boi-dcring on the 
river, is composed of a fine, deep, fertile, alluvial 
deposit ; on the elevated plains a more gravelly 
and compact soil, not much diminished, prevails. 
Through the town, one part is rich loam ; 
another, a clay soil ; and yet another filled in 
with small smooth stone, having the appearance 
of once having been in the bed of a river. A 
broken range of mountains divides the town, so 
that two thirds of the table land lies on the west ; 
one of which, from its shape, received the name 
of Hog's Back. These mountains, except in 
a few places where naked rocks appear, were 
formerly timbered near to their summits. Rattle- 
snake Den, a mass of broken stone, piled pro- 
miscuously, was at an early day infested by 
these snakes ; but when they came out in the 
Spring, and curled upon the rocks, the settlers 
took advantage of their docility, and killed them 
in great numbers. None have been seen for many 
years. New Haven River enters through a moun- 
tain ravine, on the west, over so rough and rocky 
a bottom for some two miles, that, in time of higli 
water, it appears in a perfect rage, and wdnds its 
way by a circuitous route to New Haven. Upon 
this stream and Bal win's Creek, a tributary, there 
are many good mill privileges improved. Bris- 
tol Pond, about 1 i miles in length, and | wide, in 
the widest part, lies on the west side of Hog's 
Back. It has a muddy bottom, and extensive 
marshes covered with white cedar, black and 
white oak, tamarisk, and a few scattering pines ; 
and it is well stored with pickerel. There is 
another pond, covering 10 or 12 acres, on South 
Mountain, well stored with trout. There are 
several springs in this town impregnated with 
mineral or gaseous substances, at one time fre- 
quently visited for their curative properties. 
These waters, clear and cold, are in constant 
motion, like a boiling pot, and resemble " Claren- 
don." A bed of iron ore, of the brown hema- 
tite variety, fibrous and commonly radiated, has 
been worked in years past and made excellent 
iron ; found in connection with this bed is the 
black oxide of manganese and an ocheiy variety 
of uon ore. 

It is said, and generally believed, that John 
Brodt, a German, and fugitive from justice, made 
Bristol his residence for about twelve years be- 
fore any settlement was commenced. The ac- 
count given by himself, as the writer is informed 
by one who had seen and conversed with him, 
ia substantially as follows : He came from, or i 

near, Unadilla, N. Y. He and one of his neigh- 
bors were owners of adjoining lands, and there 
was a misunderstanding between them about the 
line between their lots ; this was the cause of 
bitter controversy between them. One day, 
Brodt, on his return from a hunting excursion, 
found his neighbor cutting timber, which he 
claimed to be on his land, arid shot him dead on 
the spot. He immediately tied, and escaped 
punishment. On his flight, he called at Schcens- 
boro', now White Hall, and procured ammuni- 
tion, an axe, fishing tackle, and other necessary 
articles, and finally located in Bristol, then an un- 
broken wilderness. Here he built a small hut, 
where he was found by the committee, when they 
were surveying the first division of lots in the 
township. Capt. Bradley had then commenced 
a settlement some five miles down the river. He 
had built a log-house, and was expecting the 
arrival of his family. He pitied the solitary man, 
and invited him to make them a visit. 

Soon after the aiTival of the Captain's family, 
a very strangely dressed person made his appear- 
ance. As John Brodt stalked in, with moose- 
skin coat, with the hair on ; breeches of undressed 
deer-skin, and a cap of fox-skin with the tail on ; 
his short gun over his shoulders, followed by his 
aged and gray dog, the frightened children crept 
under the bed. 

Brodt remained with them during the winter. 
His distant friends, on learning the place of his 
residence, petitioned in his behalf to the execu- 
tive of New York for a pardon, which was grant- 
ed ; and soon after the receipt, he left for liis for- 
mer residence. We have no further knowledge of 
his history. It is said that he had a good educa- 
tion, and some respectable friends and connec- 
tions. About fifty rods in a S. E. direction from 
Munson & Dean's Forge, a large chestnut-tree 
and a few stones of a fireplace mark the spot 
on which the guilty and unhappy fugitive long 
resided in solitude. 

The first permanent settlement was com- 
menced by Samuel Stewart and Eden Johnson, 
in the spring of 1786. Benjamin Griswold, 
Hen. McLaughton, Cyprian Eastman, Justus 
Allen, Robt. Dunshee, and John Arnold soon 
joined them ; Gurdan Munsill, Amos Scott, 
Sam'l Brooks, Elij. Thomas, and Calvin and 
Jonathan Eastman were soon added, and their 
numbers continued to increase until 1810 ; from 
which time, until 1820, there was a decrease of 
128. The population in 1850 was, by census, 
1,312. Since 1850, it is thought there is con- 
siderable increase. The first person born in town 
was Mary Stewart, daughter of Sam'l Stewart, 
the first settler, who married Capt. JeRial Sax- 
ton, and now lives in New Burgh, 0., a widow. 
The first male born in Bristol was Horace Gris- 
wold. The first maiTiage that appears upon 
record is that of Samuel Brooks and Betsey Eora- 
raugh. Mar. 16, 1791. The first death was that 
of a child of Amzi Higby, about 6 years old. The 



boy had been sent by its mother to call lii;^ 
father to dinner. The ftither was chopping- down 
a tree. The boy, with all the animation of 
childhood, ran near to him, calling out, "Pa! 
pa ! dinner is on the table ! " But when the 
father first heard the voice of his child, he also 
discovered the tree had commenced falling in the 
same direction ; and, honor stricken, beheld his 
beloved son instantly killed by the falling tree. 

Tlio first physician was Dr. Joseph Cable ; 
the first practising attorney, the Hon. Sara'l Hal- 
ley. The first settlers were generally persons of 
very limited means, compelled from necessity 
to labor v/ith their own hands to subdue the 
forest and cultivate the fields as the only means 
of support for themselves and families. The 
females acted well their part ; in addition to the 
ordinary cai-es of their families, they were often 
found in the field assisting to secure the crops 
of hay and grain ; and not unfrequently were em- 
ployed in piling logs and brush when their hus- 
bands were clearing their land. They were ac- 
customed to spinning, weaving, and manufac- 
turing their own and their husbands' and chil- 
dren's clothing. Tiic wheel was the instrument 
of music on which they played, and it was 
seldom found out of tune. None of the first set- 
tlers were men of liberal education, nor were any 
of them very illiterate. 

The town was organized Mar. 2, 1789. At the 
first freeman's meeting, hold the first Tuesday of 
Sept. 1792, and from that time until the present, 
the town has been represented in the General 
Assembly, and the annual town meeting orderly 
held in March. The town pays heavy taxes, yet 
has always met its liabilities, and is as free from 
indebtedness as any town in the county. 

Located in the centre of the town, on a plain 
100 feet above the bed of the river, is one of the 
most delightful villages in the State. On the east 
towers a mountain, presenting a sublime and 
picturesque appearance. On the north and south 
is an open country. Casting your eyes to the 
west, in a clear day, the first object pi-esented to 
view is the lofty Adirondack mountain chain ; 
their scores of heads, in sportive mockery, seem- 
ing to vie with our own Green Mountains in 
Vermont. There is also within the village a 
beautiful enclosed park, (over an acre,) with an 
open space of near 6 rods on all sides. Taking 
into consideration the water power, its soil, al- 
ways dry in the streets, and not dusty in a dry 
time, and its romantic scenery, it can hardly be 
surpassed in Vermont for beauty and conven- 
ience. Yet this handsome village, in 1800, was 
almost an unbroken forest, with not a single 
framed building, and but few small log-houses. 
This village now contains 3 good meeting-houses, 
(the Baptist, built in 1819 ; the Episcopal Metho- 
dist, in 1840 ; and the Congregational, in 1841, 
— the two first having each a good bell ; ) and a 
good academy building, with a good bell ; a two- 

story district schoolhouse ; 2 grist mills ; 2 saw- 
mills ; 1 chair factory ; 1 window blind, sash and 
door factoiy ; 1 carding machine and clothier's 
works ; 1 tannery ; 4 blacksmith shops ; 3 shoe 
shops ; 2 paint shops ; 2 harness maker's shops ; 
1 tavern ; 4 diy goods stores ; 1 hardware store 
and tin shop ; 1 drugstore ; 1 bookstore ; 2 eat- 
ing saloons ; 2 milliner's shops ; several mechan- 
ics' shops; and 94 dwelling-houses, mostly 
painted white ; and is supplied with water by 4 
aqueducts, fed from nevcr-faiUng springs; — the 
principal one brought about 300 rods in water- 
cement pipes. There are now in the village, 2 
practising physicians, Dr. F. P. Wheeler and 
Dr. L. Hasseltine, Jr. ; 2 attorneys, Hon. Hora- 
tia Needham and Martin Copland. There are 
8 districts in which a summer and winter school 
are regularly taught ; though not what they 
should be, yet good as generally sustained in the 

Charles Smith, Royal W. Peak, Anson H. 
Parmelee, Jeremiah Hatch, Jr., Adam K. Miller, 
George Eastman, Martin Lowell, Edwin John- 
son, and Walter C. Dunton, are our college grad- 

The Baptist church, organized Aug. 7, 1794, 
Timotliy Allen, first deacon, held their meetings 
at different places to accommodate the people, 
and had no ordained minister or steady preaching 
until Eld. Amos Stearns was ordained, Sept. 3, 
1818, — thochurch numbering 44 members. The 
whole number during the 24 years since its or- 
ganization is 108. In 1820, Eld. Stearns was 
dismissed for want of support. Elders John Dodge 
and David Hardy supplied them most of the 
time until Eld. Wm. W. Moore was ordained, 
June 16, 1836. The two first years of Eld. 
Moore's labor were successful, but during the last, 
various influences worked an alienation of pastor 
and people, and a separation ensued. Since Eld. 
Moore was dismissed, the church has employed 
for different periods. Elders Ai-nold Kingsbuiy, 
Solomon Gale, Elias Hurlbut, Richard Amsdcn, 
Cyrus W. Hodges, A. A. Sawin, P. C. Himes, 
and the present supply, Eld. Pinkam. 

The Congregational church was organized 
July 8, 1805, by Rev. J. Bushnell, of Corn- 
wall, who in an early day occasionally preached 
here. David Ingraham, first deacon, continued 
to officiate until he removed from town, 1815. 
They had no stated preaching for several years, 
nor house of worship, till 1819, when they built 
a house in connection with the Baptists and Uni- 
versalists, each denomination to occupy in pro- 
portion to the amount paid for its erection ; 
they occupied their share, until 1837, when they 
sold out to the Baptists, and, in 1841, erected 
themselves a respectable house. They had no 
settled minister until Calvin Butler was ordained, 
Feb. 10, 1842, at which time the church num- 
bered 67. lie continued to labor tluree years, and 
was dismissed for want of support. The church 


. 21 

has been temporarily supplied since, by the Revs. 
Beckwith, Frazure, Reggs, Morgan, Hoyt, Good- 
ale, Hazen, and Kimble. At present they have 
no stated preaching. 

There were a few Methodists who occasionally 
held meetings, as early as 1810, if not before. 
There was a class that united with a class in 
Monkton, whose leader was John Creed, who 
held meetings in a schoolhouse at tlie north part 
of the town. In 1813 a class was formed at the 
village, and meetings held at the house of Ebcn'r 
Saxton, an early and worthy member. Rev. 
Stephen Sovenbcrgcr preached the first Metho- 
dist sermon in Bristol. Rev. C. H. Gridley was 
the first cu'cuit preacher ; during his preaching, 
several united with the church. The first quar- 
terly meeting was held by Rev. Jacob Bceman, 
when in charge of the Charlotte circuit, in Capt. 
Noble Munson's barn, in 1816, and since then 
there has been regular preaching most of the 
time, and quarterly meetings regularly. At that 
period Bristol belonged to thtf Charlotte circuit, 
but is now under the Troy Annual Conference, 
organized in 1 832. The church is now supplied 
by Rev. Thomas Dodgson, and among its mem- 
bers are some of our best citizens, and its Sab- 
bath school is in a prosperous condition. In 
1819, by great exertion, they built a chapel, which 
answered their purpose until 1840, when they 
had become able to erect one after the modern 


the first permanent settler of Pocock, (now 
Bristol,) was a soldier of the Revolution, in the 
battle of Bunker Hill ; went to Quebec with Ar- 
nold in his detachment, that penetrated the wil- 
derness by the way of the Kennebec River ; was 
at the assault on Quebec, and after the fall of 
Montgomery, his term of service having expired, 
ho returned home. He was soon after married 
to Miss Elizabeth Abbot, of Pawlet, and removed 
to Salem, N. Y. ; from thence to Scheensboro' ; 
and from thence to Bristol, in June, 178G, where 
he continued to reside until the fall of 1817, when 
he removed to Royalton with an ox team, being 
51 days on his journey. He was one of the first 
Board of Selectmen in Bristol, — had twelve 
children, — was a bold and resolute man, and died 
at Royalton, Aug. 27, 1827, aged 78. 


came from Westficld, N. Y. and was the third 
person with a family who settled in town. He 
located on what is called Bristol Flats, built a log- 
house and occupied the same a few years, when 
he removed to Cambridge, Lamoil county. 


was bom in Norwich, Conn, in 1 749. He was 
the second son of Jonathan Eastman, of Rupert, 
deceased. He married Rosannah Nelson, of 

Rupert, by whom he had ten children. In 1787 
he settled on Bristol Flats, and was one of the 
first selectmen. In June, 1791, a militia com- 
pany being organized, he was chosen captain, and 
was also appointed one of the committee to lay 
out the first division lots of land and roads in 
said town. The Captain was a good citizen, and 
well esteemed. In the spring of 1798 he went to 
Montreal, where he took the smallpox, of which 
he died on the 23d of May, aged 49 years. 


was bom in New Hampshire, and emigrated to 
Bristol in 1787. He commenced a settlement at 
the extreme south part of the town, and after- 
wards sold and removed to Bristol Flats, where he 
built a two-story liouse, aftei-wards used as a tav- 
ern. He followed the business of a saddle and 
harness maker many years. Again he sold out 
and removed on to the mountain road to the 
Little Notch. He, too, was one of the first se- 
lectmen. He was twice married. After the 
death of his first wife, by whom he had one child, 
he manicd Bcrshabe Eastman, a daughter of 
Capt. Cyprian Eastman, by whom he had sev- 
eral children. He was an industrious man, and 
a good citizen. He died from the eflfects of a 

HENRY Mclaughlin, esq. 

was born in Ireland, and served as a drummer 
in the army of Burgojme, till he (Burgoyne) left 
Ticonderoga for Scheensboro', when he left his 
army and went to Williamstown, Mass., where 
he employed his time in teaching school a few 
years. He married Miss Mary Dunton, of Dor- 
set, a sister of Gen. Dunton, of Bristol, and soon 
after, in March, 1787, removed to the latter place. 
The snow being very deep, he removed his goods 
from Middlcbuiy on a hand-sled. He was our 
first town clerk, and afterwards constable ; and 
five times one of the selectmen. He surveyed 
many of om- roads, and was the proprietors' 
clerk. He thrice represented the town, and was 
ten j^ears an acting justice of the peace. He 
commenced a settlement at the four corners, west 
of the village, where he built a brick house and 
kept a tavern many years. In 1805 he removed 
to Ilopkinton, N. Y., where he kept a public 
house until February, 1812, when he and hia 
wife for the first time returned to Bji.-tol for 
a visit, and were taken sick and died within 
one week of each other. Their death was much 


a soldier of the Revolutionary war, was born in 
Windsor, Conn., Oct. 28, 1760. He mamed 
Miss Olive Carver, of Bolton, Conn., by whom 
he had eight children. He emigrated to Bristol, 
where he arrived March 21, 1789. He had been 
in town the previous year, and made some im- 
provements. He was appointed by the Legisla- 



turc, ia 1 788, collector of a land tax in Bristol ; 
represented the town in 1796; was two years 
justice of the peace ; and seven years one of the 
selectmen. He was appointed captain of a 
militia company in Bristol, in 1795, which office 
he held several years, and died Nov. 15, 1807, 
aged 47. 


was bom in Dorset. He married Miss Comfort 
Kellogg, and removed to Bristol at an early day, 
where he continued to reside until his death, Feb. 
13, 1824, aged 56. He was a good former and 
a much respected citizen. In 1 794 he was chosen 
one of the selectmen, and was ten times re-elected. 
He was twice chosen constable and collector; 
represented the town in 1806, '08, and '13; was 
fifteen years a justice of tlie peace ; and was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of the 2d Regiment, 
1st Brigade, and 3d Division of the militia of 
Vermont. Holding that office at the invasion 
of Plattsburgh by the British, he took the com- 
mand of a volimteer company as their captain, 
and was in the battle of Plattsburgh. He left 
four childi-en, two sons and two daughters. 


was born at Norwich, Conn., in 1753, and was 
third son of Jonathan Eastman, late of Rupert, 
deceased. He married a Miss Hayncs for his 
first wife, by whom ho had one daughter ; and a 
Miss Ruth Dean for his second, by whom he had 
five children. He removed from Rupert to Bris- 
tol in 1791. He was a worthy citizen, and our 
first representative in 1792, and again in 1795; 
four years one of the selectmen; eleven years 
town clerk ; and seventeen years a justice of the 
peace. He died Dec. 16, 1816, aged 63. 


[Amos Eastman, Esq., at the advanced age of 
92 years, is still living at Bristol.} 

This day my age is eiguty-eight, — 
How like a dream! how short the date! 
The scenes and trials I've passed through 
All lie before me to review. 
The adage, true in every land, 
We're twice a child and once a man; 
May childhood innocence bo mine. 
With age, experience, all combine. 
Time swiftly pasfcs on, wo see, 
Waits not for you, waits not for me; 
Then seek a City out of sight, 
Where all is found that can delight. 

Feb. 8, 1858. 


Beautiful may be the towns that lie beside 
the placid waters of Lake Champlain, but they 
cannot compare with the picturesque scenery of 
my owu native town, — its grand mountains, 
with towering rocks, and lofty oaks and pines ; 
its verdant hills, with gushing springs and rivu- 
lets. Earth's scenes are changing, but mountains 
and hills remain, remnants of primeval beauty. 

The hand of man may change the wilderness to 
a fruitful field, — Omnipotence alone makcth the 
mountain to nod, and dricth up the source of 
watei's. As the mountains are round about Je- 
rusalem, so, indeed, in some measure, are they 
round about us. We cannot boast of mighty 
rolling waters, but there is magnificence in tlio 
ragged, rock-bound shores of our rivers. Wlien 
the forests assume the October tints, we enjoy a 
sunrise over these mountains, beautiful beyond 
description, as hill and dale are lighted by the 
ascending lung of Day. If there is any devo- 
tion in the heart, it must ascend in jiraise to Him 
who hath said, "Heaven is my throne, and 
earth is my footstool." 

Mrs. James Tuckee. 


There are memories that linger forever, '■ 

And yearnings deep hid in tl;e breast; 
There are feelings unspoken, that never 

Shall change till the heart is at rest. -~^ 

There are hours when the Foul is all sadness, 

And darkness' rests down like a pall, 
Pierced by no ray of sunshine or gladness, 

And life seems a weariness all. 

There are friends whose sweet sympathies cheer ns. 

The loving, the true, and the kind ; 
Oh, would they might ever be near us 

To chase the .sad gloom from the mind! 
There's a pathway our feet may leave nerer, 

Marked out by the finger of God, 
Stern Duty is beckoning us ever 

Where the footsteps of martyrs have trod. 

There are hopes that grow brighter in sorrow. 

And Faith sheds her heavenly light, 
While she points to a fairer to-morrow, 

A day not succeeded by night. 
Where the faithful ones, wayworn and weary, 

Are gathered to mansions of rest, 
Exchanging these earth-scenes so dreary, 

For joys in the home of the blest. 

Mrs. M. H. Cass. 


PoETRT is the harmonious and picturesque 
development of the truths of nature and of God. 
In its expression, it rises from the simplest lid- 
laby song of the mother to the cradled nursling, 
to the lofdest anthems that swell the praises of 
God, and fill the immensity of his universe. In 
its range, it extends from the simplest truths of 
nature, on and on, to the sublimcst utterances of 
God in all time and eternity. Ia its. scenery, it 
embraces every cxliibitioa of God's works; in 
earth, from the lowest existences to the highest ; 
in air, the sublime and interminable range of all 
worlds, with all their mullifarious existences; in 
lieaven, all the revealed and conceivable perfec- 
tions and glories of its high, holy, and eternal 
abode ; in the immensity of the world beyond, 
the eternity of our being and God's, its forever 
developing and still forever undeveloped wonders 
and glories. Rev. C. W. "Walker, 

Principal of Bristol Academy. 




Eest for the weary hands, 

When the work of life is done ; 
Eest for the weary feet, 

When the race of life is run. 
Rest for the aching head, 

When the care of life is o'er; 
Rest for the breaking heart, 

When sin shall vex no more. 
This is the rest we wish, we ne*d, 

Oh, such repose is rest indeed ! 

Mes. D. M. F. Walkee. 


To be! At, 'tis a grand and fearful thing ' 
To feel the dread responsibilities 
That crowd around the soul, e'en in this life; 
To know, each morn, that in the coming day 
A future lies that may destroy bright hopes, — 
Perhaps the dearest of the quivering heart, — 
Throw shadows o''er the soul, whose length'ning 
Shades may dim its lustre through all time; 
Or else stir thrills of joy within the breast. 
To swell and vibrate through eternity. 

Through pleasure's eddies, and the passion's whirl, 
The storm's rude wrath, the lightning's vivid curl, 
The low'riug cloud of dark and fell despair. 
The tempest-tost and trembling soul rides on, 
Lives, ever lives, expands, and grows more strong; 
Till, fretted by its limitations scant, 
£t launches forth upon that unknown sea. 
Toward which time ever rolls its ceaseless tide, 
There through unending ages to exist. 
And quaff deep, satisfying draughts, for which 
The soul in time oft longs, and thirsts, and gasps, 
And stretches forth its hands, but cannot grasp. 

L. H. Thomas, M. D. 


A YOUTH walked Life's garden to cull the fairflowers. 
Where a garland he wove his brow to adorn. 

When sweet cries of rapture were heard in Hope's 
bowers, — 
Eureka! Eureka! a rose without thorns! 

His heart by loud beating re-echoed the sound. 
And mocked at the sages who often have said, 

A rose that is thornless no mortal hath found 
In the way-path of life man ever must tread. 

He gazed on its petals, his soul filled with fire. 
Emotions welled up and burst from his lips; 

I've found the rich treasure for which I aspire. 
More fragrant than nectar that Jupiter sips. 

He pressed to his bosom this blossom so fair, 
He sought it at evening and gay smiling morn. 

Nor dreamed he of sorrow, nor suffering, nor care; 
He fancied the rose quite devoid of a thorn. 

But as he caressed it he felt a sharp pang ; 

Like an arrow it sped, while bleeding and torn 
His heart lay in sorrow; and upward he sprang , 

With wail of sore anguish, — "Alas! here's a thorn." 

Oh, ever 'tis thus in our longings for fame. 
Or what is called glory and dazzling renown! 

Hope ever allures by fanning the flame. 
And then turns away with a wound or a frown. 

Or Love gives a banquet, and we are his guest. 
And earth scemeth joyous, and beauty adorns; 

We think ne'er was mortal so favored and blest. 
When lo! mid the whole lie numberless thorns. 
Jennie B. Lowell.* 
♦ Now 3Ira J. B. Cook, of Monkton, 



" They braved the savage in his native wilds; 
They bade deliance to tlie wintry blast. 
Smiled at the toils and perils of their way, 
And onward came." 

In the contest between New York and New 
Hampshire, respecting jurisdiction in Vermont, 
the "proprietors" of Cornwall acknowledged the 
authoiitj of tlie latter province. This is evident 
from tlie Charter under which they derived a title 
to their lands, preserved among the proprietors' 
records, bearing date Nov. 3, 1701. The claims 
of New York appear not to have been urged with 
much earnestness, for several years, as previous 
to 1764, no less than one hundred and thirty-eight 
townsliips received charters from Gov. Went- 
worl>h. The occupancy and improvement of 
these townships seem to have awakened within 
the New York claimants a new estimate of the 
value of the lands, and to have so far stimulated 
their cupidity as to call forth earnest and perse- 
vering efforts to establish and maintain their ju- 
risdiction. To which of the governments they 
should render allegiance, would have been com- 
paratively a matter of indifference, if the titles to 
their lands had remained unquestioned. But the 
declaration of New York, that the New Hamp- 
shire charters were void, and the settlers should 
either quit their possessions or repurchase from 
New York claimants, was met with determined 
resistance, as unjust. And the settlers, believing 
neither of the contending governments had the 
ability, even if disposed, to protect them in the 
enjoyment of their rights, declai-cd themselves 
independent of both, and resolved to manage 
their own affairs in theu* own way. 

The grantees of the charter of Cornwall are 
sixty-five, including several females, and they 
were mostly, perhaps wholly, residents of Litch- 
field Co., Conn. Owing to the destruction of 
their records previous to 1778, the original as- 
signment of rights cannot be determined with 

The charter "is to contain, by admeasure- 
ment, above 25,000 A., which tract is to contain 
something more than 6 m. sq., and no more," 
and originally embraced all that pai-t of Middle- 
bury which lies west of Otter Creek, which tract 
was, with consent of the parties, annexed to Mid- 
dlebury by the Legislature, in 1796. 

The first settlements were made in 1774, in 
that part of the township annexed to Middle- 
buiy. The settlers were Asa Blodget, Jas. 
Bently, Jas. Bently, Jr., Thos. Bently, Jos. 
Throop, Theoph. Allen, Wm. Douglass, and 

* A curious error is observable in the boundaries 
as prescribed by the charter, which it will be impos- 
sible to notice in this brief sketch, but which will be 
brouglit to view in a more minute history of the 
town, which it is hoped may be ready for publication 
at a period not very remote. 



Sam'l Benton. About the same time, Eldad 
Andrus, Ethan Andrus, Aaron Scott, Nathan 
Foot, Sam'l Blodget, and Ebcn'r Stebbins made 
"pitches." None of these names are fomid 
among those indorsed upon the charter, from 
•which we infer they purchased the right of oc- 
cupying their lands from original proprietors. 
Indeed, their surveys specify certain "original 
rights," upon which the titles to their pitchers 
claim to be based. Several of these persons, 
among whom were Asa Blodget, Sam'l Blodget, 
his son, and Eldad Andrus were taken prisoners 
by the Indians, but after suffering much hard- 
ship, and many tlireats of violence and death, 
succeeded in reaching their fomilies. An inter- 
esting incident is related in connection with the 
Btory of Mr. Andrus's captivity, as follows : — 

After having cut down his young apple trees, 
and in other ways annoyed his family, the Indians 
took away a mare and colt, the only animals 
of the horse kind in his possession, and by the 
family they were regarded as lost. After tlie lapse 
of two or three years, however, the old mare re- 
turned with her colt, now well grown, with another 
in company which mated it well, and they made 
Mr. A. a team for years. 

After the surrender of Ticonderoga to the 
British, the settlers of Cornwall and the adjacent 
country became still more exposed to marauding 
parties of Indians and British soldiers ; and the 
inhabitants deemed it prudent to retire from their 
• farms to their former homes, in Connecticut, or 
Massachusetts, or to the southern portions of 
Vermont, where most of them remained until the 
relations between Britain and America assumed 
a more peaceful aspect. In 1783, as soon as the 
news of peace reached this country, several fam- 
ilies returned, and in 1784, a very large accession 
to the number of settlers amvcd, and made their 
selection of farms. This year the town was or- 
ganized, and from this period the emigration to 
Cornwall increased with so great rapidity, tliat 
in 1800, only sixteen years later, the dwellings 
had become as numerous, and the population as 
great as in 1840, when it was 1,1G3 ; greater tlian 
in 1850, and as great, probably, as it will appear 
in the census of 18G0. Of the early settlers, 
many lived to a very advanced age, — several be- 
yond 90 years ; and one, the mother of Eldad 
Andrus, to the extreme age of 106 years. 

Is it asked, why has the population of Corn- 
wall remained stationary as to numbers for more 
than half a century ? The pulpits of our land, 
the halls of legislation, the courts of justice, the 
chairs of editorial and literary labor, the semina- 
ries of instruction, the chambers of sickness, the 
marts of trade, the railroad and telegraph oflBces, 
the homes of agriculture dotting the broad prai- 
ries of the West, the agencies of benevolence, and 
the abodes of missionaiy toil in pagan lands, can 
answer the interrogatory. For in all these posi- 
tions the sons of Cornwall have been, and in 
most of them may now be found discharging 

their several responsibilities with a measufo 
of energy and fidelity, in most cases, credita- 
ble to tlicmsclves, and honorable to the town 
which gave them birth, and uurtui-ed their early 

Our history, in this respect, must resemble that 
of many other towns in this Commonwealth. 
But there is, perhaps, no arrogance in the as- 
sumption, that the character of the cai^ly settlers 
of the town contributed in a somewhat unusual 
degi-ee to this result. A large proportion of 
them possessed qualiiies which prepared them to 
be pioneers in a new settlement ; qualities which, 
transmitted to their children through parental ex- 
ami)le and instruction, led those children to aspne 
after usefulness, or honors, or pecuniary gains in 
new fields of labor. 

Like the Pilgrim Fathers, it was the first care 
of the early settlers of Cornwall to provide for 
the worship of God, and the education of their 
childi-en'. Before any roads were opened, they 
designated three dwellings in those parts of the 
town which would best accommodate then- reli- 
gious asseml)lies, and to these they resorted, 
on foot, from Sabbath to Sabbath, guided by 
"blazed " trees. In July, 1785, only one year 
after the organization of the town, the Congre- 
gational church was formed, and the year follow- 
ing. Rev. Thomas Tolman was ordained as its 
pastor. In consequence of a change in his re- 
ligious sentiments, he was dismissed in 1790. 
Several years following, the church, though des- 
titute of a pastor, sustained religious worship, 
maintained its discipline, and enjoyed a vigorous 
growth. In February, 1797, Rev. Benj. Woos- 
ter was settled as pastor, and sustained this rela- 
tion till January, 1802. 

In May, the following year, Rev. Jedediah 
Bushnell was installed. This year, also, the 
Congregational meeting-house was erected, the 
services of Mr. Bushnell's installation having 
been conducted, it is said, upon the unfinished 
timbers of the frame. Under the ministry of 
Mr. Bushnell, widely known as Father Bushnell, 
this church enjoyed its greatest prosperity, and 
was repeatedly favored with seasons of powerful 
religious revival. In the language of Father 
Bushnell, " The church was stable as the sur- 
rounding hills, each member being able to give a 
reason of the hope thaf was in him." Few min- 
isters have held a pastoral charge in Vermont, 
whose influence has been more marked, or whose 
memory is cherished with more reverence and 
aficction. His pre-eminent success as a pastor is 
attributable not more to his ardent piety and de- 
votion to his chosen work, than to his wisdom, his 
fearlessness, and his scrupulous honesty. Human 
character seemed open to his view, which fact 
enabled him to give to his counsels and reproofs 
the directness of Nathan's reproof to David. In 
respect to his ordinary dealings, his people some- 
times said, "Mr. Bushnell is very precise." But 
no man charged him with dishonesty In this 


particular he was above suspicion. The very 
narrow limits prescribed to this article, forbid us 
to dwell minutely upon a character which might 
well be pi-esented as a model to those in the sacred 
oflice. The language of Cowper has rarely been 
more appropriate. 

— " simple, grave, sincere, 
In doctrine uncorrupt; in language plain. 
And plain in manner; decent, solemn, chaste, 
And natural in gesture; much impressed 
Himself, as conscious of his awful chaige. 
And anxious mainly that the flock he feeds 
May feel it too; alTectiouate in look, 
And tender in address, as well becomes 
A messenger of grace to guilty men." 

After a ministry of 33 years, Mr. Bushiiell 
was dismissed, in 1836, but continued to supply 
the pulpit until the following year, when Rev. 
Lamson Miner was ordained, whose pastorate was 
of only two years' continuance, in consequence 
of the failure of his health. He was succeeded 
by Rev. Jacob Scales, who in 1843, also re- 
quested a dismission. The ministry of S. W. 
Magill, installed in 1844, was also very brief, 
owing to the failure of his health. Subsequently, 
the Rev. G. W. Noycs and Rev. J. A. Bent 
were pastors for a few years, the latter having 
been released from his charge on account of the 
state of his health. In August, IS.'iS, the present 
pastor. Rev. A. A. Baker, was installed. 

In 1807, another meeting-house was erected in 
"West Cornwall, and occupied by the Baptist 
Church, over vv^hich the Rev. Nathan Green was 
installed in 1809. He continued in office till 
1824. From that date till 1841, the pulpit was 
occupied by stated and occasional supplies, when 
a Free church was organized, composed chiefly 
of members of the Baptist and Congregational 
chm-ehes. Since its organization, this church 
has enjoyed, for more or less protracted periods, 
the labors of several different pastors. At about 
the same date as the organization of the Free 
church, a Methodist church was established, which 
also erected a house of worship. 

The number of school-districts is seven. All 
possess good schoolhouses ; those recently erect- 
ed are neat and commodious structures. The 
influence of these seats of primary instruction is 
obvious in the character of the professional men. 
To their influence may, perhaps, also be traced 
the origin of a Literary Society, established 
as early as 1804 or '5, denominated " The Young 
Gentlemen's Society," wliich numbered among 
Its founders and early friends, the late Gov. 
Slade, Frederic Ford, M. D., Hon. Ashley Sam- 
son, Hon. Dorastus Wooster, Rev. Reuben Post, 
D. D., Levi Tilden, Esq., and others who have 
gone to their reward, besides many others who 
are still spared to finish the work which is given 
them to do. The society was modelled after the 
Philomathesian Society, of Middlebury College, 
and was kindred in its character and aims. 

The active members, called ordinary members, 
were young men, while older men were elected 

honorary members, with the expectation that they 
woultl occasionally participate in the exercises 
of the Society, and otherwise give it their counte- 
nance and supi)ort. The meetings were held 
weekly, on Thursday evening, from September 
to March, and punctuality of attendance was se- 
cured Ijy a system of fines rigidly imposed, and 
as rigidly collected, unless there was rendered 
satisfactory reason for absence. The Society col- 
lected a library of several huncked volumes, ju- 
chciously selected. 

Another organization, called the "Lane Li- 
brary Association," has been formed in town 
during the last year, in consequence of a legacy 
left for this purpose by Gilbert C. Lane, of Corn- 
wall, a young man of much promise, who died 
near t!ie close of 1858. The condition of tliis 
legacy required that the people of the town 
should raise an additional sum specified, for the 
same object. This sum has been raised, and 
nearly 400 volumes have already been purchased, 
a portion of tlic funds having been reserved for 
future use. By agreement between the Lane 
Association and the Young Gentlemen's Society, 
both libraries come under the management of the 
new Association, and thus united, present to the 
town an invaluable source of improvement. 

With the advantage of wcU-conductcd schools, 
and the various incitements to intellectual cul- 
ture furnished by tlie society above described, it 
is not difficult to assign a reason for the fact, that 
nearly 50 young men from Cornv/all have passed 
through a collegiate course, while many others, 
by a more restricted course of study, have pre- 
pared themselves for the learned professions, and 
olher. vocations in which they are now success- 
fully employed. 

The pursuits of the people have been almost 
exclusively agricultural. The soil, easy of cul- 
tivation, possesses a degree of fertility which 
amply repays the toil of the husbandman. Of 
late years, however, sheep husbandry has been 
gaining a precedence. The raising of wool for 
tlie manufacturer, and of sheep for the butcher, 
has proved remunerative, while the rearing of 
the finest grades of sheep for the western and 
southern markets, in which many of our farmers 
have engaged, has been highly profitable. The 
constant influx of purchasers from every quarter 
of our country, even from Texas and Califomia, 
sufficiently indicates that amateurs in this branch 
of trade find Cornwall and the vicinity the best 
locality in which to make their selections. Thou- 
sands of valuable sheep have been scattered over 
the wide West by our citizens, and several are at 
present engaged in a direct trade in this species 
of property with the wool growers on the coast 
of the Pacific, — an enterprise which we hope 
may prove profitable to those who sell and those 
who buy. 

The surface of this township is pleasantly di- 
versified with bill and dale, having in the eastern 
part an extensive swamp, which abounds in ex- 



cellent timber, and wkich, when reclaimed, forms 
tlie most valuable meadow. In the west part of 
the town, bordering on Lemon Fair River, there 
is a broad expanse of alluvial land, extending 
several miles, and, like the valley of the Nile, 
possessing exhaustlcss fertility, in consequence 
of annual or more frequent inundations. Marble 
and slate exist, which probably might be quar- 
ried with profit, and in West Cornwall, there is 
an extensive quany of dark blue limestone, 
known in tliis region as the " Peck quany," from 
its owner's name. This stone comes from its 
native bed with a surface so perfect as to render 
needless the chisel of the mason. 

There are, also, several mineral springs in 
town," which possess considerable medicinal prop- 
erties. One is sufBcicntly impregnated with iron 
to prove useful as a tonic. Two others are pow- 
erfully cathartic, and one in the south part of the 
town is said to produce much the effect on salt 
rheum, and other cutaneous affections, as the 
waters of Clarendon. 


" With moistened eye, 
We read of faith and purest cliarity, 
In statesman, priest, aud humble citizen. 
Oil, could we copy their mild virtues, then 
What joy to live, what blessedness to die! " 

Several of the earliest emigrants to Corn- 
wall had, before their arrival, exhibited their 
patriotism by the endurance of toils and hard- 
ships in the service of their country during the 
Revolutionary war. Two, at least, of their 
number, had continued in that service until the 
exertions of themselves and their compatriots 
were crowned with victory, and independence, 
and peace. These results secured, they gladly 
laid aside the implements of strife, and assumed 
those of quiet and productive industry. They 
wielded the axe in subduing the forest, and in 
providing homes for those they loved, with no 
less energy and effectiveness than they had 
wielded the musket'in defence of invaded rights. 


was born in Washington, Mass. With the spirit 
which animated every patriotic bosom at that 
period, he joined the army when only 16 years 
of age, in response to the first call for volunteers, 
after the massacre at Lexington. The company 
to which he belonged was stationed on one of 
the eminences in the vicinity of Charlestown, 
during the battle of Bunker Hill. Though pant- 
ing, as he used to say, to take part with their 
comrades, they were not ordered into action. 

* The writer deems it proper to remark, that these 
sketches have been hastily prepared by his pen, be- 
cause the gentleman from whom they wore expected 
was unable to supply them. They present a few of 
many names, equally deserving of grateful remem- 
brance, all which the writer hopes may soon be pre- 
sented to the people of Cornwall, with more adequate 

His company remained in the vicinity of Boston 
until the evacuation of the city by the British, 
after which they were employed in difierent 
localities, as their services were needed. Mr. 
Ingraham was in the service during the war, and 
when, at last, he was honorably discharged. • 
received, as the writer has heard him remark. 
" the balance then due for his services, in conti- 
nental cun-ency, so nearly worthless that, at the 
first place on his way homeward, where he could 
procure any food to satisfy the cravings of hun- 
ger, he paid $16 of his hard earnings — two 
months' pay — for two pounds of green ciieese.""" 
Though Mr. Ingraham enjoyed but slight 
advantages for early education, his natui-al en- 
dowments were superior. Possessing quick 
disceniment, wonderful retentiveness of memory, 
and an insatiable thirst for knowledge, he ac- 
quired extensive general intelligence ; was often 
called to fill town offices ; was a safe adviser ; 
peculiarly social and amiable in aU his rela- 
tions ; and lived and died an honest man, and 
humble Christian. 


came to Cornwall from Waterto^vn, Conn., the 
year before the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary war, but having been driven off by the 
Indians, he enhsted in the army early in tlie con- 
test, and became connected with a company of 
mounted Rangers, which was often employed in 
extremely perilous service. He appears to have 
been a fearless man ; fond of advcntiu'e, and 
always ready to encoanter any danger to which 
his duty as a soldier exposed him. He used to 
relate that, on one occasion, after a severe skir- 
mish, in which his companions were killed, or 
captured, or dispersed, he was reduced to the 
necessity of cooking his moccasins for food, sup- 
plying their place with others made from a part 
of his blanket. Being in the vicinity of Ticon- 
deroga, when it was suixendered to Burgoyne, 
he and one of his comrades were despatched to 
warn the settlers of Cornwall of their danger, 
and aid them in escaping to a place of safety. 
After the war, Mr. Foot returned to his adopted 
home, and became a permanent resident, em- 
ployed during a life, protacted to extreme age, in 
the peaceful pursuits of husbandry. 


sometimes called Col. Slade, from having been a 
militia officer, came from Wasliington, Conn., in 
1786. He was a man of strong mental powers, 
and great energy and decision. From his first 
residence in Cornwall, he bore a very active part 
in town affairs, and was always regarded by liis 
fellow-citizens as qualified to fill any place in 
which his services might be required. The pre- 
cise length of time he was connected with the 
army cannot now be ascertained, but it is known 
Hhat he was one of the unfortunate prisoners on 
board the notorious Jersey Prison ship, and that 



by an iron constitution he was sustained through 
indescribable sufferings, which proved fatal to 
most of his companions. He was for several 
years sheriff of Addison county. He was an 
active politician, — was an especially stanch 
supporter of the opinions and measures of Madi- 
son, in respect to the war of 1812. He was 
known as a man of public spirit, and more capa- 
ble tlian most men of forming an impartial 
judgment, in cases where his own interests were 
involved. He died in 1826, aged 73. 


was born in Woodbury, Conn., and came to 
Cornwall among the earliest settlers. He was 
formed, by nature, to exert a controlling influ- 
ence in any community in which he might reside. 
He was appointed town clerk at the organization 
of the town in 1 784, and held that office much of 
the time till near the close of his life. Ho rep- 
resented the town several years in the State leg- 
islature ; was assistant judge, and afterward 
chief judge of the County Court. In every office, 
his duties were discharged with marked ability, 
and to universal acceptance. Few men enjoy, 
with keener relish, the pleasures of social inter- 
course. Possessing an inexliaustible fund of 
anecdote and humor, and unusual conversational 
powers, he was the life of every circle with wliich 
he associated. The aged and the young alike 
found him an agreeable companion. To the 
unfortunate, he was a sympathizing friend ; to 
virtuous indin-ence, a cheerful benefactor ; and of 
any judicious scheme of benevolent effort, a 
munificent patron. 


was born in Norwich, Conn., in 1748. He first 
removed to Bennington, and resided till 1784, 
when he came with his family to Cornwall. It 
is not known to his children to wliat extent he 
was engaged in military service. They know 
only that he was connected with the quarter- 
master's department of the gan-ison at Ticonde- 
roga, at the time of its surrender to Burgoyne. 
In this school he perhaps received the training 
which secured to him the systematic habits for 
which he was distinguished. He was, withal, a 
man of indomitable energy and perseverance, as 
well as inflexible moral and religious principle. 
The writer recollects having been present at a 
meeting of the churcli, in which they were attend- 
ing to the discipline of a sou of Dca. Bingham. 
They were about proceeding to the final act of 
excommunication. They were slow to act, 
through deference to the father's feelings. Per- 
ceiving their hesitation, and understanding its 
meaning, the venei'able man rose, his face suf- 
fused with tears, and when the emotions which 
had choked his utterance allowed him to speak, 
he said, " Brethren, I love my children, I sup- 
pose, as well as you love yours ; but if I do not 
love my Saviour better than I love my children. 

I am not worthy to be called his follower. Go 
on, brethren, and do your duty." 

Dca. Bingham was chosen first deacon of the 
Congregational church, soon after its organization, 
and continued to discharge the duties of the office 
until extreme age induced him to desire a succes- 
sor. He was a model of promptness in supporting 
the gospel at home, and of liberality in confer- 
ring his benefactions on eveiy meritorious object 
of Chiistian charity. He was, in a word, a 
happy illustration of the truth, "There is that 
scattereth, and yet increaseth." Having previ- 
ously done for his family what he deemed proper, 
he left at his decease a considerable estate, to be 
distributed, by the directions of his will, for be- 
nevolent purposes. , 

Dca. Bingham was veiy fond of expressing 
his thoughts in Aviiting, especially in rhyme, and 
his favoiite poetry assumed the acrostic form. 
Of these poems, he has left enough to constitute 
a considerable volume. After a life of constant 
activity and usefulness, " he came to his grave in 
a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in hia 

" Of no distemper, of no blast he died, 
But fell like autumn fruit that mellowed long: 
E'en wondered at, because he dropped no sooner; 
Fate seemed to wind him up for fourscore years; 
Yet freshly ran he on twelve winters more, 
Till, like a clock worn out with beating time, 
The wheels of weary life, at last, stood still." 

His tombstone marks 93 years. 


came very early to Cornwall, and was, for many 
years, a colleague with Dea. Bingham in the 
deaconship. Though an equally efficient officer 
of the church, he was, in temperament, dissimilar. 
The fonner was excitable, while Dea. Samson was 
always mild. Like the "beloved disciple," his 
leading characteristic was affection. As a panacea 
for every jar and every difficulty, he would ex- 
hort his brethren to " love one another." He 
was easily moved to teai-s, and his tender en- 
treaties, accompanied with tears, we may not 
doubt, soothed many a ruffled spirit, and hushed 
many a strife among brethren, which might 
otherwise have grown to formidable proportions. 
Possessing sound judgment, he was always a 
safe counsellor, as well as a most discreet mem- 
ber and officer of the church. Several years 
before his decease, Dea. Samson removed from 
Cornwall with his youngest son, and resided 
with him in Barre, N. Y., until he died in 1842, 
aged 84 years. 

To the preceding sketches of the fathers we 
add notices of a few of the sons of Cornwall, 
who have served their generation with distin- 
guished usefulness, and gone to their reward. 


son of Wm. Slacle, aboA'e mentioned, was bom 
in Cornwall in 1786. At the a^e of 17 he entered 



Middlebuiy College, where he maintained a high 
standing with compeers, several of whom have 
since become distinguished in professional life. 
After he graduated he studied law and commenced 
practice, in Middlebury, in 1810. But legal 
practice appears to have had for him very slight 
attractions. In 1814, '15, and '16, he edited a 
political paper in Middlebuiy, called the " Col- 
umbian Patriot." While in this emplojTnent, 
he was appointed Secretary of State, and soon 
after called to various other civil offices. In- 
deed, it probably would not be exaggeration to 
say, that between 1816 and '46, he held a greater 
variety of civil trusts, in this State, and under 
our national government, than have ever been 
held by any other native of Vennont. His last 
political service was rendered in 1844-46, as gov- 
ernor of this Commonwealth. From this period 
to the time of his decease, he was Cor. Secretary 
and Gen. Agent of the Board of National Popu- 
lar Education. He possessed versatility of char- 
acter, which prepared him to fill these numerous 
and varied offices with credit to himself and 
with benefit to his country. Whatever the post 
assigned him, he always appeared equal to its 
demands. In his labors as editor and compiler, 
he exhibited sound judgment and discrimination. 
In Ms speeches while a member of Congress, 
he showed himself a fearless, as well as an able 
defender of the right, when arbitrary power men- 
aced its subversion. 

As Secretary of the Board of Education, Gov. 
Slade found his most congenial employment. 
Here his benevolence had full scope. As com- 
panies of female teachers were, from time to 
time, prepared for their chosen vocation, he ac- 
companied them, with all a father's solicitude, to 
theu- several fields of labor ; saw them properly 
located, and inducted into their work of enlight- 
ening and training the minds and hearts of 
the rising myriads of the West. In this, as a 
loved employment, he continued even after the 
destroyer had marked him as a victim. To this 
he clung with a grasp which was relaxed only 
by death. The crowning excellence of Gov. 
Slade's character was his ardent piety, which 
was best known to thosQ most famiUar with his 
daily walk. 

" His care was fixed 
To fill his odorous lamp with deeds of light, 
And hope that reaps not shame." 

The decease of Gov. Slade occun-ed in Mid- 
dlebuiy, his place of residence, in 1859. 


eon of Dea. Samson above mentioned, was born 
in Cornwall, and graduated at Middlebury Col- 
lege, with the class of 1812. He was an early 
member of the •' Young Gentlemen's Society of 
Cornwall," and much devoted to its interests. 
He chose the legal profession, and passed through 
a thorough course of preparatory training. After 

a year or two of practice in Pittsford, N. Y., he 
removed to Rochester, where he prosecuted his 
professional labors until 1827, when he was ap- 
pointed first judge of the court of that county,-^ 
an office to which he was repeatedly called in 
subsequent years. He also served as a member 
of the State legislature. 

Judge Samson possessed peculiar qualifications 
for the discharge of judicial functions; was too 
discriminating to be deluded by sophistry ; too 
honest to exlubit undue favor. Like his vener- 
able father, simple, amiable, and ever actuated 
by obvious Christian principle in the performance 
of duty, he lived to serve others rather than 
himself, and by his will, devoted a considerable 
estate almost wholly to benevolent purposes. 


was bom in Cornwall in 1792. He finished his 
collegiate course in 1814; and after a year spent 
in teaching, passed through the usual course in 
the Theological Seminary at Princeton in 1818, 
and became pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in the city of Washington, where he con- 
tinued until 1836, officiating also, a considerable 
part of the time, as chaplain to Congress. Hav- 
ing resigned his charge in Wasliiugton, he re- 
moved in 1836 to Charleston, S. C, and was 
installed pastor of a church in that city, with 
which he remained till his decease in 1857. 
To the class of 1812, belonged also, 


bom in Cornwall in 1791. After receiving hia 
degree at Middlebury, he spent some time as a 
resident -graduate at Yale College. His theo- 
logical studies he pursued partly at Andover and 
partly with Bishop Giiswold of R. I., from 
whom he received Episcopal ordination. He 
labored for a few years in different localities; 
his heart, meanwhile, being deeply interested in 
the cause of African colonization. To this cause 
lie at length devoted his hfe, and sailed for 
Africa early in 1821, as the first agent of the 
American Colonization Society, accompanied by 
a colony of negroes. He fell a victim to the 
chmate, July 28, 1821, only a few months after 
his arrival. While living, Mr. Andrus was held 
in high esteem for his Christian virtues. And his 
voluntary sacrifice of himself for the welfare of 
benighted Africa, will cause his name to be held 
in remembrance as one of her most earnest friends. 
When the gospel shall terminate her savage 
strifes, and stay the traffic in the blood of her 
children, — shall illumine her now dark abodes, 
and transform them into safe, and quiet, and 
peaceful homes ; when the dwellers on her plains 
and in her vales shall sing in unison, the peans 
of thanksgiving to the Lamb that was slain for 
their redemption, — then shall the name of Jo- 
seph R. Andrus be repeated with admiration, and 
gratitude, and love. 





Educatiox is the true and proper and harmo- 
nious development of all the faculties of the hu- 
man soul, — the conscience, the heart, and the 
understanding. What is man worth, \%'ithout a 
conscience sensitively alive to the distinction be- 
tween right and wrong 1 And what, without a 
heart, trained promptly to obey the voice of God 
thus speaking within him'? Shall we bestow 
years of labor in sharpening the intellect, leav- 
ing the conscience to blindness, and the heart to 
hardness, and call it education 1 And yet this is 
what thousands on thousands are doing with then: 
children ! 

If the training of the intellect alone were the 
whole of education, it would be difBcult to show 
that woman is not, even for this, superior to the 
other sex. But when the heart of a child is to 
be reached, and its conscience made sensitive, — 
when its waywardness is to be restrained, its pas- 
, sions subdued, its confidence enlisted, and its feet 
led in the right way, it needs no argument to 
prove that woman possesses, in her gentle man- 
ner, her tender sympathies, her look of kindness, 
her calm patience, and her characteristic love of 
childhood, a special and peculiar adaptedness for 
this delicate and difficult work. 

It was well said by Dr. Rush, that " mothers 
and schoolmasters plant the seeds of nearly all 
the good and evil in the world." It is fcaiful to 
think that a generation of human beings arc, at 
this moment, under their training for an endless 
future of good or of evil; — that the invisible 
handwriting of every day will be brouglit out 
and made legible, when exposed to the action of 
future trial. It is a thought that should go to 
every heart, awakening to strong and enduring 
eifort the patriotism which is worse than wasted 
in political strife, and the religion that evaporates 
in unavailing controversy about " questions and 
Btrifos of words, whereof cometh envy, railings, 
evil surmisings, and perverse disputlngs of men." 

The people of thi-; nation must bo educated, — 
all educated, — rightly and truly educated. The 
strength of our institutions is in tlic consciences 
and hearts of the p<.'oi)le. To neglect conscience 
and licart education, is to give ourselves over to 
inevitable ruin. The well-known cxiunples of 
the downfall aixl extinction of nations, in wliich 
science flourished, and the arts wei-e carried to 
the highest pcifcction, but in which the con- 
science and the heart were left to darkness and 
debasement, — men being "given over to a repro- 
bate mind," and "filled with all unrighteous- 
ness," are warnings to us, of fearful and terrific 
import. Free schools, an open Bible, and 
moral training arc to bo our sheet-anchor, in 
the gathering storm. 


born in Cornwall, in 1790 ; graduated at Mid- 
diebury College, 1811 ; taught in Windsor till 
1812; read law till 1813; was tutor in Middle- 
bury College till 1815 ; finished reading law, and 
practised till 1821 ; read theology over one year; 
from thence was a Southern missionary about 
one year ; after which. Congregational pastor in 
Hartford, Conn. 8 years ; of Park Street church, 
Boston, Mass. 3 years ; President of Marietta 
College, 0., 10 years; since which he has been 
pastor of the 2d Congregational church in Green- 
wich, Conn. — The extract below is from an ad- 
di-ess delivered on occasion of his inauguration 
to the presidency of Marietta College, O. 

" Another objection of a very grave, and cer- 
tainly of a very extraordinary character, is pre- 
ferred against our Collegiate Institutions. By 
some, they are declared to be aristocratic in their 
constitution and tendencies. 

" Of all the charges that have ever been 
brought against these institutions, this, I appre- 
hend, has the least foundation in truth. It may, 
indeed, be valid, to a certain extent, when alleged 
against some of the foreign universities, whose 
privileges are costly, and confined, also, to cer- 
tain favored classes ; but what possible applica- 
tion can it have to the colleges of this country; 
and above all, to those in the West 1 They are 
open alike to all ; and their honors are within 
the reach of all, — the humblest as well as the' 
highest. The most indigent youth in the com- 
munity, if he is blessed with a sound head, and 
a resolute heart, may possess himself of their 
best advantages, and highest rewards ; and he 
may find in om- own community, citizens, whom 
that community delights to honor, who have, by 
their own example, illustrated the truth of what 
I state. At this moment, you shall take the cen- 
sus of Western Colleges, and a majority of their 
students will be found to be the sons of parents 
who are able to afford them very little pecuniary 
aid. The proportion of indigent young men, in 
these institutions, is as great, and I believe 
greater, than in our primary schools. AVith 
what shadow of candor or truth, then, are our 
colleges described as aristocratic ? So far are 
they from deserving this reproach, that it would 
not be difficult to show that tlieir influence is emi- 
nently of an oi)positc character. Look at a sin- 
gle fact. Probably eight tenths of the members 
of our general Congress arc men who liave en- 
joyed the advantages of a lihrral education. Now, 
I venture the assertion — not without some knowl- 
cdtre of the facts in the case — that tliree fourths 
of the whole number of such, will be found, 
upon investigation, to have had their origin in 
families by no means distinguished, cither by 
birth or fortune. They are, for the most part, 
the sons of farmers and mecha ics, or of pro- 
fessional men of very moderate property; and 
they are indebted, for their present elevated posi- 



tion in society, chiefly to the fact here insisted 
on, the peculiarly accessible character, and popu- 
lar bearing of our higher seminaries of learning. 
" Our colleges, then, as at present organized, 
are eminently anti-aristocratic institutions. They 
well deserve to be called the ' People's Colleges.' 
To a great extent, their endowment is contributed 
by the wealthier classes ; but, when endowed, 
their privileges are for the equal benefit of all 
classes. If there existed but two or three col- 
leges in the country, or even if there were none, 
the rich could still liberally educate their chil- 
dren ; but what would become of the poor f They 
could not meet the expense. Our colleges, then, 
on the ground of their republican plan and ten- 
dencies, may fairly claim the favor and the pat- 
ronage of the whole community." 

TO E . 


A native of Cornwall, notv residing at Rutland ; for 
about 80 years First Justice. A brother of liev. 
Joel H. Linslcy. 

The songs of summer birds have come, 
And spring is seen on field and tree, 
And yet there is for me no Lome, 
While I'm so far away from thee. 

Stern winter's robe is laid aside, 
And gushing springs swell o'er the lea, 
But thou'rt no longer by my side, 
YetBtill I ever think of thee. 

The peach-tree blooms with beauteous flowers, 
And sweetly hums the honey-bee; 
But slow and tedious pass the hours, 
While I'm so far away from thee. 

The choicest flowers of spring I'd give, 
My precious ones again to see, 
For cold and cheerless 'tis to live. 
So far away from them and thee. 
Danville, Kt. 1852. 


Bethany, Brook Co. Va. June, 1858. 
The sun hung low in the west at the close of 
a day of rare beauty, even for luxuriant June. 
The air was a tremulous golden haze, in which 
the sunbeams melted and floated. They wreathed 
the hill-tops with a halo of glory ; rested lovingly 
upon the verdant meadows, and in the depths of 
the silent woods came quivering, glancing, spark- 
ling down, looking through the leafy canopy like 
myriads of stars in an emerald sky. The land- 
scape itself was not remarkable, except for the 
charm lent it by the light and its shadows. It 
possessed the usual characteristics of an old Vii'- 
ginia country scene ; broad fields of wlicat, oats, 
and corn, interspersed by neglected commons cov- 
ered by straw-stacks, russet and green, and dotted 
with clumps of sassafras and locust saplings ; 
rambling rail fences stretched in eveiy direction 
at all possible and imaginable angles ; now and 
then a brown or white farmhouse, with its village 

of stables and cabins, and the never-failing girdle 
of forests circling, bounding all. 

At a short distance on the east and north rose 
several coal-hills, or, as they are termed here, coal- 
banks. Curiosity to explore one of these great 
natural stone-houses impelled us in their direc- 
tion. We soon approached the entrance (at the 
base of the hill) of one of the largest, where the 
Deity in his beneficence, when the eai-tli was 
young, stored away vast quantities of this mate- 
rial so necessary to the wants of the teeming mil- 
lions that shall inhabit the earth through the 
vista of ages nestled in the womb of futurity. 

The colliers had ended their week's labors, and 
laid up their tools to rest until six o'clock of 
Monday morning. They had left an hour earlier 
than was customary on other days than Saturday. 

We introduced ourselves to this vast reservoir 
of material for human comfort and advancement, 
and asked pennission to walk in and explore its 
inner temples. We were answered through the 
mute lips of darkness and silence. She had 
closed her labors for the week, and was now 
wrapt in seeming meditation, preparatory to the 
rest of the coming Sabbath. It seemed almost 
sacrilege to disturb the quiet of her solemn wor- 
ship. It appeared very proper to give the coal- 
bank over to sleep, like a laboring man after his 
toil. It is very impressive to stand a few yards 
in from the entrance, and feel the hush of human 
voices, and picks and bars, and note the solitude 
of one of those sleeping caverns. The thought that 
a mountain of earth, its rocks and trees, might 
chance cave in upon you, makes the intruder walk 
forward with cautious pace. But curiosity gained 
the mastery of fear, and we stepped boldly on- 
ward. With a match from our pocket, we lit a 
lamp attached to one of the many pillars of coal 
which are left as so many sentinels to guard life 
all through the vast interior. It expelled the 
darkness about us, and sent its benevolent rays 
far in advance to cheer our darkened pathway. 
The nmrky columns of coal stationed at iiregu- 
lar distances throughout this mammoth vault, 
and charged with the heavy task of supporting a 
mountain upon their shoulders, looked sadly tired. 
They are moody fellows, standing pensive and si- 
lent, but disposed to cndm-e, with much foibear- 
ance, their tenible back-load. We had left our 
taper several yards in the rear, and were groping 
again in the dark. With a fresh lucifer we lit up 
another lamp to join the first, in its good work 
of sending darkness into exile. By the aid of a 
cane we felt our way onward, determined to see 
more of this subten-anean world. By lighting 
up the lamps along our route we soon made the 
end of our tour, and arrived at the vast deposit of 
glittering coal wliich lies packed and stored away 
in lindtless quantities, awaiting the wants of our 
race. We now stretched our vision backward, 
that, if possible, we might see the place of our 
ingress. Nought was to be seen but hei-e and 
there a feeble lamp struggling .stoutly with the 



damp and thick darkness. Being nearly one 
fourth of a mile from the entrance, and nearly 
the like distance below the surface, taking a di- 
rect line upward, we could but feel that we were 
now occupying a retired situation in life. We 
naturally gave ourself up to reflection. We sat 
upon a smooth, hard lump of coal, and converted 
the place into a cloister. "We whispered in the 
ear of Solitude, and solicited her communings. 
We talked mth Silence and shared her mysterious 
presence. There are some thoughts that will no 
more come upon the soul among rude sounds 
and harsh labors, than dews will fall at mid-day. 

A deep sense of the goodness of the Creator 
in constructing these vast laboratories, that will, 
through all time to come, pour forth their treas- 
ures to enhance the happiness of man, takes pos- 
session of the whole soul, and makes impressions 
that no time can efface. Here was tlie great mo- 
tive power for difRising comfort and happiness 
throughout the vast circles of human society, 
from the blazing hearth-fire of the lone widow in 
her cabin of logs, up to the marbled grate of the 
wealthiest merchant or minister of state in the 
land. Here was the hidden spring that puts in 
motion the floating palaces and carpeted walks 
between the continents ; that impels an amount 
of machinery of greater horse-power than feeds 
at the crib of all the civilized nations of the 
earth ; that drives thousands of thundering en- 
gines with their winding dragon-tail of cars, 
freighted with life and hope, and is the great 
guarantee for the realization of the brightest 
hopes of the votaries of science. 

Our flickering lamps admonished us to seek 
communion with the outer world. Accordingly, 
we walked slowly forward, retracing our steps 
and extinguishing the lights that marked our en- 
trance and subsequent progress. We soon stood 
exhumed upon the greensward. The sun had 
disappeared, — the birds had ceased their carol- 
ling and gone to their bedchambers, — the cows 
had lain themselves away for the night, and were 
quietly chewing their cuds. The watch-dogs 
were baying at the moon, which was now up and 
dressed in her borrowed but queenly robes, — the 
stars stood out on the sky, and the falling dews 
spoke a word of admonition to cut short our Un- 
gerings. We accordingly sought our quarters 
and retired, musing on the things that had been 
as a bath to the soul, and introduced it to a fuller 
conviction of the Great Unseen ; and that in the 
midst of these treasures wo should adopt the 
spirit of a child in his father's house, and know 
that the secret springs of joy which they open, 
are touched of God. S. B. Rockwell. 

Cornwall, Vt., ) 
Now "Spkingside," Middlebury, Vt. J 


We mingle in the heated strife, 
The manly toils and burdens bear*. 
But when our fleeting life is low, 

"When sigh our aching hearts for rest, 
When cold, unfriendly winds do blow, 
And still our souls remain unblest. — 
We gather round that old loved spot, 
Where oft we've passed the gala day, 
And, each within our fated lot. ■ 
We while our dying hours away. 
Though birds enchanting music lend, — 
Though flowers around us sweetly bloom,— 
Though zephyrs each soft errands send, — 
Still threat'uing clouds hang o'er with gloom; 
And naught at length enchants our eyes, 
Nor skies, nor earth, where'er we roam; 
Our weary feet impulsive rise, 
And beat their lengthened pathway home. 
Thus, too, our heavenly Father calls 
Our wayworn souls to realms on high ; 
To dwell within those shining walls, 
Where weariness and death shall die. 
Though up and down these grassy hills, 
Our feet longtime with joy have trod, 
There is a joy our soul still fills, 
And calls our spirits liome to God. 
For darkness on these hills will fall, — 
Death's shadows thick will surely come ; 
Oh! may we hear our Father's call, 
" My child, 'tis night, and now come home." 
Mrs. Mart Rockwell. 

There are tones that will haunt us, though lonely 

Our path be o'er mountain and sea; 
There are looks that will part from us only 

When memory ceases to be ; 
There are friends whom the heart prizes dearly, 

Who faint by the wayside at last; 
There are tokens we cherish so nearly, 

That perish like dreams of the past. 

There are volumes unwritten we treasure, 

And clasp in a fondest embrace; 
There's affection the world may not measure, 

That finds in our own heart a place. 
Our lives may not ever find places 

Of beautiful sunshine and flowers; 
But is there no friendship which traces 

Deep lines of true feeling like ours? 

E. Summers T>asx. 



If the traditions of the St. Francois Indians 
are to be relied on, the eastern shore of Lake 
Champlain was anciently inhabited by the Zo- 
quageers, a subdivision of the great Abenakee 
tribe or nation which once occupied the northern 
part of New England. By the forays of their 
enemies, the warlike Iroquois, and the encroach- 
ment of the whites, the Zoquageers were gradually 
driven from Vermont, and their last village of 
consequence within its limits, was on Missisque 
Bay, ih the present town of Alburgh. They 
had, for the most part, removed before the Revo- 
lution to the St. Francois River, in Canada, 
where the survivors of this once powerful tribe 
now live, commonly known as the St. Francois 
Indians, though they style themselves as of old, 
Zoquageers and Abenakees, or as they pronunce 
it, Wau-ban-a-kees. . Their names of rivers in Fer- 
risburgh were, of Great Otter Creek, Pccunk-tuk, 



or tlie Crooked River; of Little Otter, Wonakake- 
tuk, or the River of Otters ; and of Lewis Creek, 
Sungahnee-tuk, or the Fishing Place.* Lake 
Champlain they called Pe-tou-bouquc. t 

Before the middle of the last ccntuiy the French 
king had granted large tracts on Lake Champlain 
to several of his sul/jccts, and according to an 
old French map of 1748, what is now Fcnis- 
burgli was partly or wholly included in the 
seigncuiie of Mons. Contreco3ur fils. In 1772, 
after the conquest of the Frcuch possessions in 
America, the grantees under the French Crown 
petitioned that tlieir claims might be confirmed 
by the English Government, but as the scigneurie 
of Contrecccur had been reunited to the Crown 
Lands of France because of the failure of the 
grantors to fulfil the conditions of their deed, 
their claim was invalidated. In the " Ordinance 
of the Governor of New France, rcimiting to 
His Majesty's Domain all seigneuries not im- 
proved," mention is made of a "remonstrance 
of Sciurs do Contrecccur, in which they set foith 
that they have done everything to settle their 
grants ; that it was impossible to find individu- 
als willing to accept lands, though they had 
offered them some on very advantageous terms, 
and were willing to give even 300 livres to en- 
gage the said individuals that they 

intend to do all in their power to find persons to 
settle said seigneuries, and tliey hope to succeed 
therein ; requesting us to grant tliera a delay on 
the oflTers which they make to conform themselves 
herein to His Majesty's intentions." Hence it 
appears that there were no early French settlers 
in what afterwards became Ferrisburgh. 

In an English map of later date, a part of 
Ferrisburgh is within the limits of military grants 
to Capt. Williams and Lieut. Cuyler, but there 
is no e\idence that there were any settlers under 
these grants. 

Ferrisburgh Cliarter was granted, by Gov. 
Wcutworth, of N. IL, June 25, 17G2; applied 
for by Beiij. Ferris, cf Oblong, Dutchess Co., 
N. Y. ; granted to David Mcrritt, Tlios. Doug- 
lass, Volentine Peny, Gid. Gifibrd, Timo. Da- 
kiu, Anthony Field, J. Field, Bcnj. Ferris, Reed 

*Tliis was told me by Jolm Watso, or Wadhso, au 
intclJigeut Indian of 8t. Fraucois. He al.'^o gave the 
names of Fome other rivers of tlie Champlain Yal- 
]ey. Azzasataquake was their name for tlic Missisque 
River, signifying, The stream that turns back. [Mis- 
sisque is a corruption of Massecpsque, The place of 
arrow flints; and applies only to the bay o'f that 
name.] The Au Sable was known as I'opoquamanee- 
tuk, The Cranberry River, and .Saranac is corrupted 
from Scnbaleuac-tuk, The river of sumac-trees. 
The dried leaves of the sumac were used by them for 
smoking, and hence the tree was of suffcient impor- 
tance to give a name to the stream where it grew in 

t AVatso's definition of this word is, " The waters 
that lie between ; " that is, between the countries 
of the Abenakees and Iroquois. Others of the tribe 
with whom I have conversed interpreted this name 
otherwise, but cannot give an intelligible translation 
of it. 

Ferris, and 55 others. The survey and division 
into lots was made the next year by Benjamin 
and David Ferris, surveyors for the Proprietors, 
but no settlers appear to have been in the town- 
ship till about 17G9, when a settlement wus com- 
menced at the first falls of Great Otter Creek, 
(then called New Haven Falls,) and a saw-mill 
erected there. Not loi^g after. Col. Rcid, who 
claimed under a N. Y. patent, forcibly ejected 
the N. H. settlers, and put tenants of his own in 
possession, who built "more houses and a grist- 
mill. They were in turn dispossessed by Ethan ^ 
Allen and his Green Mountain Boys, their houses 
and grist-mill destroyed, and Pangborn, the right- 
ful owner, put in possession of his property. In 
July, 1773, Col. Rcid came on with a number of 
Scotch emigrants, and again expelled the N. H. 
settlers, and repaired his mill. When this be- 
came known at Bennington, Allen and his fol- 
lowers proceeded immediately to New Haven 
Falls, and forcibly reinstated their friends. They 
broke the millstones and threw them over the 
Falls, and warned the miller not to repair the mill 
"on pain of sutFering the displeasure of the 
Green Mountain Boys." The Scotchmen, being 
informed of the nature of the dispute, left the 
place. (See " Ethan Allen and the Green Moun- 
tain Heroes," by H. U. DePuy.) A difficulty 
presents itself in tracing the early history of the 
town, from the fact that the first Records were de- 
stroyed by fire in 1785, while in possession of 
Timothy Rogers, the Proprietors' clerk and sur- 
veyor, whose account of this mishap is subjoined, 
as recorded by him in the Femsburgh Records. 

The first settlement witliin the present limits 
of Ferrisburgh (for the events just related oc- 
curred in that part of Ferrisburgh which is now 
Vcrgennes) was begun by Charles Tupper, who 
came from Pittsfield, Mass., just before the 
Revolution, and commenced improvements near 
where J. Borroughs now lives ; but uijon the 
breaking out of the war he returned to Pittsfield, 
joined the American army, and was killed i7i bat- 
tle. One Ferris begun a settlement near Basin 
IIarl)or aliout the same time, which he also aban- 
doned at the commencement of the war. 

Mrs. Betsy Gage, an old lady near 81, says 
that her father, Zuricl Tupper, a bi-other of Chas. 
Tupper, was the first settler in Ferrisburgh, after 
the close of the Revolution. He came in the 
autwmn of 1783, and in March, 1784, brought his 
wife and three children to Ferrisburgh. During 
his previous visit he had built a bark shanty for 
their accommodation, and this they occupied vmtil 
the completion of their log-house. Mrs. Gage, 
who was then 5 years old, says that she well 
remembers seeing the sun shining down through 
the roof of their primitive abode. At the same 
time, Mr. T. had prepared a small plat of ground 
and sowed some apple seeds, and to him belongs 
the honor of raising the first apples from the seed 
in town. 

Mrs. Gage's mother was 5i months in her 



new home without seeing another woman ; then 
Abel Thom}>son and family came, and soon after 
Z. Tnpper's brother Absalom, Nathan Walker, 
Isaac Gage, and others came. 

At Nathan Walker's house the first religious 
meeting was held, at which the Rev. Ephraim 
Sawyer, a Baptist clergyman, ofBciated. After- 
ward, when Zuricl Tujper built a frame liousc, 
he fitted up a room in it which was long used as 
a place of worship, and fur town meetings. This 
was the first tavern kept in town. The old Fra- 
zier House at Frazier Falls, known in early times 
as the Blue House, was the first frame house. 
The first schoolhouse was built of logs, and 
stood near the Booth Comer. 

Mrs. Gage thinks that the first male born in 
Ferrisburgh was her brother James, and the first 
fema'e her sister Lovina. 

Among the original Proprietors, most of whom 
were inhabitants of Dutchess Co., N. Y., were 
several of the Field family. When the charter 
was obtained, their father had taken " rights," as 
they were termed, for "each of liis sons, with the 
exception of one who chose a new saddle in pref- 
erence to a right of 400 acres of wilderness, the 
price being the same for each, $7.50. Anthony 
Field, one of these sons, having lost his property 
in the Revolution, resolved to tiy his fortune in 
the wilds of Vermont, and accordingly, in the 
fall of 1785, Anthony, his eldest son, was de- 
spatched on horseback to Ferrisburgh, to look at 
his father's land there. 

As far as Pittsford there was a road ; from 
there to Vergennes there was nothing but marked 
trees to guide the young pioneer; the streams 
were unbridged, and he had to swim them, driv- 
ing his horse across before him. He went to 
Timothy Rogers, at Little Otter Creek Falls, 
who sent a man with him to show him his fath- 
er's right. In traversing the width of the tract, 
they did not see a rock nor stone, and Anthony, 
on returning to his father, gave so favorable a 
report, that it was determined to i-emove to Ver- 
mont the next spring. 

On the 1st of May, 1786, the family, consist- 
ing of the parents and eight children, (to one 
of whom, .Mr. Benjamin Field, I am indebted 
for this account,) left Tanytown, on the Hudson, 
in a small sailing vessel, which took them up the 
river as far as Half-Moon Point, now Waterford 
(1), and from there to the south end of Lake 
George they went in an ox-cart. At Lake George 
they found a man who had built a boat there for 
the purpose of transporting himself and effects 
to Gi-and Isle, and arranged with him to take 
them to Great Otter Creek. Arrived at the 
lower end of Lake George, a settler who was 
erecting a saw-mill there, drew their boat and 
goods across to Lake Champlain with his oxen, 
where they again embarked. The wind soon 
arose, and the boat being so heavily laden that 
they could not keep her free from water, they 

were obliged to land on the east shore of the 
lake, and encamp for the night. The next morn- 
ing was calm, and they resumed their voyage 
down the lake to the mouth of Great Otter Creek, 
and up that stream to Vergennes, where they 
landed on the 15th of May, having been 15 days 
on a journey that is now accomplished in as 
many hours. From Vergennes tliey went to Abel 
Thompson's, in Ferrisburgh, where Mrs. Field 
and the young children remained 6 weeks,while the 
men were making.a clearing and building a house 
on their "right," where Thomas Field now lives. 
The first season they cleared 10 acres and sowed 
it with wheat, and their labor was repaid by a 
bountiful harvest. There was a gristmill in pro- 
cess of erection at Frazier's Falls, but there was 
no grinding done there for a year after the Fields 
came, and they had their flouring done at Ver- 
gennes. The creek had to be crossed in boats, 
as there was no bridge there at that time, and on 
one occasion when Benjamin went to mill, he 
attempted to cross too near the Falls, and barely 
escaped being carried over them. 

Mr. Field says that bears were the only wild 
animals that troubled the settlers. They de- 
stroyed their crops and stock, and gave them 
great annoyance, till the young backwoodsmen 
turned hunters and killed them ofi". George, one 
of the brothers, shot one at nightfall in the corn- 
field ; he ran into the woods, where they found 
him dead the next morning. Benjamin shot 
another that had caught one of their pigs, and 
they followed one to his winter quarters in a hol- 
low pine, where they killed him. On one of 
their hunting excursions the boys found three In- 
dian canoes, turned upside down with the paddles 
under them, and the poles of a wigwam, near 
the mouth of Mud Creek on Little Otter. They 
appeared to have been left there two or three 
years before. 

Settlers now began to come in more rapidly. 
Many of tlie Proprietors were members of the 
Society of Friends, and several families of that 
persuasion moved into town. They built the 
first meeting-house in Ferrisburgh ; it was a log- 
house, and stood where the old Friends meeting- 
house is. 

I shall here leave this imperfect sketch of the 
first settlement of our town for some abler hand 
to fill out and bring down to the present day, 
with the regret which all must feel that measures 
were not sooner taken to gather up the frag- 
ments of our early history, before so many, in- 
deed, almost all of those who played their part 
in it, had passed from among us. 


Ferrisburgh was organized, Deming says, 
March 29, 1785 ; Thompson says, in 1786.— The 
religious denominations are Baptists, Methodists, 
Congregationalists, and Friends. The Friends 
and Methodists have a meeting-house, and there 



is a Union house near the centre. — Several per- 
sons have lived to be near 100 years old. — The 
epidemic of 1813 carried off between 60 and 70, 
mostly adults. — Otter Creek is navigable 8 miles 
to Vergennes, and Little Otter Creek 3 miles, by 
the largest vessels on the lake. In Little Otter 
Creek are 4, and in Lewis Creek 3 falls, on wliich 
mills and other machinery are erected. — No town- 
ship in the State has afforded more or better tim- 
ber for market. The soil is in some parts clayey, 

— others consisting of very productive mould. — 
In this town was bom Delia Webster, of Aboli- 
tion fame, but we have no data from which to 
form a sketch. — Population in 1850 was 2,075. 

— There are 2 post-offices, Femsburgh and 
North Ferrisburgh, and 2 railroad stations of 
the same name. — The appearance of the town- 
ship is that of a thrifty fanning section. From 
some points the views are decidedly fine. In 
particular, upon a rise of land, after passing a 
pleasant villa on the route from Monkton to Ver- 
gennes, the beholder looks with growing admira- 
tion off toward the beautiful Champlain, not 
afar. — "We first called upon Friend Robinson, 
who gave a word of encouragement and sent us 
over to the hospitable family of Esq. Rogers, 
with the kind injunction to our escort, "Now 
thee speak a good word to friend Rogers for this 
lady and her cause." Kind and courteous old 
gentleman ; if not quite converted to Quakerism, 
we were altogether to Friendism. Suffice to say, 
at the Esquire's we were received with a Vermont 
welcome. In the evening we went back and lived 
over the early days of the settlement, the trials 
and expechents of those hardy, honest pioneers ; 
listened to the story of one good church-^oing 
man, who, the first winter of his residence in town, 
having no sleigh or sled, fitted runners to the 
trundle-bed, in which he took his wife and chil- 
di-en to meeting every Sabbath day; when the 
mountain squall threatened, covering over the 
heads of the happy load with an old quilt or cov- 
erlet, so that at the door where the meeting was 
held the plump Uttle troop were turned out from 
the bunk where they nightly snugged down to 
sleep, warm and rosy as if fresh from their slum- 
bers. There was to us godliness and beauty in 
the homely story. Few things have we more 
vastly enjoyed in our present labors than like 
rehearsals, told in the brief tanyings at almost 
every stage of our tour. Who can but heartily 
admire the man and woman, who, in every cir- 
cumstance, " puts the best foot fonvard ? " Such 
were our forefathers, our foremothers, in Ver- 
mont. That evening and morning at Esquire R.'s 
was one of those visits Time never brushes with 
his wing as he passes reverent by. 

An account of the btiming of the Fenisburgh 
Records, entitled, 

"A Copt of the Account of Timothy Rog- 

" Know all men by these presens that yestor- 
day which was the sekont day of the 10 month 
I timothy Rogers of ferrisburgh was a moving 
from Botin bay in fenisburgh to letill ortor crik 
forls and as I went by wartor I did not git up 
tlie Bay till about mid nite and my wife and five 
childorn and one woman peggy smith by name 
and one child was all in an open bote and it was 
a dark rany time we landid about a quartor of a 
mild from the hous som of the hands went up 
and got fir when they got down agane the fire was 
so rand out we cindild some fir by the side of a 
tree To lite barks that the fainaly mite se a litill 
to walk up to tlie house for my wife was sik I 
led liir by the hand this morning Being the 3 day 
of the 10 m 1785 about son rise one of my men 
came and told me the tree by which the fir was 
kindled was bornt down and bornt up a large 
chist of droys that was packd as full as it cold 
be off cloths and Ritings of grate importuns I 
seposc I had about forty deads for about Six 
Thousand acors of land som on Record and som 
not notes and bonds for about two thousand 
dolars and all the proprietors Records of ferris- 
burgh som other gods was bornt with all the 
cloths only what we had on these whoughs names 
who air here sind ar setain witnesis to the same 
for they helpd me move and seen the fire of the 
same this 3d of the 10 m 1785 likewise they sen 
the heaps of Riting in their proper shaps bomt 
to ashes " 

" Timothy Rogers " 

" Silas Bingham " 

" araos Catlin " 

" Zimry hUl " 

" Stephen Ryce jun " 

At the foot of the page is written, 

"go to tother leaf forad page 21 " 

On the page referred to, the following is re- 
corded, viz : — 

"Rutland county s wallingford Janary ye 
28th A. D. 1786 personly aperd Timothy Rogers 
and gave his Afformation to the tnith of the 
within writting depsition to before me 

Abai-hara Jacktion just of peas 

adorson county Ferrisburgh September the 24 
day 1791 this sartafys that timothy Rogers being 
cold apon by the request Of the select men of 
ferrisburgh to giv acounpt of the proprietors 
Records and said timothy pcrd with the foregoing 
to show that said Records was destroyed in Octo- 
ber 1785 

Abil tomson asistant judg 

the abov being don as apcrs was thought best 
for me to Record the same therefore was Re- 
corded in propriertors Book page 21 the 30 of 
the 9 m 1791 

By me Timothy Rogers proprietors Clark. 



UNITED STATES— [An Extract.] 


University, now resident at Charlotte, in Chitten- 
den county. 

Where once the log-built huts were thick, 
Now stand large houpcs built of brick; 
And marble mansions line the ways 
Where herds were wont to rove and graze. 
As if by magic cities rise, 
And temples tower in Western skies, — 
In fairest climes within our zone, 
Until this age but little known. 
One evil, only one we fear. 
And this increases year by year; 
With riches, lawless spirits reign, 
And crimes increase with worldly gain; 
In dissipation's vortex bred. 
Are thousand youths to ruin led, — 
To pamper pride and lust for cash, 
Four millions groan beneath the lash. 
And churches, too,— Oh, what a shame!— 
Wrest gospel truth for sinful gain ! 
God speed the day, in mercy speed. 
When all in bondage shall be freed! 
Ere Justice, weary with our deeds, 
For vengeance on our people pleads; 
And Mercy cease to stay the blow 
That lays a guilty nation low. 

a ■ • • * * * 

Like Nineveh we should repent, 
Nor wait to have a Jonah sent, 
A greater has our danger taught. 
That we to judgment must be brought; 
A wicked nation's doom we see. 
In Zion's fruitless, withered tree. 



Goshen, containing 13,000 acres, and two 
gores in Caledonia county, of 2,828 and 7,339 
acres, was chartered, by the legislature of this 
State, to John Powell, Wm. Douglas, and 65 
others, Feb. 2, 1792, and rechartered to the same, 
Nov. I, 1798. It was argued, the inhabitants in 
each of the gores might, with equal propriety, 
organize themselves into a 'town, and their 
proceedings would be valid as our own ; conse- 
quently, an act of the legislature, legalizing our 
organization, was obtained soon after. The 
meeting for the organization of the town, was 
held on the 29th of March, 1814, at the dwelling- 
house of Simeon C. Davis ; presided over by 
Henry Olin, Esq., of Leicester. At this time 
there were but 17 families in town. Jabez 
Omsted was the first settler, in March, 1807 ; 
Nathan Capen was first town clerk ; Grindal 
Davis, Noah Allen, and Anthony Baker, first 
selectmen ; Usters, Sim. C. Davis, Nathan 
Capen, and Jas. Fitts ; first constable, Anthony 
Baker ; first male bom in Goshen, Mial Carlisle, 
son of Joseph Carlisle ; first female, Polly Allen, 
daughter of Noah Allen. It was evident from 
the first settlement in the north part of Philadel- 
phia, in consequence of the mountain dividing it 
nearly through the centre, making a distance of 

3 miles between the habitable parts, the Iowa 
would soon be divided for the mutual conven- 
ience of the inhabitants in the north part and 
Goshen; consequently, Nov. 9, 1814, the north 
part of Philadelphia was annexed to Go^hcn. 
Phineas Blood was the first settler in the an- 
nexed portion, (1806.) First child bom in tliis 
part of the town, was Roswell W. Mason, JMarch 
11, 1811. Jabez Omsted, March, 1807, had 
put up the body of a small log-house, and moved 
his family. His wife had been sick for some 
time ; but, such was his anxiety to be on his 
land in the sugar season, with the assistance of 
three other men, he brought his wife on a bed, 
and took up their abode in a log-hut, without a 
floor, rafter, or roof, save a few boards and brush 
to cover their beds, and shelter them from the 
storms of that inclement season. Such accom- 
modation for a sick person must have been any- 
thing but inviting. Omsted, at this time, was 
past middle ago ; had lost his property, and 
came here in debt, hoping to retrieve his broken 
fortune. With the assistance of his son Jona^ 
than, h^ succeeded in clearing a few acres ; 
worked hard, and fared harder, till his creditors 
thought best to close the concern. At that time 
the civil process ran in this wise : "And, for the 
want thereof, take his body." It did not require 
a very rigid scrutiny of Omsted's efilcts to 
satisfy the officer that the body must pay the 
debt. So Omsted was taken from his family, 
and incarcerated in jail, at Middleburj'. He 
soon obtained the limits of the yard ; but the 
time he was compelled by law to stay was too 
long for any other purpose than to prove that 
imprisonment for debt was but the relic of a bar- 
barous age. In his case, it was too well exem- 
plified. He wrote to his family, saying, on a 
certain Saturday night, he would be at home. 
When that Saturday night came, his family 
watched with the greatest anxiety for his return ; 
the children often running out, while day lasted^ 
to see if there was any appearance of their 
father ; and, after dark, listening to every sound, 
in their eager anxiety to greet him. The mother 
would walk short distances in the direction she 
expected him to come, making it her rule not to 
go beyond sight of the house. Saturday night, 
to Mr. Omsted's family, wore off" drearily. He 
did not come. There was a lurking feeling that 
possibly he might be sick ; but hope sought to 
alleviate their feai-s by suggesting the probability 
that he had stayed on the road to attend meeting 
on the Sabbath. So they waited patiently on 
through the day. Monday brought a dreary 
east wind and snow-storm, which rendered 
travelling almost impossible. While Mrs. 
Omsted was preparing breakfast, a stranger 
knocked at her door, and inquired for her. She 
said she knew that he brought tidings from Mr. 
Omsted, and, without farther preliminaries, 
asked if he was sick. His reply was. Very sick. 
After a moment's pause, he added, He was alive 



when I came away, but there is no probability 
that you will ever see him alive. Mr. Omstcd 
died the same morning that the messenger left. 
Preparations were made to bring him home for 
burial, that his family might have the cold satis- 
faction of looking upon the lifeless form of that 
beloved husband and father ; but, either through 
fear of having the debt transferred to the person 
who should remove him, or some unexplained 
cause, he was buried in Middlebury. 

The first settlers were generally obliged to buy 
their grain of farmers in adjoining towns. The 
method of transportation was to carry it on their 
backs. The manner of payment was almost 
universally by days' work, in which they were 
rich, and possessed of but Uttle else wliich they 
could spare. So universal was the practice of 
workmg out in baying, on one occasion they felt 
compelled to raise a barn on Sunday, there not 
being help at home sufficient to do it on a week day. 
"While talking of the hardships to which our first 
settlers were subjected, with Nathaniel Belknap, 
now 76 years old, he said, his eye brightening 
up, — I tell you, we saw hard times. The young 
folks now-a-days couldn't begin to stand it as we 
did. I moved into my log-house, here in the 
woods, when there was but one board on it, and 
that I brought from New Hampshire. And for 
weeks after, said Mrs. Belknap, I could lie abed 
and count the stars. Said the old man, I have 
been more than a mile beyond Pittsford village 
to buy a bushel of corn. I couldn't find it 
between here and there. When I paid for it, I 
had to take 5 pecks, because I couldn't make 
change. I took it, and started for the mill ; got 
it ground ; shouldered it, and carried it home. 
But, he added, I didn't get off the bed the next 
day. He had travelled at least 26 miles that 
day, and 13 with 5 pecks of grain on his back. 
His second winter was a hard one. He took a 
job of lumbering in Pittsford ; bought a yoke of 
oxen, and calculated to work his way through 
the winter, and have a team in the spring ; but 
his oxen sickened and died, and he lost his cow 
before spring. 

Joseph and Wm. Carlisle, Jr., on one occasion 
travelled three days before they could find a 
bushel of grain that they could buy, while their 
families were in need at home. It was often the 
case that the women would go to Brandon to 
get necessaries. On one occasion, Mrs. Joseph 
Carlisle went to her brother's in Brandon ; bor- 
rowed his horsCj and went to the village ; but, 
before she got home, night came on, when 
neither she nor the horse could follow the road. 
She called for help with a will, but this so 
alarmed her child, she dared not repeat her call, 
lest the child should cry itself into fits. So she 
sat down on an old log, and held the horse by 
the bridle until moi'ning. When she sat down, 
she ^vislled her father would come and help her 
dut of the wood in which she was lost ; she said, 
immediately a bright light stood out before her. 

up a little from the ground. She always thought 
that if she had followed it, it would have led her 
out into, the right way. Her father had been 
dead some time. She had sat in the woods not 
more than half a mile from home. 

Anthony Baker had laid up a good supply of 
provision, in order to have enough to last till he 
could raise it here; and left hay to winter his 
stock in Sudbuiy, so that one would have sup- 
posed the hardships incident to a new settlement 
would have skipped him ; but he came in with 
the rest for a full share, his only cow dying the 
first winter ; and one winter, when he thought 
he was going to live right along, had wintered 4 
cows and 14 sheep, before grass grew, two of his 
cows died, and the wolves killed 7 of the sheep 
and all the lambs. 

But why enumerate hardships ? When I asked 
old Mrs. Gale what were their hardsliips, she an- 
swei-ed, very significantly, "It was all hardship. 
The men were sometimes disheartened, but we 
always hoped for and expected better times." 
The first saw -mill was built by Anthony Baker in 
1817. Till then all the boards used in town had 
to be drawn from Brandon. The first school- 
house was built in. 1815, in the first district. The 
first persons baptized in town were John Wliite, 
Nancy Blood, Lydia Carlisle, and Hannah 
Smith, in 1815, by Rev. Edward B. Rollins. 
In the same year, Amos Sawyer and Fanny 
Sawyer, his wife, and Merriam Ayer, the wife 
of David Ayer, were baptized. These seven 
members constituted the first Christian church. 
The first school in town was taught by Martin 
Carlisle, in the winter of 1814. Nathaniel Alden 
was the first Methodist preacher ; he came from 
Ripton. The first Methodist society was estab- 
lished in 1818; its membei's constituting this 
society were WilUam and Rebekah Clark, his 
wife, Benjamin and Maiy Phelps, his wife, and 
Polly Clark. Of this number there are none 
living. The first acre of potatoes was planted 
by Simeon C. Davis in 1811. In the year 1816, 
Noah Allen raised, on 3i acres, 1,360 bushels 
of English turnips. 


31 years in the Revolution, settled in Goshen ia 
1 806. He conceived the idea of annexing the north 
part of Philadelpliia to Goshen, as soon as it was 
orsranized. He built a log-house on 4 different lots 
of land, and disposed of them, and then built a 
framed one on another lot, between the years 
1805 and '20 ; was one of the principal men in 
town from 1815-'21 ; the second representative 
in 1815-'16, and a justice of the peace 5 or 6 
years ; was a respected citizen, and something of 
a rhjTuester. He died Sept. 10, 1822. His widow 
is still living, and is over 90 years of age. 


7 j years in the Revolution, was a good soldier. 
He came here in 1809 ; was an unassuming man, 



who contented himself with his domestic con- 
cerns ; died Apiil 30, 1819, and was the first per- 
son buried in the present burying-ground. 


a Revolutionary soldiei-, was in the battle of Red 
Bank. He said he was one of the 400 men 
under Col. Greene, who defended Fort Mercer 
against the British attack, and fired 60 i-ounds 
of cartridges before the contest was decided and 
the enemy left them. He died Dec. 1813, was 
the first grown person that had died in town, 
and was buried near the west line of lot No. 50, 
by the side of the road. There is nothing to 
mark the spot where the old patriot was buried, 
and occasionally wagons are driven over his 


was out in the service, but not in such a manner 
as to obtain a pension. He came to town in 
1823 ; was a man of uncommon intellect, and 
wonderful memory. I have heard him say, for 
40 years he could repeat the texts of eveiy dis- 
course he had heard preached, and the occasion 
of its delivery ; and three days after its delivery, 
he repeated every word of a discourse. He was 
a pious man, and almost invariably attended 
meeting. In argument he was systematic and 
lucid, cogent in reasoning, and logical in dis- 
course. He was once where the ordinance of 
baptism was being administered. After all those 
who had requested had been baptized, Cowen 
stepped forward and said, " Here is water ; why 
may not I be baptized ? " " K thou belie vest, 
thou canst." Said the old man, " I believe." 
But his belief was not sufficient to satisfy the 
ministering official, and he was not baptized. 
His rehgious belief was restoration. On one oc- 
casion he stated in meeting that he had had a 
passage of Scripture on his mind for some time, 
and as there was no appointment for a certain 
Sabbath, which he named, he would try to talk 
on that subject. And for fear he might get con- 
founded, he would give out the text there, and in 
case of his failure, the audience could help him. 
But the old man was adequate for his subject. 
However, a few days after the deliveiy of his dis- 
course, he said he shouldn't preach any more ; 
for no sooner had he got one passage of Scrip- 
ture from his mind, than another was impressed 
upon it. He composed several pieces of poetry ; 
but only one is to be found, and that was written 
after he was 81 years of age, but a few days be- 
fore he died, and shows the state of his mind at 
the time. 

My ears are deaf, my eyes are dim, 
And vision flees away ; 
My memory fails, my strength far spent, 
My flesh must soon decay. 

I listen, but I cannot hear; 

I gaze, but cannot see. 

Bless God ! I feel^ and that to me 

l£ good as good can be. 

Some fragments of my broken thoughts 
With me yet still remain ; 
To Jesus I devote them all, 
And bless his holy name ! 

Sometimes I fancy I can hear 

The holy angels sing; 

While they seem hovering round my bed. 

Borne by their golden wings. 

They seem to waft a heavenly breeze, 
Which proves a royal feast. 
When I am fanned by angel-wings, 
I'm freed from all distress. 

My time is short, for death draws near, — 

A happy change for me. 

Thus to depart and be with Christ 

To all eternity. 

He died May 13, 1845, aged 81. 

This town could not be properly accused of 
the want of patriotism in the war of 1812, for 
Asa Grandey, Jr., and David Omsted were 
killed in battle at French Mills. Jesse White, a 
much respected citizen, was in the U. S. service 
during a great part of tlie war, and Sanford 
Grandey was also in the service, and in the battle 
at Plattsburg. Such was the noise of that battle 
that the guns were heard here. Asa Grandey 
and his wife walked the road before their house, 
wringing their hands in an agony of grief, ex- 
pecting to hear that Sanford was killed, as Asa 
had been before. When the alarm was given 
that the British were marchuig on Plattsbui-g 
and a battle expected, Sam'l White, Giindal 
Davis, Sim. C. Davis, Rcub. Allen, Dav. Ayer, 
Jr., Martin Carlisle, Benj. Phelps, Jr., Rob. Ma- 
son, Heniy S. Jona. Omsted, and Leon. Toby took 
their equipments and started for Plattsburg. The 
battle was fought, however, before they arrived. 
John Ayer and Jesse White also served 18 months 
in this war. 


came here in 1809; was one of the first select- 
men when the town was organized, and held that 
office a number of years ; he was a kind, obliging 
neighbor, ready to help in time of need, and 
give for all charitable purposes according to his 
ability. Such was his generosity, by some he 
has been styled the father of the town. Noah 
Allen and his G sons were prominent, substan- 
tial men, first and foremost in all things pertain- 
ing to social, moral, and religious improvement. 
Noah Allen died May 20, 1844. 


came to Goshen in the spring of 1811; was 
elected first selectman at the first town meeting 
in 1814; in May, 1814, was appointed a delegate 
to the convention to amend the Constitution ; in 
September chosen representative to the general 
assembly, and removed from town, in 1815, to 
Yates, N. Y., where he now resides, a wealthy 
and respected citizen. 




came to Goshen in 1810; was appointed town 
clerk when the town was organized, which ofBcc 
he lield 28 siiceessive years, and a justice of -the 
peace nearly the whole time ; delegate to the 
convention to amend the Constitution in June, 
1828 ; elected to represent the town in September, 
1831, by a unanimous vote, and chosen represcn- 
taiive G successive ycai-s. Places of trust and 
responsibiliiy were often accorded to him, for he 
was generally considered an upright man. Ho 
died March 12, 1832, aged G6. 


was the first minister that settled in Goshen. He 
came here in 1822, and reorganized the Cluistian 
chuich or society, Dec. 9, 1822. The number 
of members who joined the society at this time 
was seven, previously baptized. This society 
flourished for a time, but now exists only in 
name. Elder Knapp preached here for 8 years. 
In September, 1830, was elected to represent the 
town. He removed to New York the fall of 


was an inhabitant in 1847 ; had lived in town 
and out, as interest prompted him. He was 
something of a versifier. It was currently re- 
ported of him that he versified the whole book 
of Genesis. One of his neighbors having carried 
ofl^ a load of ladders and sold them, and brought 
back ram, Lakd complimented him after this 
fashion : — 

I think I have read in an old book of mine, 
There was once a man could turn water to wine; 
Since he has gone, another has come, 
But the best he can do is to turn ladders to rum. 

Our inhabitants have ever shown themselves 
willing to, and capable of, defending themselves 
against all attacks and intrusions of wild beasts, 
and on a number of occasions have not been 
scrupulous about canying the war into Africa, 
as one case in point will show. 

Josiah Bi'own and Perlcy Green came here in 
1819, from Brookfield, Conn. Brown's wife was 
Green's mother. She had saved a small quantity 
of ammunition that belonged to her first husband. 
Calvin Green soon followed his mother and Pcr- 
ley to Goshen. Asa Green, a minor, still re- 
mained in Brookfield. In a year or two Asa 
came here on a visit, in the fore part of March. 
Mrs. Brown divided Green's ammunition among 
them. After Asa had finished his visit, his 
brothers proposed to put on their snow shoes and 
take a direct route to Hancock. The three Greens 
and Charles Brown started across the mountain. 
Young Brown, who also took a gun, had a small 
dog, which followed them. Soon after they be- 
gan to descend the mountain, they came to a 
large bkch-tree turned up by the roots, partly, 
and lodged. Near the root they discovered a 
small hole through the snow, iced around. They 

began to tread in the snow and ice, when the 
little dog came up and eignified that there was 
something under the old roots. In a moment 
more a yellow nose was protruded. It was a 
hurrying time with men, dog, bear,- and all. 
When the bear came out. Brown fired. So near 
was he to her, he saw the wad burning on her 
shoulder ; but she was quick out of sight, and 
the dog would not follow. They went on, and 
stayed with Esq. Ranncy, in Hancock, who waa 
quite a hunter, and kept a good dog. In the 
morning Asa pursued his way, and the others 
induced Ranney to take his dog and return with 
them after the bear, supposing on account of her 
wound she would not go far. There had fallen 
a little snow during the night. When they got 
to the track the dog would not follow. On reach- 
ing the den, they went in and made quite a noise 
with the old bear's children. They soon suc- 
ceeded in capturing two cubs, one of which Ran- 
ney carried home, and Brown the other, which 
they tamed. Brown sold his to Wm. Cook. 
Ranney came down the next March, and on hia 
return, in hopes of coming across a deer yard, 
induced young Brown to put on his snow shoes 
and accompany him part way. When they 
reached the height of land. Brown proposed to 
go down and visit the old bear's den. There 
they found much the same appearance as the 
year before. Immediately, Ranney's dog went 
into the den. Mrs. Bruin not liking such an un- 
ceremonious call, or being partial as to what 
company she entertained, soon ejected him from 
her domicile, and followed him out, intending to 
give him such a fiagellation that he would be 
more mannerly in introducing himself upon the 
notice of strangers. As quiet as she was, he 
acted as if he thought she had humed him out 
rather too quick, and that in doing so she had 
been as rough and unceremonious as he had, and 
that he shouldn't hurry abo;it leaving the door- 
yard, but would take the next lesson there. The 
bear and dog immediately closed in for a fight. 
The men, with their snow shoes on, stood by. 
Ranney saw at a glance that his dog would get 
the worst of the fight unless he had help imme- 
diately ; so he stepped astride of the bear, and 
took an ear in each hand. When she felt the 
whole weight of this new element in the contro- 
versy was made to bear upon her, she turned her 
attention from the plaintive and suppliant tones 
jof the dog to the more defiant antagonist on her 
back. In her efforts to get rid of Ranney, she 
took bis hand into her mouth and bit it through. 
Ranncy couldn't fight any more; but Brown's 
dog, when he found there was fighting, applied 
himself to her haunches, wliich had a tendency to 
lacerate her feelings so severely, she now turned 
her special attention to him, having no further 
fear of Ranney or his dog. Meanwhile, Brown 
had cut a small club, and came to the scene of 
action just at the time the bear turned upon his 
dog. She had hurt the dog so that he wouldn't 



trouble her any more than Ranney and the first 
dog. The bear at once raised herself upon her 
haunches to fight Brown. He struck at her, but 
she would either dodge the blow or ward it off 
with her. fore feet, and every time she warded 
oflf or dodged a blow she would liitch foi-ward 
toward Brown, and he would step back and 
strike again ; Raunoy in the mean time begging 
Brown to desist and let the bear go, and come 
and do up his hand. Brown, however, didn't 
feel like beating a retreat under such circum- 
stances, and kept plying the blows. After some 
time spent in striking, dodging, and hitching up, 
the bear made a mistake in the rule of fencing, 
and a blow fell upon her nose, which she instantly 
dropped into the snow, and Brown, plying his 
club vigorously, soon killed her. He then did up 
Ranney's hand, and he started for home. Brown 
dressed the bear, and found the ball he had shot 
her with the year before. He then went into the 
den and found two more cubs, which he killed on 
the spot. When asked wliy he didn't keep and 

tame them, he replied, he " found it a d d 

sight easier to kill young bears than old ones." 

The tmth of this story can be verified. 

The first framed house was built by Daniel 
Hooker in 1810, a small, unpretending domicile, 
24 feet square, posts 6, feet high, with six 12 
lighted windows, glass 6 by 8. The old man, 
now 78, lives there yet, and so endearing are its 
associations, and so strong his attachment to it, 
that he contends it is the best house in town. 

I would add the name of Jona. Bagley as a 
first settler in 1809, and a Revolutionary patriot. 
He lived in town a number of years, was consid- 
ered an honest, respectable man, and died in 
Brandon at an advanced age. Jona. Loveland 
settled in 1809 ; was a soldier during the English 
and French war of 1756. In his younger days 
he was married, but either because he made a 
hasty choice or was sick of faded charms, soon left 
his spouse for another Dulcinea, with whom he 
lived and raised a large family of children. In 
the mean time, his lawful wife died, and the old 
man made a profession of religion ; whereupon 
he proposed to go into meeting and bo publicly 
married. Old Esquire Blood told him he should 
think he would rather go into some swamp. 
" But," said the old Esquire, " before I had done 
with him, he was lawfully married." He was 
then near 80 ; probably the oldest man ever mar- 
ried in Goshen. 

came hero in 1816; was a tough, hard-laboring 
man ; raised a large family of childi-en ; was 
never wealthy ; a man of excellent memoiy ; and 
such was his style of relating anecdotes, that 
he would always enchain the attention of those 
around him, and even cliildren would invariably 
sit with breathless attention to hear his stories. 
The most minute circimistances he would relate 
with admirable precision; and that his stories 

were strictly true there can be no doubt, for he 
always told them exactly alike, word for word, 
whenever he repeated them. He died May 11, 
1858, aged 79. His wife died on the 14th of the 
same month, aged 74. 


the second settler in town, came here in 1808. 
He was a hard-laboring man, but riches never 
appeared to be for him. For several years he 
was considered our best leader in vocal music, 
and his performances would compare favorably 
with those of later years. He was trustworthy, 
and labored hard for the rights of all ; and never 
feared to denounce wrong in any place. His 
word was as good as Ins note. He died Septem- 
ber-, 1859, in Michigan, aged 77^ years. 


settled in 1813 ; he always took a decided stand 
in favor of the church ; was so attentive and 
faithful in his Christian duties, that for years, a 
meeting in town without him and his wife, Wm. 
Clark and wife, and Amos Boynton and his wife, 
would have been considered almost a failure. 
He died July 5, 1857, aged 89. His wife died 
Dec. 25, 1856, aged 87. She had been a church 
member 70 years. Tryphenia Shedddied March 
12, 1851, aged 89; the two oldest persons ever 
deceased in town. Their exact age cannot be 



Granville was granted November 7, 1780, 
and chartered to Reuben King and others, August 
2, 1781 . It was originally called Ivingston, from 
Iving, a name quite common among the proprie- 
tors and first settlers ; but, owing to some local 
prejudices/ the name was changed, Nov. G, 1834. 
Settlements were commenced soon after the close 
of the Revolution, hj Reuben King and others. 
At a meeting of the proprietors holdcn at "Wind- 
sor on Sept. 28, 1784, a vote was taken to give 
100 acres of land to eacli of the first women who 
should go with tlieir families to make a jjermanent 
settlement in tlie town. This offer was accepted 
by Mrs. Hannah King, wife of Daniel lung, — 
a Mrs. Sterling, and Mrs. Persis Ball, wife of 
Israel Ball, grandfather of Joseph P. Ball, who 
has represented the town several years in the 
General Assembly, and is one of the most influ- 
ential men in town. 

Joseph Patrick, the first town clerk, held the 
ofiice upwards of 40 years ; was the first justice 
of the peace, and first representative. Some of 
his descendants still reside in town, and occupy 
respectable positions in society. 

The climate, though somewhat rigorous, has 
ever been regarded as very healthful ; and, not- 
withstanding the privations and hai-dships in- 



cident to new settlements, only 1 7 deaths occurred 
during the first 20 years, and two of these were 
men upwards of 80 years. The d^senteiy was 
mortal in 1806. Many aged persons who were 
among the early settlers have died within a few 
years, and with them many interesting historical 
events are shrouded in oblivion. 

Among those who have resided longest in town, 
and who still live here, is Amos Lamb, aged 85, 
and liis wife Eunice, aged about 90. They are 
the parents of Joseph Lamb, so well known as a 
wealthy citizen, and member of the General As- 
sembly. Uncle Amos, as he is called, retains 
his mental faculties remarkably well, — relating 
many interesting incidents of bygone days, even 
in detail. The following is given nearly verbatim 
as related by him, a short time since : " When 
the country was new, and only a few settlements 
had been made, a man by the name of Powers 
went to the State of New York, to build a mill for 
some one there, leaving his wife and boy, a lad of 
about 9 years, in their log cabin. On the Satur- 
day following the boy left home about noon, and, 
failing to return at night, the fear-stricken mother 
gave the alarm, and search was made the follow- 
ing day. Intelligence having gone to the adjacent 
towns, many bold, warm, and sympathizing hearts 
were found at the lonely cabin of the bereaved 
mother soon as the dawn appeared on Monday 
morning. With horns and sonorous voices, they 
spread out upon the mountain side, and passed 
through the ravines and dark recesses of the 
mountain forest. It was in April, and snow still 
covered the mountains far down their sides. The 
boy was thinly clad, without shoes or stockings. 
The sun was sinking behind the snow-capped 
mountain, and no traces of him had been found. 
Many, in despair, were preparing to return home, 
— but, fortunately, I (says Mr. Lamb) had taken 
a circuitous route, and coming to a swampy piece 
of ground, partly covered with snow, saw evident 
footprints of the lost boy. This joyful news was 
soon communicated to the whole party, and the 
search again commenced with renewed visor. 
Just as the last rays of the setting sun were silver- 
ing the mountain tops, the words ' He is found ' 
were borne on the ' wings of the wind ' to many 
a glad heart. The boy, faint with hunger, be- 
numbed with cold, and bewildered, did not recog- 
nize his friends ; and, from fear, for a long time 
refused to come into the arms so gladly extended 
to embrace him." 

The catamount, the black bear, the wolf, the 
moose, the lynx, the beaver, and the deer, for a 
long time roamed unmolested on the mountain 
sides, or played and sported on the banks of the 
limpid streams. For a time after the settlement 
commenced, many of these animals made their 
nocturnal visits, committing numerous depreda- 
tions on the property of the inhabitants ; but they 
have now chosen some other retreat, or become 

Among the many heroic and daring deeds 

worthy of particular notice is that related of the 
widow Mary Lamb, 89 years of age, now residing 
in town with her son William, a respectable and 
influential citizen. Her husband being absent, 
Mrs. Lamb was left, with the childi-en, to take 
charge of the domestic affairs. One morning she 
heard a terrific scream in the dooryard, and on 
looking out saw a catamount making an on- 
slaught upon the poultiy. On opening the door 
the dog rushed out, and a fearful encounter fol- 
lowed. The dog finding himself unable to grap- 
ple successfully with his antagonist, fled into the 
house, followed by the catamount. Fear for the 
safety of the tenified children nerved the strong 
arm of the mother to desperation, and seizing the 
fire poker, she gave the " varmint " a heavy, 
well-directed blow, and with the assistance of the 
dog, now weak from loss of blood, succeeded in 
killing him. The dog died soon after, from 
wounds received in the contest. 

Tlie wolf and the bear are now occasionally 
seen. Hunting and destroying these animals 
used to be fine sport for the bold and daring 
hunters. Among the last, but not the least of 
tliese, were Zenas Robbins and Josiah Lewis, 
now residing in some of the Western States. 
These men not unfrequently followed bears on a 
still hunt several days in succession, camping out 
upon the mountains at night, while their families 
at home felt quite sure that when they returned 
they would bring ocular demonstrations of their 
success. On the west mountain, in what was 
formerly Avery's Gore, is a large cave, called the 
" Bear Den," in wliich these men, " Put. like," 
have often entered torch in hand, and, when 
they heard the teixific growl and saw the flashing 
eyes, the sharp crack of their well-du"ected rifles 
reverberated through the dark recesses of the 
cavern, and Bruin was soon hauled up the 
dark entrance to be examined in the light of 

About 25 years since l.S bears were thus taken 
from the same cave by these men, assisted by 
others, in one season. Several years later 4 
were taken, — and, among them, one that 
weighed over 400 pounds. The last taken in this 
retreat were caught in the winter of 1855, when 
Lewis, in company with McDonald, son of Zenas 
Robbins, entered and dislodged 4, one old one 
and 3 cubs. These were exhibited in different 
parts of the State during the winter. 

The religious denominations were originally 
Congregationalist and Baptist. In 1840, the 
Methodists and Universalists had very much in- 
creased. In the winter of 1843, a sect calling 
themselves Adventists held a series of protracted 
meetings, in which great religious excitement pre- 
vailed, and the different chmxhes for a long time 
expected that great numbers would be added to 
them ; but, as is too often the case, one extreme 
was followed by another, and the churches, not 
possessing sufficient stamina to resist the reaction 
that followed, crumbled beneath its weight. Since 



that time a general dearth in religious culture has 
been but too visible. 

At present a new era seems to be opening to 
cheer and resuscitate the desponding hearts of 
these Christians. Rev. J. B. Smith (Congrega- 
tionalist) is now laboring zealously, and an 
increasing interest to attend church and sustain 
the gospel is manifesting itself. A society is 
formed composed of different denominations, and 
they are uniting their efforts to support preaching 
every Sabbath, and many, in the language of the 
Psalmist, are saying, "I was glad when they 
said unto me, Let us go into the house of the 

The town is watered by White River and its 
numerous branches. The water is remarkably 
clear, soft, and pure, and every pebble can be 
easily seen at the bottom of the stream, though 
the water is very deep. It would be difficult to 
find a farm in any part of the town that docs not 
have on it a gushing spring of excellent water ; 
and the man or woman who would substitute a 
beverage for this, must be insensible to Heaven's 
richest blessing. 

Several streams, coming down from the moun- 
tain sides, unite in a beautiful valley near the 
centre of the town, and form White River : one 
of these, called the Alder Meadow Branch, rises 
in the northerly part of the town, and the travel- 
ler, by passing up to the head of it, finds himself 
also looking upon the head waters of Mad River, 
that flows into Lake Champlain. The altitude 
between the waters that flow into the Connecticut 
River and Lake Champlain is found to be much 
less at this point than at any other for a great 
distance north or south. On one of the branches, 
and in sight of this stream, may be seen Moss 
Glen Falls, so much visited by citizens and 
strangers, and admked by all for the picturesque 
scenery with which they are surrounded. The 
water falls over a massive rock 100 feet; 50 feet 
— at the lower part — is a perpendicular descent. 
Several writers have given graphic descriptions 
of these falls and the suiTOunding scenery, one 
of which recently appeared in the " Vermont 

The land bordering on White River and its 
branches, lyiag as it does between two mountain 
ridges, is sometimes inundated, and the roads 
and bridges much damaged by the superabundant 
water coming down like a torrent from the sur- 
rounding hills and mountains. The fertiUty of 
the meadows adjacent to the streams is much in- 
creased by the fertilizing sediment left upon them 
when the water subsides. 

The most remarkable freshet within the recol- 
lection of the present generation was that of July, 
1830. The height of the water at that time, as 
indicated by those who were present, is almost 
incredible. It appears, at this time, there was a 
mountain slide near Moss Glen Falls, which 
literally filled the deep gulf between the mountain 

on the west and the hill on the opposite side, 
forming an immense dam of earth, rocks, and 
trees. The flood wood left in the tops of the 
trees, and on the side of the mountain, proved the 
water to have been 75 feet deep above the slide. 
When this immense barrier gave way, the water 
above rushed through the narrow valley, carrying 
destruction with it, and spreading out upon the 
broad intervales below covered them with several 
feet of water, filling the inhabitants with con- 
sternation, whose hearts were already throbbing 
with fearful apprehensions. Although this flood 
came in the night, and thick darkness covered 
the earth, no lives were lost : some saved them- 
selves in the chambers of tlieir houses, some by 
swimming, and others by constructing rafts on 
which they escaped to the adjacent hills. The 
house of David Wiley, in the eastern part of the 
town, was swept away, and he and his family 
barely escaped with tlieir lives by clinging to a 
projecting rock, under which they stayed until 

In the winter of 1840 and 41 an epidemic pre- 
vailed. The typhus fever went through many 
enthe families, and in many instances the most 
athletic and robust were the first to fall by its 
fatal power, — while the scarlet fever was making 
fearful ravages among the children and youth. 
It was tnily a time wlien mothers, like Rachel of 
old, wept for their children, " and would not be 
comforted, because tliey were not." 

The town now contains 793 inhabitants, and, 
from natural or other causes, there is greater 
equality in property and general intelligence than 
is often found. The people are industrious, fru- 
gal, thoughtful, and temperate. They neither 
suffer from a bloated wealth, proud aristocracy, 
" Young America," or extreme poverty. Agri- 
culture constitutes the chief pursuit, the land be- 
ing well adapted to grazing, having great power 
to resist drought. The number of horses, cattle, 
and sheep, is probably greater in proportion to the 
number of inhabitants than in most other towns. 
There are, however, many engaged in the wood, 
coal, and lumber business, particularly along the 
eastern slope of the mountain, in the vicinity of 
the Vermont Central Raihoad, which passes 
through the N. E. corner of the town at a place 
called Sandusky, where there is a post office, 
printing office, and railroad station, and some 
other business, mostly under the supervision of 
D. Tarbell, Jr. At a little distance from 
Sandusky there is an aqueduct, or trough, con- 
structed, extending far up the mountain, through 
which by means of water a large quantity of 
wood is annually floated to the railroad. 

An extensive steam mill, wliich cost about 
$15,000, containing a saw-mill, stave macliine, 
and much other valuable property, was consumed 
by fire on the 16th of September last. This mill 
is accidentally represented quite too far west on 
the map of Addison county. The area should 



have been filled with an entire school disti-ict, in 
whieli are 106 inhabitants, and many excellent 
farms not represented on the map. 

The town is divided into G school districts, and 
3 fractional districts connected with scliool dis- 
tricts in WaiTcn, Rochester, and Hancock. In 
two of these (Nos. 1 and 2) are found handsome, 
commodious, and well-ventilated schoolhouses ; 
while the others, though fully equal to the ma- 
jority of similar structures in the State, are better 
calculated to disseminate disease and death, than 
health, intelligence, and happiness. The schools 
have very much improved within the last few 
years, resulting from a uniform system of text- 
books, under which a more judicious classification 
is obtained ; and in these respects the schools 
may justly rank among the first in the State. 
Each district usually supports a school 6 months 
each year, and select schools are becoming com- 
mon in different parts of the town. There is a 
greater number of teachers, both male and female, 
than find employment at home, — and some are 
teaching abroad. 

Among the eminent professional men who 
claim Granville as the place of their nativity are 
Rev. Jonathan Lamb, a graduate of Vermont 
University, and author of several books ; Rev. 
Prince Jenne, for many years pastor of tlic Con- 
gregational church in town, now deceased ; Dr. 
J. M. Parker, an eminent physician in the South- 
em States ; Hon. Hemy Starr, a self-taught, but 
learned judge, now residing at the West ; and 
Uriah Rice, principal of Seventh "Ward school in 
Cincinnati. Those possessing thorough business 
habits are Harvey Lamb, an extensive manufac- 
tui'er in Pennsylvania ; Chester Lamb, formerly 
an alderman in New York city, now connected 
with the St. Nicholas House ; Artemas Rice, a 
wealthy speculator in California; and E. B. and 
George Ford, merchants in Massachusetts. 

Music, both vocal and instrumental, is receiv- 
ing much attention. An excellent choir, led by 
A. W. Ford, is found at church every Sabbath. 
The " Green Mountain Brass Band, (of which 
Capt. A. Fisk of Rochester is leader, and Gen. 
A. G. Allen drill-master,) consisting of 20 mem- 
bers, has merited and received a wide-spread 
reputation for its excellent music and gentlemanly 

Gold has been found to some extent in White 
River and its branches. It was first discovered by 
Cyrus Kennedy, who washed it from sand taken 
rom the bed of the i-iver. Having thus gathered 
several pieces worth fi-om $1 to $2 each, he pur- 
chased the land ; but for want of means, or other 
causes, no extensive mining was done. The land 
is now owned by the Hon. Stephen A. Thomas, 
and a charter is obtained under which it is ex- 
pected a more thorough investigation will soon 
be made. 

A limestone ledge has been discovered, and 
opened to some extent in the northerly part of the 
town on land owned by William C. Chaffee, Esq. 

The town contains 1 (Union) meeting-house, 
1 store, 1 tavern, 1 railroad station, and 1 snath 
factoiy, which furnishes employment for several 
men, and supplies tlie market with large quantities 
of scythe snaths annually. There are also 2 
post offices, 2 blacksmiths, 2 caniage makers, 
3 shoemakers, 8 carpenters, 3 clapboard mills, 
and 8 saw-mills. With such facilities the anti- 
quated dwellings, having answered their intended 
purposes, are now being rapidly superseded by 
more modern and convenient structures. 

A large grist and lumber mill has been erected 
the present year by E. N. Spalding, an energetic, 
practical, business man. The building is capa- 
cious, and thoroughly built in all its parts, and 
demonstrates well the character of its proprietor. 
It is situated near the junction of the three princi- 
pal branches of White River, near the centre of the 
town ; and this locality, from its water-power 
and other local facilities, is destined to become a 
place of considerable business. 


In Granville, June 5, by A. G. Allen, Esq., Mr. 
Edgar H. Chadwick and Miss Adelia A. Allen, both 
of Granville. 

You, sir, take the lady you hold by the hand, 
As your own lawful wife, by the laws of the land; 
Engaging to love her, and give her your aid, 
When health shall attend her, or sickness invade; 
To provide and support her, you covenant, sir; 
To forsake other lovers and cleave unto her; 
And do as God's law and the statutes advise, 
Till God send his message to sever these ties. 

And you, lady, take him you hold by the hand, 
To be your own husband, by the laws of the land; 
Engaging to cherish, to love and obey 
Him in sickness and health, through life's troubled 

His pleasures and sorrows you promise to share, 
As God's holy law and the statutes declare; 
Till Death, as a messenger sent from the skies, 
Shall sunder you from him, and sever these ties. 

To assent to these pledges, on you I now call, 
That they may be known and acknowledged by all; 
If each of you now will consent to these bands, 
You will here make it known by disjoining your 

Now I, by authority vested in me, 
Declare that you husband and wife shall now be, 
And call on all present, who purposely came. 
And God, your Creator, to witness the same. 

A. G. Allek. 


It is only by recurring to the chronicles of the 
past that we can anive at any appreciation of 
the ravages of time. Then we ascertain that the 
many things which were, are not ; that they with- 
ered at the touch of time, and were hmied into 
the dark chasm of forgetfulness. 

History reverts to the scenes of other times. 
We review the catalogue of names perpetuated 
in song ; we trace the Uvcs of those who bore 



them, from their youth upward; we mark the 
struggles thi'ough wliich they passed, the numer- 
ous obstacles encountered, the many trials under- 
gone for the emancipation of our country from 
hostile hands ; and as we muse we wander 
through the lapse of ages and hold communion 
with those great and good patriots of the past. 
We stand upon the battle-field ; wo see the clash- 
ing steel ; we hear the roar of the booming can- 
non, the death-groan of the victim. We pause. 
This is only the kindlings of imagination over 
the records of the past ; we can only regret the 
great, the good, the noble should thus have 
passed away. The dilapidated walls of archi- 
tectnre, the rusting sword on the cold floor of 
antiquity, the mouldering bones of tlio ancient 
wanior, all evince an invisible power whose mis- 
sion is to destroy. Where are the champions 
who fought in defence of the word of God, and 
caused its sacred light to penetrate the darkest 
recesses of superstition f Where those noble 
martyrs who suffered for the propagation of the 
truth, — who removed the mask that enveloped 
the face of Christendom, and caused the true 
''light to shine forth amid the gloom of darkness ? 
Where those brave pioneers of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, who caused the city of seven hills to totter 
upon its foundation ; who removed the biiers and 
brambles from the path of Christianity, and 
planted in their stead the seeds of piety and 
truth ? Then* deeds are recorded on the tablet of 
history ; their names have become immortalized 
by being linked with one of the great revolutions 
of the world. Yet, they are gone, — gone to the 
charnel-house of Time. Where is the wild, un- 
cultivated race, that traversed our hills and vales 
a few short ccntmies ago, unmindful of tlie rich 
soil beneath their feet ? Recediuo- from the sta<re 
of existence like a momentary vision, — as a 
race nearly extinct, doomed to annihilation. The 
hand of civilization, the children of education, 
have usurped the abode of ignorance, and in- 
culcated the moral principles of civilized life. 
Time, indeed, has made sad havoc of that strong 
and noble, tliough uncultivated race. And where 
shall we find the precedent of such a victor ? 
Shall we ascend the summit of renown for a 
rival ? Time plucks the fairest wreath from the 
brow of Fame. Shall we seek the patli of knowl- 
edge to find an equal 1 Time is knowledge ; for 
in him are all things accomplished. 

Celia M. Ball. 



Hancock lies in the S. E, comer of Addison 
county ; has one post-office, and 23,040 acres by 
charter, granted Nov. 7, 1780, chartered July 31, 
1781, by Vt. to Samuel Wilcox and his asso- 
ciates. The settlement was commenced in the 
year 1788, by Joseph Butts, from Canterbmy, 

Conn., Dan'l Claflin, from New Salem, and 
John Bellows, from Dalton, Mass., with their 
families. Several young men also began im- 
provements the same year, among whom were 
Zcnas Robbins, from Pittsfield, Mass., and Levi ' 
Darhng. Eben'r, son of Danl Claflin, was the 
first child born hei-e. 

The town was organized June 18, 1792. First 
town clerk, Zenas Robbins ; constable, Noah 
Cady ; selectmen, Dan'l Claflin, John Bellows, 
and Jas. Claflin. First justice of the peace, 
Esias Butts, 1799, and first rep. in 1800. First 
physician, Darius Smith, 1801, who lived and 
died in the town. 

The first public house was kept by Joseph 
Butts, at the now small village of Hancock; 
afterwards by Esias Butts for many years. Dan'l 
Claflin commenced on the mountain farm, on 
the road to Middlebury, in an eai-Iy day, and 
kept a public house for many years, a really con- 
venient place for travellers v/ho had to pass over 
the mountain through the then mostly wilderness 
countiy from East Middlebuiy to Hancock vil- 
lage, to wood and water up for the joui-ney, which 
they usually did, in those good old times, with a 
hearty good-will. The first sawmill and grist- 
mill was built by Zenas Robbins, about 1800; 
till then the inhabitants went to Stockbridge, some 
10 miles, to mill. 

Natm-e has suiTOunded us with her towering 
mountains and evergreen hills, her mimic sheets 
of water falling in beautiful cascades from their 
mountain homes, and uniting with each other 
until at last they form the beautiful Connecticut. 
On the summit of the mountain over which 
crosses the road to Middlebury, is a public house, 
called the Mount Vernon House, kept by Messrs. 
Packard. One half a mile from this place is the 
Mount Vernon pond, accessible only by ascend- 
ing steps cut in the rocks. The pond is one 
half mile in diameter, and affords to pleasure 
seekers a fine place for trouting, boat-riding, and 
exhaUng the pm-e mountain breezes. 


Gen. Alonzo G. Allen was born in Bar- 
nard, Sept. 2, 1811. His grandfather, Elnathan 
Allen, removed from Connecticut about the year 
1780, to the then wilderness of Vermont. He 
is said to have been a distant relative of " Old 
Ethan." Bo that as it may, the subject of this 
notice has shown by his life that whether lie be 
connected or not ^vith him by blood, he certainly 
inherits much of his spirit. 

Until the age of 14, he resided on his father's 
farm, remote from school, and noted for but two 
peculiarities, — a passionate love of books', and 
a waywardness of disposition, which would 
sooner yield to a mother's kind request than the 
father's stern command. 

His father at that time entering into commer- 



cial business, installed his son as clerk, who, 
being rather an apt scholar, soon learned the 
lessons usually taught in the N. E. ram and cod- 
fish shops of those days, and became, in modern 
parlance, a "fast boy." 

At the age of 1 7, a clergyman residing in the 
same district, (who had often tried to approach 
him with good counsel, and only met levity and 
boyish jests in return,) made application to his 
father to employ him as teacher in their district 
school, of which he was superintending com- 

The boy was taken aback, — the father hesi- 
tated ; but the clergyman insisted that Alonzo 
had all the elements of a good teacher. He en- 
tered the school, receiving the munificent remun- 
eration of $8 per month, and to the surprise of 
many, and the satisfaction of all, he waa suc- 

This was the turning point of his life. From 
that time, higher aspirations controlled his ac- 
tions ; and although deprived of a classical edu- 
cation which was intended for him, in consequence 
of the pecuniary reverses of his father, he made 
himself master of all the fundamental principles 
of an English education, and for some 30 years 
has been a teacher during the winter season in 
district schools, with uniform success ; and may 
be considered as one of the most untiring and 
active friends of the cause of popular education 
in the State. 

He removed to Granville in 1837. In 1838, 
was elected captain of the militia under the then 
existing laws, and served 5 years. In 1856, 
elected captain of the Green Mountain Rangers, 
which office he held until promoted to that of 
Judge Advocate General by the Legislature, in 
1857. He was elected town superintendent of 
schools upon the establishment of that office, 
and has continued to perform its duties to the 
present time with credit to himself, and signal 
benefit to his town. 

He lias served as justice of the peace for up- 
wards of 20 years ; represented his town in the 
legislature in 1843, '48, '56, and '57, and was 
elected Senator for Addison county in '59. 

In person. Gen. Allen funiishes a fine speci- 
men of a Green Mountain Boy, — 6 feet 2 inches 
in height, and well proportioned. May ho long 
live an example of an affectionate husband, a 
kind parent, and a useful citizen. 

Henry Jones. 


.Art thou a wanderer? doth no loved one's smile 
E'er meet thine own, thy sorrows to beguile? 
In this wide world, bast thou no heartfelt claim? 
Lingers there not within some cherished name 
Of one, perhaps, who far in childhood's hour, 
Won thy young heart, and still with lingering power 
Retains the precious gem, though time has wove 
A web which dims the lustre of thy love? 
Hast thou no harbor on life's troubled sea? 
Wanderer, there's rest in heaven for thee. 

Art thou a mourner? doth the cold earth cover 
The forms of loved ones all, none left to hover 
Around thy pathway? must thou tread alone 
Life's dreary walk, looking for naught beyond 
To smile upon thy toil? no word of love 
To recompense thee? Mourner, look above! 
When life's dull task is over, then thy soul 
Shall find its long anticipated goal; 
And friends shall smile and welcome thee with song, 
And thine own voice shall help the strain prolong. 
So murmur not, for when from earth once free, 
There's rest in heaven for weary souls like thee. 

Maby S. Bobbins. 



Leicester extends 6 miles east to west, and 
about 3i miles north to south. Middlebury and 
Brandon were laid out ^rior to Leicester and 
Salisbury, and the charter for these towns was in- 
tended to cover the territory between Middlebury 
and Brandon ; but when the survey was made, 
it was found there was not land enough on which 
to locate both towns. 

After a long controversy between the proprie-* 
tors, the line was run and established by a joint 
commission, consisting of members fl'om each 

The charter of the town is supposed to have 
been granted in 1761, and the first inhabitants 
settled as early as 1774. Jer. Parker and Sam'l 
Daniels, from Massachusetts, were the fii'st set- 
tlers who moved their families into Leceister. 
They had, two or three summers previous to 
their moving, worked on their land, and returned 
to their families in the fall. A son of Jer. Parker 
is said to have remained on his land alone during 
the winter, for tlie purpose of feeding his cattle, 
with no person nearer than iliddlebmy and Pitts- 

Jer. Parker and his son were taken by the In- 
dians during the Revolutionary war. The son 
was carried to Crown Point ; but the father being 
very deaf, was released. The family retmned to 
Massachusetts, where they remained until after 
the war. 

Chloe Parker, now the wife of Capt. Eben'r 
Jenney, and daughter of Jer. Parker, above 
named, is said to be the first white child bom in 
town, (March 2, 1777.) 

Sam'l Daniels was killed in a skirmish with 
the Indians in Shelburn. 

The town was rapidly settled after the close of 
the war, and organized in March, 1786. 

Eben'r Child was the first town clerk, — John 
Smith the first representative. 

There has been no church organized here, ex- 
cept the Methodist, by a preacher by the name of 
Mitchel, who came into town about the year 

A brick church was completed in 1829, erected 
by an association called the Leicester Meeting- 
House Society. 

The first physician in town, Dr. Elkanah Cook, 



was a self-taught botanic physician, much es- 
teemed as an upright man, and skilful practi- 
tioner, by the early inhabitants of Leicester and 
the adjoining towns. He was a stout, resolute 
man, with but little education, but possessed a 
sound judgment, and exercised considerable skill 
in bone-setting, and other surgical operations. 

There being no roads, he would take a pine 
torch and travel through the woods to visit tlie 
sick at all hours in the night, often the distance 
of 6 or 8 miles ; and no stormy weather ever hin- 
dered him. Such hardships, however, destroyed 
his health. He died Aug. 27, 1815, aged 77; 
but appeared much older. 

Prudence Barker, widow of John Barker, one 
of the earliest settlers, died Dec. 5, 1846, aged 
99 years and 9 months. She was the oldest 
person who has died in Leicester. 

Aaron Esty, another of the first settlers, died 
July 31, 1844, aged 98 years and 6 months. 

Thirza Robbins, widow of Moses Robbins, one 
of the early settlers, is now in her 93d year, and 
retains her mental faculties remarkably. She is 
the oldest inhabitant in the town. 

There are ten persons now living in town, 
over 80. The population is supposed to be about 

The soil of the town is fertile, and well 
adapted to agriculture, wliich has been the busi- 
ness of the inhabitants since the fii-st settlement. 
There being no water-power, or mechanical es- 
tablishment, the people are dependent upon Sal- 
isbury and Brandon for those conveniences. 

The Rutland and Burlington Railroad crosses 
the town near the west end, and the (miscalled) 
Whiting depot is in this town. And we have a 
daily mail. 

There is a mine of iron ore in the east part of 
the town, which has been extensively worked by 
the Forestdale Iron Company in Brandon, and 
large quantities of excellent stone lime are burned 
annually near the depot, and sent by railroad to 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and other places. 

The town of Leicester has always maintained 
its equal standing with other agricultural towns 
in the State ; and has furnished its fair propor- 
tion of men of talents suitable for legislation, the 
bench, the pulpit, and the bar. 



Henry Olin was born in Shaftsbury, May 
7, 1768. He was a son of Justice Olin. His 
mother's maiden name was Sarah Dwinnell. His 
father, as well as his grandfather, Henry, was a 
native of Rhode Island, in which State, at East 
Greenwich, his great-grandfather, John Olin, 
the first ancestor of the name in America, settled 
in 1678. Hon. Gideon Olin, of Shaftsbury, was 
an uncle of the subject of tliis sketch. 

Judge Olin settled in Leicester about the year 

1788. His parents followed some years later, 
and ended their days in Leicester. His early 
literary advantages were but moderate. Ou ac- 
count of his unwicldly size and awkward man- 
ners, the people of his adopted town were not at 
first mucli prepossessed in his favor. But his 
native wit, shrewdness, and sound sense soon ren- 
dered him a general favorite. He was chosen a 
member of the Legislature in 1799, and was 21 
times re-elected. He was first chosen an Assist- 
ant Judge of the County Court in 1801, which 
ofiice he held 8, and that of Chief Judge 15 
years, malcing 23 years of uninterrupted sei-vice 
upon the bench. He was chosen a State Coun- 
cillor in 1820, and '21, a member of Congress in 
'24, to complete the unexpired term of Hon. 
Charles Rich, deceased, and 3 consecutive years, 
from 1827, Lieut. Governor of the State. His 
popularity at home rose so high, that at one 
election he had nearly the unanimous vote of liis 
fellow townsmen for Governor. In politics he 
was a JcfFersonian Democrat, and a modem 
Whig, and in religion a zealous Methodist. 

He removed to Salisbury in the spring of 1837, 
and died there ou the 18th of August following. 
His ashes repose in the graveyard in the town in 
which he spent most of his life, and in whose 
affairs he bore a far more conspicuous part than 
any other man has ever done. His father, 
mother, and first wife are all interred near him. 

Judge Olin was twice mai-ricd, first in 1788, to 
Lois Richardson, one of a family of 12 children, 
who ail lived to mature age, and were all members 
of a Baptist church, in the east part of Cheshire, 
Mass. By her he had 9 children, — 2 sons and 7 
daughters — who reached mature age, and 2 sons 
who died in infancy. Among the former were 
the celebrated Dr. Stephen Olin, and Mrs. Mosea 
Wright, mother of Rev. Moses Emoiy Wright, 
who was born and reared in Leicester, graduated 
at Weslcyan University, Middletown, Ct., in 
1853, and is now a minister in the N. E. Confer- 
ence of the M. E. Church. Judge Olin's second 
wife was a widow Bamum, whose maiden name 
was Polly Sanford. She still survives. 

In his pliysical proportions, the Judge was al- 
most gigantic. He was the oracle of the com- 
munity, and his conversation the charm of any 
company in wliich he happened to be. " When 
passing a neighbor's house of a summer's day," 
says a fcUow townsman, " he would stop in the 
street, or under some convenient shade, his 
wagon, wliich would at once be surrounded by 
the f;imily, men, women, and children, and, with- 
out alighting, he would tell them a few favorite 
stories, and pass on. Many a man has thus been 
beguiled of his day's work ; many a woman has 
suffered her nearly cooked dinner to spoil, and 
many a child forgotten its playthings. While 
his hearers were bursting with roars of laughter, 
the Judge would remain composed, and appar- 
ently asleep ; but as the laughter began to sub- 
side in others, it began to operate in himself. 



There would be an opening of -the eyes, broad, 
beaming with fun, then an internal shaking of 
the body by two or three long-suppressed convul- 
sions, which did not move the muscles of his 
face, and the matter ended. 

Ho was likewise possessed of a retentive mem- 
ory, which enabled him, by reading and observa- 
tion, to repair many of the deficiencies of his 
early education, of a clear perception of right, 
an ardent love of justice, and unbending recti- 
tude, — qualities which account for the esteem in 
which he was held as a judge and legislator. He 
was a man of strict morality, and very useful as 
a peacemaker among his neighbors, thus prevent- 
ing many a petty lawsuit and neighb6rhood 
quarrel, of which he had great abhorrence. 


bom in Leicester, March 3, 1797, was, in phys- 
ical proportions, one of the grandest types of the 
human kind ; a man of the kindUest feelings, — 
constant in friendship, and of the noblest impulses. 
Like his father, while the grandeur of his in- 
tellect commanded respect, his wit and good 
humor made him a universal favorite. He was 
one of our deep, original thinkers, possessing 
wonderful powers of description and analysis, 
an able speaker, and ready writer. His mind, 
like Webster's, was ever equal to the occasion, 
and might be compared, in the language of the 
eloquent Hilliard, to a mighty stream, the trans- 
parency of which concealed its depth, and its 
depth concealed its mighty flow. 

Mr. Olin graduated at Middlebury College in 
1820, where he had distingiiished himself for 
ripe scholarship, and has ever since been regarded 
as one of the brightest lights that ever emanated 
from that institution of learning. The valedic- 
tory oration had been assigned to him, but sick- 
ness prevented his performing that honorable 

After recovering from this illness he removed 
South, where he labored successfully as a 
teacher. He had designed to make the law his 
profession, in keeping with his father's desire, 
who saw unmistakable evidence, in his son's 
character and ability, that success in that field 
would croAvn his efforts. But becoming imbued 
with the principles of Methodism, which appealed 
more forcibly to his sense of duty to God and to 
man, he turned his great powers into a channel 
which brought liim into high sympathy with the 
nobler attributes of- 'man, and won for him undy- 
ing fame. 

In 1824 he joined the South Carolina Confer- 
ence, was admitted into the travelling ministry, 
and stationed at Charleston. As a preacher, 
earnest, faithful, and sincere, possessing in a 
wonderful degree that power which causes the 
hearer to feel what is said, his pulpit efforts were 
like the overwhelming rush of a mighty Niagara, 
— the manifestation of a conscious power which 
knew no bounds. 

.In 1826 he was elected professor of belles-let* 
tres in Franklin College, Georgia; in 1828, or- 
dained an elder in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; in 1832, elected president of the Ran- 
dolph Macon College, and in 1834 the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by 
three colleges, and LL. D. by Yale College in 
1845. In 1837, in consequence of feeble health, 
he journeyed to the old world, where he travelled 
several years ; the results of which may be found 
in his published " Travels in the Holy Land."* 

While absent, he was elected President of the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. On his 
return, in 1840, his health being still precarious, 
he resigned, but was reelected in 1842; and 
though in feeble health, continued laboring with 
great zeal for the cause of education and religion, 
till the 16th of August, 1851, when this great 
and good man paid the debt of nature, with 
the calm assurance that all would be well, — yea, 
more than well ! 

In a sketch of this kind, generalities only can 
be given, which can do nothing like justice to the 
character of such a man as Dr. Olin. Yet so 
well did he perform his part in life, so true wa3 
he to his highest sense of duty, his name will 
ever be associated with all that is noble and god- 
like. For further information concerning him, 
the reader is referred to the published works, and 
" Life and Letters of Dr. Olin," (from the pages 
of which the facts in this sketch are taken,) which 
best reveal the majesty of his talents and the 
purity of his soul. A. E. Stanley. 



The human mind is as the thoughts with 
which it is chiefly conversant. It is very much 
the creature of its own ideas. The man who 
from early life has been familiar with topics and 
interests of great significance, is educated by 
them. His intellect takes its character and color- 
ing from the ideas which habitually act upon it 
and dwell in it. Even the sights and sounds 
that engage his outward senses, — the beautiful 
landscape, or the sublime mountain scenery upon 
wliich he has long been accustomed to gaze, — the 
roar of the cataract which sends forth its thun- 
der night and day near his dwelling-place, — will 
by-and-by be fotmd to have filled the imagination 
and the memory with images and recollections, 
and with sentiment, which are likely to exert a 
strong and permanent influence upon his mental 
capacity, upon his character, and his destiny. 
Still more must every-day pursuits, and the pro- 
found interest that suggests the current topics of 
conversation and thought, and that imposes upon 
the mind its most stirring, strenuous employ- 

* Travels in the East, 2 vols., numerous smaller 
works, and 2 vols, of his miscellaneous writings, have 
been published since his decease. 



ments, leave upon it durable impressions, and 
become cfeief and influential conditions of its de- 
velopment and growth. If two individuals, equal 
ill capacity and education, spend their lives in a 
great industrial establishment, the one as owner 
or superintendent, the other as a common laborer, 
the master is likely to become a man of decided 
ability, of comprehensive views, inventive genius, 
and sound judgment, wliile the operative makes 
no progress beyond the acquisition of some de- 
gree of skill in his own special department. The 
first has a variety of interests to consult, and re- 
sponsibilities to meet ; has questions to settle and 
decisions to make eveiy day or hour, upon which 
are suspended results of no inconsiderable mo- 
ment. This gives variety, multiplicity, and ac- 
tivity to his ideas, and the mind expands and 
acquires new vigor by such processes. The work 
of the subaltern, on the contrary, is mere routine, 
and his mind stagnates and dwindles amid the 
incessant, monotonous whirling of spindles and 

That is likely to become the most powerful 
intellect which is most constantly and earnestly 
busied with great thoughts and great designs. 

The mind wants an ample supply 

of worthy ideas to furnish it with interesting, 
productive occupation. With these it must make 
progress and attain development ; but without 
them, never. This truth is important, not to stu- 
dents only, but to all who desire mental growth 
aod discipline. It is especially important for 
those who labor at occupations little friendly to 
intellectual improvement. Such persons should 
seek a remedy for the disadvantage of their posi- 
tion by reading good books, which are the great 
storehouse of ideas and thoughts, and which ofiFer 
a ready and sufficient resource. 


Athens, April 17, 1828. 

As you make no allusion to the 

fact, I presume you have not heard of my being 
married. The event, interesting at least to me, 
took place in April, last year. I was married to 
Mary Ann Eliza Bostick, in Milledgeville, in this 
State. She is a native of Georgia. I supposed 
that even these small circumstances might have 
interest for you, derived from our long commu- 
Dity of sentiment and views. I need not say 
anything of her who is the partner of my joys 
and ills, since a man is proverbially unfit to por- 
tray his wife, through a common weakness, from 
which I can plead no exemption. 


I remained more than a year in Paris, deriving 
no benefit from the best medical advice which 
that capital afforded, and hovering continually 
upon the borders of the grave. I was accompa- 
nied, however, by a beloved and honored wife, 
herself in the vigor and bloom of health, and 
every way fittec to bo the minister of the richest 

earthly blessings which it has pleased God to 
confer upon me. Earely endowed with the talent 
of doing good, and communicating happiness, 
and a bright example of the conjugal vii-tues, — 
patient, indefatigable, and inventive ; full of 
cheerfulness, hope, courage, and faith, she was 
the angel of my sick-room, who watched by my 
restless pillow day and night during these dreary 
months, anticipating and satisfying the wants of 
my situation, with a skill and untiring assiduity 
which strong affection can alone inspire and sus- 
tain. It is not surprising, perhaps, that, under the 
divine blessing upon auspices so benign, I passed 
successfully through this ttying crisis. 

The ensuing autumn and the winter of 1838- 
'39 were spent in a visit to London, a joiuney 
through Belgium and France, and a residence 
of three months in Rome, all rendered doubly 
delightful by the sense of returning health, and 
by the presence and ardent and intelligent par- 
ticipation of one to whom I was so much in- 
debted for this unspeakable blessing. 

Naples, May 14, 1839. 

I have lately been called to pass through a 
scene of deep overwhelming distress. God in 
his mysterious but righteous providence, has 
taken from me my beloved and honored wife, 

who expired in this city on the 7th inst 

The night previous was one of great distress, 
and I thought her insensible to everything. At 
about 5 o'clock she opened her eyes, and looking 
at me for some time, she said, with tender con- 
cern, " My dear, you have been sitting by my 
bed the whole night." She seemed desirous that 
I should speak to her, though I had refrained it on account of her weakness. It was ap- 
parent she was soon to depart, though I did not 
suppose her end was so near. I said to her that 
I thought she would die to-day. She said she 
thought so, too, and added, in answer to my in- 
quiry as to the state of her mind, that she felt 
herself to be near the kingdom of heaven. These 
were her last words. LTnable to speak, she yet 
gave a most interested attention and cordial as- 
sent to a number of passages from the Holy 
Scriptures, which I quoted for her consolation. 
She sat up in the bed as she had done throughout 
her illness, being unable to bear a recumbent pos- 
ture, or even the support of pUlows. She had 
inclined forward and rested upon my hand. 

I repeated some lines to her from the beautiful 
hymn, beginning, — 

" On Jordan's stormy banks I stand," 

lines which she had often sung to comfort me 
when apjDarently on the verge of eternity. I 
said, " O death ! where is thy sting ? O grave ! 
where is thy victory ?"...! quoted that 
and many similar passages of Scripture which 
pressed upon my recollection with affluence, 
which, even at that dread moment, shed a ray 
of comfort on my breaking lieart. She still gave 



tokens of attention and assent. The blessed 
words of Christ in his last prayer, before he was 
betrayed, were upon my lips : " Father, I will 
that they also whom thou hast given me be with 
me where I am, that they may behold my glory 
which thou hast given me." " Yes, my dear," 
I said, " Christ wills that you should be with him 
where he is, to behold his glory, where are the 
Father and the spirits of just men made perfect." 
At that moment her head fell from my hand, and 
the last struggle began. She spoke no more, 
though she continued to breathe till near 10 
o'clock, A. M. 


Lone, devious wastes and wilds I tried, — 
The arid plain, — the mountain high, — 

Where yawning caverns loudly cried, 
" One step leads to eternity." 

But He who sends his angel-train 

To make the heirs of life secure. 
Made valleys hills, and hills a plain, 

And made my sliding footsteps sure. 

I saw the angry tempest frown, 
And set his vengeful hosts at strife; 

He sent his dark tornadoes down, 
To gorge them on the spoils of life. 

But while the fury of the Lord 

Was poured on lifeless Nature's breast, 

I claimed the promise of his word, 
And 'neath his sheltering wings had rest. 

Unhurt I felt the noontide ray, 

And drank the poison of the air; 
For God my refuge was by day. 

And midnight watches owned his care. 

Being eternal! "King of kings!" 
Whose courts adoring seraphs throng. 

From whom the hope of mortals springs, 
To whom their songs of praise belong, 

Oh, may thy providence and grace. 

Which blessed, sustained, and broughtme here, 
Be still my strength and hiding-place. 

Through all the changes of the year! 

S. Olin. 


Sweet flower of Spring! I welcome thee with joy. 

As, from the cloud-veiled sky, when darkness rests 

Upon the plains of earth, and dismal winds 

Are howling the sad dirge of blighted hopes, 

A star shines mildly out, and with a beam 

Of heavenly innocence, bespeaks the pure 

And hinting brightness of celestial joys; 

So, on the stormy plain of life, — beset 

With trembling fears, and disappointed hopes, 

Thy tiny form goes ever on before, 

Chasing earth's sensual vapors from my heart. 

Like pure evangel guiding it toward heaven. 

Already from this breast affection's tendrils 

Have gone, strong out, and caught thy tender form. 

Yes, my sweet child, I love thee! love thee so, 

Henceforth, sustained by his almighty arm 

Who holds revolving worlds obedient 

* A record of the year 1826; the unstudied effusion 
of a tried spirit yet in the furnace, — melted, but not 
consumed; written on the eve of Dec. 31, in a dreary 
inn at Barnewell, " in the midst of a wild and sterile 

To his omnipotence, yet stoops to earth, 

And e'en the humble sparrow' guards from harm. 

My great desire shall be to keep thy feet 

From every path of sin. Sweet task of love! 

To guard a soul immortal from temptation's power, 

And bring it home to God. More glorious work 

Can never angel's ransomed powers engage. 

Than that which travels back to time's great source. 

And from the garner of Omniscience draws 

God's free, unbounded mercy to its aid. 

In training an immortal soul for heaven. 

Rev. L. S. Walker, 
Methodist clergyman at Leicester. 

There's love beneath the old roof-tree 
Which nowhere else I iind; 
I've"sought amid the proud and gay, 
But left it far behind. 
Take, take me home ; the old moss-roof 
Will shelter me again. 
As when I wove bright fancy's woof. 
In childhood's golden train. 
The dear old trees, where sunbeams sleep. 
Reach out their arms for me; 
Oh, take me home, and let me weep 
Beneath the old roof-tree!. 

Oh, take me home! my father stands 

Beneath that dear loved tree. 

With watchful eye, and outstretched hands. 

And calls in vain for me. 

Oh, let me go ! my sister sighs, 

And startles in her sleep; 

And on her lips one loved word dies, 

She calls my name, and weeps. 

Yes, let me go ; I'm weary here, 

From dearest friends apart. 

Oh, take me home, my mother dear, 

And fold Tne to your heart ! 

Ada MoCanoh. 



Lincoln first embraced a territory about 6 
miles square. In 1824, a strip of the eastern 
side, two miles in width, was joined to "Warren, 
and an addition, 1 mile in width, made to the 
western side by the annexation of a part of Bris- 
tol, and in 1848 Avery's Gore was annexed on 
the south. 

Potato Hill, an elevated peak of the mountain 
on the east, lies' just within the limits of the 
town. This peak commands a fine view of the 
sun'ounding country, and is a place of frequent 
resort during the summer season. The sux-face"^ 
of the town is rather uneven, the northern and 7 
^southern parts being more elevated, descending 
Dy a gradual slope toward the New Haven river. 
This river flows in a N. "W. direction into Lin-\ 
coin, where it is joined by another considerable \ 
stream, and flows on through the central part of^ 
the town, into Bristol. This is a clear stream, 
having for the most part a stony channel, often 
broken by precipitous descents over ledges of 
rock. Its mill privileges are numerous. A.\ 
stranger, on entering the town from the west, is \ 
forcibly struck with tko romantic wilduess of tbo ) 



Bcenery. The land is generally rugged and 
stony, but not wanting in the materials of a good 

In 1790, the town was granted to Col. Benj. 
Simons and G4 associates, by a charter from the 
Vt. Government. Date of the charter, Nov. 9, 
1790. In 1794, Dec. 10, a suiTcy having been 
made, and lots numbered, each proprietor was 
assigned two divisions of 100 acres each ; these 
divisions comprised about 3-5 of the grant; the 
remaining 2-5 were divided the next year. 

The first settlements were made in the north 
part of the to^vn, early in the spring of 1795, by 
Loi-cn Orvis, Lawrence Dclong, and Marcus 
Heading, who entered at nearly the same time, 
in the montli of March. The only improvements 
that had been made previous to this time, con- 
sisted of one or two log-houses, and a road that 
had been cleared from the north toward the cen- 
tral part of the town. 

In the year following, several new settlers took 
up their residence in the town. Tlie privations 
and hardsliips incident to the country in the early 
periods of settlement fell to their lot. Being 
destitute of wagons, they used sleds both summer 
a~tid winter. The nearest stores were at Middle- 
bury and Vergenncs, and the nearest grist-mill 
at New The want of passable roads 
and of accessible places of business, the fierce- 
ness of wolves, and the general destitution of 
common conveniences, rendered their condition 
peculiarly hard and trying. It seems that in 3 
years after the first settlement, the number of in 
habitants was sufiScicnt to render a town organi" 
zation expedient. Accordingly, it was effected 
on the second Tuesday of March, 1798. How. 
land Dclong, town clerk, Loren Orvis, Jed. Diir- 
\ fty, and Jas. Vamcy, selectmen, and Sam'l 
VEastman, cons. 

A log schoolhouse was built near the old grave- 
yard, and a school established as early as 1797, 
and was the only school for Lincoln, the south 
part of Starksboro', and a pait of Bristol. It is^ 
said the first school was tauglitj by Olive Du rfey. 
Other schools were established in the com-se of a 
few years. 

Most of the early settlers belonged to the Soci- 
ety of Friends, and meetings for worship were 
instituted among them at an early date ; these 
were held for some time at private bouses, until 
a log meeting-house was built on a piece of land 
now in possession of Hannah Brown. This 
branch of the Society of Friends was for many 
years in a flourishing condition. They are now 
few in number, but continue to hold meetings for 
worship, and for business. The first organiza- 
tion of the Society was July 16, 1801. 

The Clnistian society organized Nov. 13, 1840 ; 
first No. of members, 20 ; present No. 86 ; Merritt 
W. Powers, first pastor ; Milo Durfey, present 
Bastor. The Methodists organized in 1836 ; their 
present number is 82. There was formerly a Free- 

o I 

will Baptist church, but they no longer exist as a 
religious body. The first recorded death, Eliza- 
beth, wife of Samuel Eastman, Sept. 29, 1797; first 
recorded maniage, Samuel Meadcr and Phebe 
Delong, Dec. 10,.1801 ; first bom, Harlcy Head- 
ing ; greatest known longevity, Thomas Lee, 93 
years, 13 days, died May 29, 1859 ; oldest person 
living in town, Maiy Nichols, 95 in June, 1859; 
first physician in town, Benj. Fober ; post- 
ofBce established July 23, 1835, Luther M. Kent 
first P. M.; first store kept by Joseph Blanchard, 
1829; present No. of stores, 2, of school dis- 
^■icts, 11, and population by census, 1850, 1,057. 

The year 1830 is celebrated by the occuiTonceV 
of a severe and destructive freshet. On the 
night of the 2Gth of July, the rains of the two 
preceding days and nights had raised the prin- 
cipal streams to such a height, that trees, bridges, 
mills, forges, and dwelling-houses were swept 
away in its toiTcnt. The soil and the crops 
in many places suffered the same destruction. 
The loss of property occasioned by this freshet 
is said to have been severe. Many narrowly 
escaped with their lives from the fury of its 

Lumber, wrought iron, maple sugar, among^ 
other productions, are exported to a considerable / 
extent. Several saw-mills, and elapboard-ma- / 
chines are in active operation. There are two iron 
foi-ges that manufacture large quantities of iron. 

The town is now in a prosperous condition, 
and has been rapidly improving in tlu'ift and ap- 
pearance within a few years. 

From Lincoln we give the only specimen of 

[versification obtained. For many years there re- 

idcd in this town one of those eccentric beings, 

;ompoundcd of shiftlessness and oddity, spiced 

ith a knack at extempore rhyming. One time 
McComber, our present hero, was lounging 
around a new tavern, recently fitted up from an 
old building where meetings had been formerly 
held. The landlord preferring liis departure be- 
fore dinner, plainly hinted his room would be 
better than his custom, whereupon, a waggish 
friend present, knowing Mc Comber's talent, sug- 
gested that he should make a verse in honor of 
the new house, and the proprietor should give 
him a dinner. The landlord, having no objec- 
tion to a poetical compliment upon his stand, 
consented to the an-angement ; but demanded 
the verse before dinner. The poet claimed the 
dinner first. At length they compromised, — 
half the verse before dinner, and the other half 
after, and McComber at once recited, — 

There swings a sign, — 'tis made of pine, 
And hangs among the trees; 

Adjourning the completion till he had de- 
voured the waiting dinner, with a facetious smile, 
he readily repeated and concluded, — 

There swings a sign, — 'tis made of pine, 

And hangs among the trees ; 
This house was once a house of prayer, 

But now a den of thieves. 




Along the river road, from Bristol to Lincoln, 
is perhaps as wild and picturesque a highway as 
may be found in our 

"Land of the mountain and the rock." 

J Great boulders are more numerous, and larger 
// than elsewhere seen. Huge rocks, in one place, 

/ right and left, deep-bedded, extend into the road. 
The traveller rides beneath the shadow of the 
rock, and might shudder at the uplifted front of 
crushing weight, but the firm column looks too 
strong to totter, too solid to fall ; even the slim 
mossing, and puny shrubs that struggle for ex- 
istence in the slight fissures, give sense of secu- 
rity. The heart of the beholder only beats a little 
quicker, fuller, deeper. 

Below this rocky pass, a few rods, the murmur 
of a waterfall draws away from the roadside, 
out upon a table rock. The New Haven river 
is noted for the beauty of several falls ; but 
you feel none can excel tliis, nestled in the gorge 
of the mountains, outpouring from its broad- 
rimmed basin, down its wide and well-worn cir- 
cular and gradually descending steps, a constant 
volume of clear water, whose uttered voice comes 
op like the pure alto in some tranquilly trium- 
phant hymn. You long to be painter and poet 
there, but rather painter ; for both the fall and its 

', frame of scenery around, smile at the effort of 
words, and exceed the beauty of a pen-picture.* 



1761. MiDDLEBURT was chartered Nov. 2, 
1761, — 68 shares to 62 grantees. John Everts, 
Esq. having tlu-ee towns to survey, named the 
one on the south Salisbury, the one on the north 
New Haven, and the third, from its middle posi- 
tion, Middlebury. 

1766. John Chipman came from Salisbury, 
Conn, with 15 young men. They cut their way 
through the wilderness to their different destina- 
tions. Chipman made choice at Middlebury, 
and cleared the first land in town, 6 or 8 acres ; 
but did not then make a permanent settlement. 

1773. Benjamin Smalley, from Salisbury, 
Conn, was the first settler who came with his 
family, and built of logs the first house in town. 
John Cliipman and Gamaliel Painter soon after 
came with their families. 

1774. This year Robert Torrence and family 
settled. The other settlers before the war were 
Joshua Hyde, Wm. Hopkins, Daniel Foot, Sim- 
eon Chandler, Enoch Dewy, Joseph Plumlcy, 
John Hinman, Jas. Bently, Philip Foot, and 
Eber Evarts. 

Upon our return to Bristol village, we were 
gratified to find among the landscape sketches at Dr. 
J. M. F. Walker's, a very correct one of this charm- 
lug fall. 

1776. The fii-st recorded deaths are those of 
Zerah Smalley, who died Dec. 1, 1776, aged 
18, and his sister Anah, the February following, 
aged 20. 

1778. The settlers built their first log school- 
house, and Miss Eunice Heep taught the first 
school in the settlement. Tliis memorable fall 
there was a general destruction of property and 
capture of prisoners all along the borders of the 
Champlain, which caused a complete desertion 
of the settlement till after the close of the war. 
The settlers buried in the earth what of their 
effects they could not take in their flight. Olive, 
daughter of Robert ToiTcnce, who was but five 
years old when her father came to Middlebury, 
gave, a short time before her death, (in 1850, at 
the age of 84,) the following account. They 
came down Otter Creek on a raft, and built their 
cabin on the spot Avhere the family still reside. 
At the time of the flight she was 8 years old. 
When the rumors of the depredations in adjoin- 
ing settlements came, the men left theii- hoeing, 
and hollowed out from the trunk of trees six 
canoes which they held in instant readiness. In 
August the message came. The Tories and In- 
dians were approaching. They buried their 
sugar, flour, pewter, &c. under the floor of their 
cabin. Her mother went out once more to look 
upon the promising gai'den vines she had taken 
so much pains to culture ; then they all pro- 
ceeded down to the creek, where a raft was con- 
structed upon which the women, children, and 
goods were placed, and their journey commenced 
up the creek, their only highway. " Mrs. Bently 
carried in her arms the first child bom in town, 
— Hannah Bently, — ^which being the only infant 
among us attracted much attention." The fugi- 
tives landed at Pittsford, where a military post 
was stationed. "Mrs. Torrence followed the 
train of women and children, cairying in her 
arms a child * two years old, in a sort of double 
gown brought over her shoulders." Met a regi- 
ment of soldiers drawn up in front of her. The 
colonel recognized her, and called out, "My God, 
there's Sally Peek!" (her maiden name.) "It 
makes a man's eyes run to see you brought to 
this ! " At his suggestion the soldiers gave up 
their quarters to the women and children. The 
family were absent from Middlebury 8 years, 7 
of which !Mr. Torrence was employed in casting 
ordnance for the army. 

Judge Painter, though driven from his home, 
did not leave the State till the British had gained 
a dangerous control over all western Vermont. 
He had been acquainted with Ethan Allen before 
he came to Vermont, and was " intimately asso- 
ciated with him, Warner, and Baker, in their 
movements." Ho once visited the British post 

* We do not know how Miss Torrence or our histo- 
rian reconciles the statement of Hannah Bently, an 
infant on the raft, being the first born in the settle- 
ment, when Mr. Torrence and family settled in 1774, 
and Mrs. Torrence is here introduced with a child 
two years old in her arms. 



■while they held Crown Point, in order to spy out 
their condition and plans. Ho played the part 
of a half idiot, " taking with him a basket in 
which he canied a little butter, a few eggs, and 
gome notions to sell among tlie soldiers." The 
guard had been instructed to let no suspicious 
person pass, and Painter, notwithstanding his 
appropriate dress and foolish appeai-ance, was too 
suspicious-looking ; hence, instead of being ad- 
mitted into the fort, he was taken into a boat and 
rowed toward a large boat in which were the su- 
perior officers, before whom he was to be carried 
for examination. He knew he was in the power 
of an enemy who would soon be able to prove 
the falsity of his feigned character. He saw that 
the eyes of the officers were watching his eveiy 
movement, but, as though seeing not, suspect- 
ing not, and casting liimself down into the 
boat, began to count over to himself the profits 
of his traffic. If he sold mother's butter for so 
much per pound, and sister Susy's eggs for so 
much apiece, — this innocent unconcern and 
idiotic gibbering saved him. The officers began 
to dread the ridicule it might bring upon them to 
take so much pains to capture a " perfect idiot," 
and upon a little consultation turned their boat 
about and allowed him to enter the fort and 
traffic with the soldiers ; which being done, he 
hurried his departure with a fixed resolution 
never to hazard his life in another such under- 

At another time, passing through a Tory nest 

in Clarendon, meeting three men on horseback, 

he escaped suspicion by boldly inquiring, before 

they could challenge him, for their rendezvous, — 

'/ the residence of their leader. 

Col. Chipman was first commander at Fort 
Edward, and next at Fort George. Of the latter 
he was commander at the time of the capture 
of the garrison. Not aware of the proximity of 
the enemy, he had sent out all his forces except 
60 or 70 men in scouting parties. Surprised by 
" an overwhelming force, the garrison was forced 
to sun-ender." He was taken prisoner, but ex- 
changed in 1781, and afterward rose to the rank 
of major. While in command of the forts, Mrs. 
Chipman remained with him ; and Mi-s. Loomis, 
his daughter, has now in possession his orderly 
book, in which is "an order for a court-martial 
signed by Col. Warner, supposed to be in his 
own handwriting." 

1783. The former settlers began to return in 
April, — Benjamin Smalley, Bill Thayer, Jona- 
than Chipman, vrith their families, Daniel Foot 
and his five sons, and Joshua Hyde. 

1784. Judge Painter, Col. Chipman, and 
Robert Torrence returned. Robert Torrence 
built and occupied a brick house, which is still 
standing, till his death in 1816. And here his 
two daughters lived and died. Mr. Torrence 
served in the French war, ■" and it is supposed 
with the Green Mowntain Boys, under Ethan 
Allen. They were special friends in after life, 

and had exchanged guns and powder flasks." 
" The former," Mr. Battcll says, " I saw, which 
the good ladies preserved with religious care, — 
a long duck piece, hanging up, loaded in a spirit 
not unworthy of a token of the hero of the 
Grants." John Chipman soon sun-ounded him- 
self with the luxuries of life. On the site of his 
first cabin, he built " a handsome brick house, 
which he opened for the entertainment of trav- 
ellers coming into the country." The colonel 
was " a man of commanding person and ad- 
dress, with talents peculiarly fitted for an execu- 
tive officer." From 1789 to 1801, he was county 
sheriff, and much of the time held offices of trust 
in town. He died in 1829, aged 84. The fol- 
lowing is his own summary of services in the 

" I turned out, at the commencement of the war, 
as a volunteer with Col. Ethan Allen, in the 
spring of 1775, to take Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point. In May or June, I received a second 
lieutenant's commission in Capt. Grant's com- 
pany, Col. Seth Warner's regiment. Went into 
Canada; was at the taking of St. John and 
Montreal; was discharged at Montreal, and re- 
turned home in the first part of December. In 
the summer of 1776, 1 received a first lieutenant's 
commission in Capt. Smith's company, Seth War- 
ner's regiment, and joined the army at Ticon- 
deroga in March, 1777. I was in the retreat with 
the army, and was in the battle of Hubbardton. 
I was also in the battle of Bennington, so called, 
on the 16th of August of that year, and was at 
Saratoga at the taking of Burgoyne in Octo- 
ber. We were ordered to Fort Edward and Fort 
George in 1778 and 1779. I was promoted to a 
captaincy, and served in that capacity until Oc- 
tober, 1780, when I was taken prisoner at Fort 
George. I remained in this situation until the 
summer of 1781, when I was exchanged, and re- 
mained a supernumerary until the close of the 
war. Col. John Chipman." 

Daniel Foot was the man for a pioneer. " There 
must be forests to subdue, and new dwellings to 
erect, or it was no place for him." It was said 
he owned more than a thousand acres before the 
war; but, having buried his wife, he divided 
among his children his property at Middlebury, 
and at the age of 80 started off " to make a new 
settlement in Canton, then a wilderness." " On 
his way through Montreal, he took the smallpox, 
of which he died a few days after his arrival. 
He died at last in the woods, and for lack of 
boards for a coffin, was laid in bark from an elm 

Capt. Stephen Goodrich and tiis two sons, 
William and Amos, came into town the spring 
of 1784. The father returned after they had 
taken possession, leaving his two sons to make 
a commencement before he moved his family. 
They erected a shanty, and spent the summer in 
clearing the land. Amos, in his old age, de- 



clared to Mr. Battell, who visited him to gather 
incidents in regard to the early settlement, that 
" he never was happier than in this solitary 
place." A few strips of bark on the roof above 
their bed protected them from the rain, and a few 
slabs of basswood logs, set up about them, kept 
oiF the wind. The whole region around the falls 
was a dense hemlock forest. Only Foot was on 
Foot street, Chipman and Painter beginning 
again, in the southwest part of the town. Hop 
Johnson in the village quarter, and "Washburn 
building a saw-mill. Not till 1785 were other 
farms commenced. The same year his father, 
with his mother and sister, came on with cart 
and oxen, five cows, etc. Guided by marked 
trees they made their way through the wilder- 
ness to the river, where the family and cart were 
floated down the creek on a raft. There were no 
cattle near them the first two summers ; the 
third, each of the neighbors had a cow. Stephen 
Goodrich died in 1823, aged 93 ; Amos in 1784, 
aged 57 ; William in 1812, aged 90. 

1784 or 1785. Abisha "Washburn, of Salis- 
bury, Conn. " spent the summer in getting up a 
saw-mill on the falls. In the fall, he went to 
Salisbury, and the authorities of Massachusetts 
engaged him to cast cannon for the impending 
war. In the spring of 1784, Washburn retm-ned 
• to rebuild the mill which had been destroyed 
by the Indians during the war, and by the aid 
of Chipman and Painter, the mill was in opera- 
tion in 1785, but swept away by a freshet the 
succeeding spring." Washburn made the first 
and only settlement in the neighborhood of the 
village before the war. He died in 1813, aged 91. 

1786. Stillman Foot in 1786 built a house 
for his family, which is the oldest dwelling-house 
now remaining, and occupied by J. S. Bushnell, 
Esq. Daniel Foot built the first bridge across 
the creek ; the abutments of logs, the string- 
pieces single, formed from pine trees, and the 
whole covered with poles. The village was or- 
ganized the same year at the house of Daniel 
Foot, and the first highways surveyed. 

1787. Dea. Ebenezer Sumner, who settled 
in 1787, was one of the first deacons in the Con- 
gregational church ; a man of piety and a " faith- 
ful supporter of religious institutions." He died 
in 1844, aged 87. His widow, who died at the 
age of 84, in 1853, gave the following relation. 
She was married in 1780, and came 10 days after 
to Wells, Rutland Co. where they lived 7 years, 
and then with their little family removed to Mid- 
41ebury. Their log-house stood at the north end 
of Foot street, and so darkened by the wood at 
first it was veiy gloomy. Before the organiza- 
tion of the church there was with some of the 
people much religious interest, and they came 
into meeting, from a distance, on ox-sleds. She 
did not remember the names of the first preach- 
ers, but Dr. Smith preached two or three times a 
year before Mr. Bamet came, who was ordained 

in a barn. One summer the meetings were held 
in her husband's barn. She remembered the 
dysentery, so fatal about 40 years before. "A 
grave was opened in town evcrry day for 4 weeks." 

1787. John Willard, M. D., commenced 
practice in Middlebury about 1787. From 1801 
to 1810 he was marshal of the district of Ver- 
mont. Becoming noted as a politician, ho 
dropped his practice and gave himself to politi- 
cal duties ; for a number of years was chairman 
of the central committee of the Republican 
party ; one of the directors of the Vermont State 
Bank tiU the Middlebury branch was closed, and 
in 1812 appointed county sheriff. The doctor 
was a native of Madison, Conn. " His father, 
Capt. John Willard, a shipmaster, died when he 
was a child." For awhile, he aided his mother 
in canying on their small farm, but growing 
tired of farming, went to sea, where he was taken 
by the British and " subjected to the horrors of 
the Jersey prison-ship." After his release, he 
became " quarter-master in a Connecticut regi- 
ment of volunteers, and served to the close of » 
the war." After which he entered upon the 
study of his profession. In 1809, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Emma Hart, Principal of the Mid- 
dlebury Female Seminary, which he aided her in 
bringing up to a high standard. They removed 
to New York in 1819. Dr. WUlard died May 
25, 1825, at the age of 66. 

1 788. Samuel Miller, the first lawyer in town, 
and one of the most distinguished citizens, settled 
in 1788. In 1790, ho married Rebekah Mat- 
tocks, daughter of Hon. Samuel Mattocks, State 
treasurer for many years. He had an extensive 
practice, and stood side by side with Daniel Chip- • 
man, at the head of the profession in the several 
counties in Avhich*they practised. In 1797, he • 
was an influential member of the General As- 
sembly. While the prominent men of Middle- 
bury were pressing their claims before the legis- 
lature, it was remarked that "the influence of 
Painter with his cunning, Chipman with his 
argument, and Miller with his courteous address, 
if it were possible, would deceive the very elect." 
Mr. Miller was devoted to the village, and con- 
tributed liberally to build up its institutions of 
religion and education. He was particularly ac- 
tive in procuring the college charter, and gave 
$1,000 to establish the first professorship. Of 
the Congregational church he was a member, 
and left it a legacy of $1,000, and $500 to the 
Vermont Missionary Socjety. He died of cancer 
on the 17th of April, 1810, aged 52. 

1788. Judge Painter put in operation the first 

1790. The greatest scarcity known in town 
occurred this year, some families, wholly destitute 
of bread, subsisted upon the boiled heads of un- 
ripe wheat, and fish from the creek. 

1791. Mrs. Wm. Goodrich taught the first 
primary school in the village. 



1792. The county courts were removed to 
Middlebury, where they have since been held. 

1793. Post-office established ; Robert Hus- 
ton, first postmaster. 

1794. The first jail built of wood, with 
prisoners' cells and dungeon ; second of stone, 
at about $4,000 cost, 1796; third of brick, at 
about $8,000 cost, in 1845. 

1796. The court-house commenced ; first 
occupied in 1798 ; remodelled to expense of 
$1,250.11 in 1814. Nothing but the old frame 
remains to the now handsome court-house. 1800 
and 1806, the State legislature held its sessions 
here. John Seymour built the first store in the 
place this year. 

1801. Joseph D. Huntington and John 
Fitch, Dec. 16, published the first number of 
the first newspaper, the Middlebury Mercury, and 
soon added a book-bindery and store; in the 
fall of 1802, the first Vermont Register, and Law 
Magazine, by John Simmons, Esq., of Middle- 
bury, the first book of legal forms ever published 
in this State; and in 1805, Discourses on reli- 
gious subjects, by the late Rev. Job Swift, D. D. 
Since 1812, weekly newspapers have been uninter- 
ruptedly published ; frequently 2, sometimes 3 ; 
occasionally, other periodicals ; in all, 15 different 
books and 20 difierent periodicals. 

MiDDLEBDKT REGISTER. The People's Press 
was published by H. Bell, Esq., 1841-'49 ; name 
changed to Northern Galaxy, 1843; 1848, to 
Middlebury Galaxy; 1849, J. H. Barrett and 
Justus Cobb, Esqrs., commenced publication in 
their name; 1856, Mr. Barrett withdrew, Cobb 
& Fuller published; 1857-'55 Justus Cobb and 
Rufus Mead pubUshers ; January, 1850, name 
changed to Middlebury Register. The Register 
is now published by Mead & Fuller. 

1802. Marble and Marble Factory. 
The discovery of marble was made by Eben 
Judd as early as 1802. 1803, he obtained from 
Appleton Foot a lease to dig marble for 999 years 
anywhere on his lot between his house and the 
creek, the whole foundation of which was mar- 
ble. A factory was erected, in which was carried 
on the first extensive manufactory of marble in the 
State, with a machine for sawing fir^t put in oper- 
ation by Dr. Judd, which is now extensively used 
elsewhere. Here, marble of finer texture than 
wrought in any other part of the United States, 
both white and black and dove-colored, elegantly 
variegated, was for many years sawn, ground, 
polished, cut, and carved with an elegance not 
surpassed on this side the Atlantic ; wrought into 
costly monuments, tables, jambs, sideboards, 
mantel-pieces, &c. and exported to Boston, New 
York, Canada, and the South. In 1857, N. H. 
Hand purchased the building and established his 
pail-factQry, which in full operation is capable 
of manufacturing 600 pails daily. 

1806. Banks. The State legislature estab- 

lished a bank with two branches, — the Woodstock 
and Middlebury branch. In 1 8 1 2, a burglaiy was 
effected ; the directors were called on for missing 
funds ; lawsuits ensued ; judgments were ren- 
dered, and the State bank at length discontinued. 
The Middlebuiy Bank was chartered Nov. 10, 
1831 ; the Middlebury Savings Bank, Nov. 12, 

1808. Fires and Fire Company. Fires 
have from time to time done their work of de- 
struction, consuming, now the dwelling-house of 
the citizen, then the shop, the mill, the factory, 
and the forge. Among these vsrecks, one of the 
most conspicuous was the burning of the mill 
curiously constructed upon a rock projecting over 
the creek, about 30 feet from the falls below, the 
inlet and outlet of the flume formed in the soUd 
rock, so that the water never froze. The fii'C 
company was organized in 1808. 

1811. Manufactures. As early as 1811, 
Major Daniel Page commenced building a stone 
cotton-factoiy, and manufactured some cloth, be- 
fore the close of the war of 1812, sold for SO 
cents per yard which would now sell for 36 or 38 
cents per yard. Mr. Joseph Gordon, who had 
set up several factories in Scotland, built for Mr. 
Pa^e 20 power looms, — the first ever built in 
the United States, with the exception of 6 in 
Rhode Island. Isaac Markham, who died in 1825, 
aged 30, with decided reputation as a machinist, 
manufactured the iron of the machinery. The 
building is 150 feet by 37, 6 stories high in front, 
3 at the rear, built of gray and wliite limestone ; 
has at present 100 looms, and manufactures daily 
1,600 yards of heavy sheeting. On the opposite 
side of the river stands the flourishing manufac- 
tory of Davenport & Clay, which has heretofore 
known too many vicissitudes to enumerate here. 
Among the most liberal patrons of eveiy impor- 
tant interest, religious, educational, or political, 
were the late Rufus and John Waiuwright, who 
established themselves in the tin and iron busi- 
ness at an early day. Theii- principal business 
was the manufacture of stoves. 

1812. During the fall an epidemic fever 
scourged the town that raged till into 1814, des- 
ignated the fever of 1813, and proved the most 
fatal disease that ever visited the place. In 182G, 
the erysipelatous fever prevailed to an alarming 
extent, and in 1855, when no epidemic pi'evailed, 
there was " a remarkable mortality among prom- 
inent citizens." Number of deaths recorded from 
1806 to 1859, 1,660. 

Upon the declaration of the war. Col. Stlmner 
called out his regiment, of which 3 companies 
belonged to Middlebury. Sept. 6th or 9th, 1814, 
Gen. Warren 'came on to the village common to 
raise volunteers. By the time he had marched 
" once or twice around with martial music, 40 or 
50 men had fallen into the ranks," and " the 
number was afterwards increased, according to 



different estimates, from 150 to 200." When a 
dozen or two were ready to start with him, they 
marched for the field of battle, and others fol- 
lowed as soon as they could get equipped. A 
patriotic party of men and boys were employed in 
the office of Esq. Seymour the night before the 
volunteers marched, making cartridges f'lr the 
detachment. Fearing to introduce a light, they 
worked on in the dark, and in the morning one 
present, pointing to the floor, literally blackened 
by gunpowder, exclaimed, " We have certainly 
been in more danger here to-night than any of 
our volunteers will be in at Plattsburg." Another 
party, meanwhile, raised a contribution of $275 
for ammunition and equipments. Gen. Warren, 
with his first detachment, reached the camp- 
ground the evening before the battle, another 
party the next morning, and some not till after 
the engagement. Bcthuel Goodrich was the 
only one wounded from Middlebury. 

Gen. Warren, during the war, rose to the rank 
of major. Gen. Hastings Warren was not only 
distinguished as a volunteer in the defence of the 
liberties of his country, and Ms high militaiy 
position, but as one of the early settlers, — a cit- 
izen of business enterprise, useful and influential 
for many years. He died in May, 1845. 

1856. Sept. 10, died Elnathan Hammond, 
the oldest man our history gives as ever deceased 
in town, at the age of 95 years. Also, Mrs. 
Eleanor Sellick, widow of Daniel Sellick, one of 
the early settlers, Oct. 27, aged 97. 

1859. MiDDLEBUKT, the shire town of Addi- 
son District, has a central position, and slightly 
rolling surface, with the exception of " Middlebuiy 
mountain," on the east ; a clayey soil not easy of 
tillage, imbedded Avith rich marble quarries ; two 
rivers, the Otter Creek, noted for its picturesque 
falls and three-mile bridge, and Middlebury river, 
which enters into the creek near the south line 
of the town, and two villages, — "Middlebury," 
incorporated in 1816 under the name of " Middle- 
bury borough," changed in 1852 to the " Village 
of Middlebury," — one of the oldest and hand- 
somest villages in Vermont, revered by its citi- 
zens and named with praise by its numerous 
visitors, with a population of between 2,000 and 
3,000, embracing within its limits the court-house 
and new stone college, with its handsome 
grounds, Eemale Seminaiy, 5 churches, 18 stores, 
3 groceries, 2 meat markets, 9 manufactories, 23 
mechanic shops, etc. ; is literally not one, but 
many houses " built upon a rock," the whole 
foundation upon which it rests being one marble 
bed, — and East Middlebury village, which lies 
up the north border of Middlebury river, east- 
ward to the foot of the mountain, where the river 
issues from a deep gorge, — a pretty village of 
430 inhabitants, (in 1850,) with a neat church, 
owned by the Universalists, 2 stores, 2 saw-mills, 
1 giist-mill, 1 tannery, 1 sash-factory, and several 
machine shops. 


Common Schools have been gradually im- 
proving. The nimiber of districts is 11. 

The Addison County Grammar School 
was incorporated Nov. 18, 1797 ; Rev. Jeremiah 
Atwater, from New Haven, first principal. 

Female Seminary. — Without a legal cor- 
poration, through the agency of Hon. Horatio 
Seymour, Miss Ida Strong, of Litchfield, Conn, 
in 1800, opened her school in the court-house, 
which soon rose to such reputation as to attract 
pupils from nearly all parts of the State. In 
1 802-3, a voluntary association made preparation 
for the erection of a suitable building. Mr. Sey- 
mour gave the grounds. The requisite funds 
were raised by subscriptions. Young men from 
the lawyers' offices, stores, and mechanics' shops, 
in their enthusiasm volnnteei-ed and built a plank 
walk across the flat, wet ground in front of the 
building. Miss S. kept her school in successful 
operation until her healtli failed. She then jour- 
neyed to Bennington Co. -to rest a season, but 
continued to decline, dying at the home of a 
pupil in Rupert, October, 1804, at the age of 29. 
Miss Strong was the pioneer of female education 
in Vermont ; a woman of no common talents, 
education, and energy, evinced by her building 
up the first distinct school, for the education of 
females in the higher branches, established in this 
State. In 1807, the school resumed its operation 
under the charge of Miss Emma Hart, from Ber- 
lin, Conn. Of her marriage in about two years 
with Dr. Willard, and removal, we have already 
spoken in our sketch of the Doctor. It was in 
Middlebury that Mrs. Emma Willard, the "rep- 
resentative woman, who suitably typifies the great 
movement of the nineteenth centuiy for the ele- 
vation of woman," laid the comer-stone of her 
educational services. We quote the following 
from Mrs. Willard's communication : — 

"The school, which in 1814 was begnn in Middle- 
bury, is fairly eutitled to the honor of being the first 
Normal School in the United States. It was in Mid- 
dlebury that the etrcam of lady-mathematiciaus took 
its rise, which afterwards went out from the Troy 
Seminary to every part of the Union. If otherwise 
than as a teacher, I have done any good to posterity, 
for which they will remember me after my decease, 
Middlebury will be associated with it. My theory 
of the circulation of the blood, by means of respira- 
tion, now so extensively acknowledged, would never 
have been formed but for events occurring in Middle- 
bury. After my marriage. Dr. Willard's cffice of 
Marshal called him to make long journeys from 
home. But his old medical library, with Cheselden's 
Anatomy to begin with, remained at home. He had 
a passionate attachment for these old authors, and 
talked to me in their language, and I kindled into 
bis enthusiasm, and prepared myself, much to his 
delight, to respond, and to understand what he 
taught me, and thus I obtained some knowledge of 
scientific physiology and medical practice as it then 
stood. £hua Willabd." 



MiDDLEBURT COLLEGE was incorporated Nov. 
1, 1800, Rev. Jer. Atwater, President. Two 
classes were received the same foil, the first con- 
sisting of one member, Aaron Pety, graduated in 
1802; number of next graduating class, 16. 
Pres. Atwater rcsi,:^ncd in 1809. Henry Davis, 
D.D., succeeded in the presidency in 1811 ; re- 
signed in 1817. As a president, he was very popu- 
lar ; his graduating class of 1 8 1 5 numbered 30. In 
1818, Joshua Bates, D. D. succeeded Dr. Davis. 
During the administration of President Bates the 
college rose to its highest prosperity. The under 
graduates numbered 160; the graduating class 
of 1838 numbered 40. Deciding to return to the 
ministry. Dr. Bates resigned in 1839, and died iu 
1853, aged 77, at Dudley, Mass. where he was 
settled as pastor. From 1833 to 1840, there was 
a total change in the Faculty ; and the corpo- 
ration began to realize that the institution, in 
order to maintain its reputation among the well- 
endowed colleges in the land, must enlarge its 
endow#ients. The college was at first destitute 
of funds ; the tutors supported by contributions 
from the citizens, and its only building of wood, 
erected for tlie Grammar School. 

Donations. — State contributions, about $1,- 
400 ; Daniel Parker, an American in Paris, con- 
tributed $178; Prof. Hall made up the sum to 
$300, and named it the Parkerian fund ; the in- 
come to furnish premiums for best speakers from 
lower classes ; the exhibition held the evening be- 
fore Commencement draws a large audience ; citi- 
zens subscribed $8,000 for stone building for stu- 
dents' rooms, built in 1816; from 1815 to 1818, 
$1,400 more; in 1819, came a large legacy from 
Judge Painter, and $12,500 from the will of Jos. 
Burr, of Manchester ; the professorship of Chem- 
istry and Natural History placed on this founda- 
tion bears the name of the donor ; Dea. Isaac War- 
ren, of Charlestown, Mass. also bequeathed $3000, 
the income for the support of young men for the 
ministry; 1833, $30,000 raised by subscription 
for building a stone chapel, new rooms, repairs, 
&c. ; $500 by \Vm. Bartlett, Esq. of Newbury- 
port, Mass. made up by others to $740 ; a literaiy 
fund ; the income for distinguished students in 
need ; 1818, a chemical fund of several thousand 
contributed principally by Windham County ; a 
legacy of $10,000 from Joseph P. Fairbanks, 
of St. Johnsbuiy ; some 5,000 acres of land in 
Albany, Orleans Co., by Gen. Arad Hunt, of 
Hinsdill, N. H. deeded to the corporation ; other 
lands from donors in different parts of the 

SociETiES. — The Philomathesian, incorpora- 
ted in 1852 ; meetings weekly for literary improve- 
ment, and an annual address and celebration at 
Commencement ; library, 2,500 volumes ; the 
Philadelphian, for promotion of rehgious infor- 
mation ; library, 800 religious and theological 
books; and the Beneficent, for providing in- 
digent students with text-books. The college 
has a library of 10,000 volumes, a handsome 

cabinet, and is provided with chemicals and ap- 
paratus on a liberal scale. 

Present Faculty. — Benjamin Labaree, 
D. D., President and Prof, of Moral Philosophy; 
Wm. H. Parker, A. M., Prof of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy; Rensalaer D. C. Rob- 
bins, A. M., Prof, of Languages ; Geo. Hadley, 
A. M., M. D., Prof, of Chemistry and Natural 
History ; Rev. Samuel M. Boardman, A. M., 
Prof, of Rhetoric and English Literature, and 
pro tempore Prof of Intellectual Philosophy; 
Chas. M. Mead, A. B., Tutor in Latin and Greek ; 
Lewis A. Austin, A. B., Tutor and Librarian. 

In conclusion, we can only give brief notices 
of but few among a number of once distinguished 
members, now deceased. Frederick Hall, LL. D. 
first pi'ofessor in any department in the college ; 
elected Tutor in 1805 ; Prof, of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy in 1806; visited Europe dui'- 
ing his professorship ; resigned in 1824 ; and was 
Prof, in the Episcopal College, at Hartford, 
and Pres. of Mount Hope College, Md. and died 
in 1843. Solomon M. Allen graduated at this col- 
lege in 1813 ; in 1816, Tutor; in 1817, Prof of 
Languages; "upon the 2.3d of September went 
upon the roof of the college building to remedy 
a defect in a chimney ; the scaffolding gave way, 
he was precipitated to the ground, and died from 
the injury the same evening. " Perhaps no event 
ever spread such sadness over this whole commu- 
nity. Ho was known and loved by all." Ed- 
ward Turner was elected Tutor in 1823 ; in 1825, 
Prof, of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. 
While in that office he was married to Sophronia 
Storrs, daughter of Col. Seth Storrs, and died 
in January, 1838, aged 41. Prof. Turner was 
reserved in conversation, but distinguished as an 
accurate mathematical and classical scholar. 
Solomon Stoddard, who with Mo.-. Andrews pub- 
lislicd "Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Gram- 
mar," was a professor in the college 9 years. 
From his official duties he retired to liis native 
town in Massachusetts, in 1847, where he soon 
died. Charles B. Adams, "on the recommenda- 
tion of Pi-of. Hitchcock, in 1838, was appointed 
Prof, of Chemistry and Natural History." Dur- 
ing his professorship he spent one winter in India 
making explorations and collections in different 
branches of natural history. He was, under ap- 
pointment of Gov. Slade, for 2 years State Geol- 
ogist; in .1847, resigned to occupy a similar 
professorship at Amherst, and died in 1 853. Hon. 
James Meacbam was born in Rutland, Aug. 10, 
1810. In early life left an orphan, he com- 
menced an apprenticeship in a cabinet-maker's 
shop ; but not destined for this occupation, by his 
native talents and energy and the kindly aid of a 
discerning neighbor, he raised himself to distinc- 
tion. He graduated at IMiddlcbuiy College in 
1832; studied theology at Andover ; was princi- 
pal awhile of the academies of Castleton and St. 
Albans; from 1836 to 1838 tutor at his ">:i/ma 
Mater;" and from 1838 to 1846 pastor of the 



Congregational church in New Haven. He was 
elected Professor of Rhetoric and English Liter- 
ature at Middlebmy, in 1846. In 1849, chosen 
a representative to Congress ; in 1850, "resigned 
his professorship, and continued to represent the 
State until the time of his death, just before 
which he had been unanimously nominated by 
his party for a new election." " Before his elec- 
tion to Congi-ess he had establislied a high repu- 
tation as a writer and extempore speaker, and as 
a member he was universally respected. Several 
of his published speeches have obtained him an 
enviable reputation as an orator." " His position 
as ehainnan of the committee on the District of 
Columbia brought upon him exhausting labor, 
which with other duties made serious inroads 
upon his health, previously much impaired. A 
few days before the close of his last session, too 
much enfeebled to discharge his official duties, he 
left Washington for his home, and on his'arrival, 
said he had come home to die." His pi-ediction 
a few days after was veiified. He died Aug. 23, 
1856, at the age of 46. 

Semi-Centennial Anniversary. — The as- 
eociated Alumni have held annual meetings at 
Commencement since 1824. The meeting of 
1850 was the fiftieth anniversary of the estab- 
lishment of the college. The assembly was 
large, and the exercises rendered interesting by 
addresses from Rev. Dr. Bates, late President, 
and Rev. Dr. Hough, late Professor ; closed by 
a numerously attended dinner, enlivened by the 
singing of a song written for the occasion by 
Edward D. Barber, Esq., and delivery of a char- 
acteristic poem by John G. Saxe. 

SONG. — (An Extract.) 


"Where Justice holds her scale. 

And blindly hears each prayer, 
Within her highest pale, 

Thy eons sit honored there. 


In the Senate-hall their voice 

Hath filled the nation's car; 
And made the free rejoice, 

And tyrants quake with fear. 

"Where the angel of the grave 

His shaft points at the heart, 
They show their power to save, 

And turn aside the dart. 

"Where'er the Poet's hand 

Hath swept the trancing lyre. 
Thy sons have graced the band, 

And touched its chords with fire. 

Where'er the battling throng 

For freedom strike or fall, 
Thy pilgrim shout and song 

King clear to Freedom's call. 

"Where the good their triumphs win, 

And love to God and man 
Kedeem the world from sin, 

Thy 60US Btill lead the van. 

They lift the banner high 
In the islands of the sea; 

And 'neath the Indian sky, 
They plant the gospel tree. 

Then honor to thy name. 
Our mother, loved and dear, 

"We cherish still thy fame; 
We leave thee with a tear. 

The Congregational Society was established 
in this town as the " standing order." Its his- 
tory is a part of the history of the town, Mr. 
Collins is said to have been the first man that 
ever preached in town. Occasionally there was a 
sermon read, but no regularly organized church 
and stated preaching till 1789. Jan. 1, this year, 
they voted to raise " a tax of threepence on the 
pound, to be paid in wheat at 5s per bushel, for 
the suppoit of preaching." It appears that Mr. 
Parmlee preached some 3 or 6 months that year. 
But Mr Burnett was the first settled minister, or- 
dained Nov. 11, 1790. The ordination wLs held 
in a barn, — probably the one previously built by 
Daniel Foot, to accommodate meetings. The 
church of 12 members had been organized a week 
before, on the 5th. Mi-. Burnett's salary was 
.£50, money, per year. A controversy soon 
arose about where meetings should be held, which 
rendered the pastor's position very unpleasant. 
At the end of 5 years he was dismissed, but re- 
mained in town 2 years longer. Mr. Burnett 
then left Middlcbury, and after several removals, 
died at Dorham, N. Y., Dec. 5, 1837, aged 84. 
After Mr. Burnett left, " various clergymen were 
temporarily employed until 1805, and the meet- 
ings had been held in the com-t-house, from its 
completion, in 1798. The erection of the first 
church was commenced in 1805, and dedicated 
May 31, 1809." "The house was regarded as not 
inferior to any in the State," — its steeple, 135 
feet in height, is "still admired for the beauty of 
its propoitions." Previously, in 1805, Oct. 19, 
Mr. Merrill was ordained. Rev. Thomas A. Mer- 
rill continued his pastorship 37 years ; and dur- 
ing his ministry large additions were made to the 
church and society. " He had a reputation for 
talents of a high order," and the degree of Doc-, 
tor of Divinity was conferred on him by Middle- 
bury College in 1837. " By his connection with 
all the ecclesiastical bodies of the Congrega- 
tional denomination, and important benevolent 
associations in the State, he exerted, by punctual 
attendance and active labors, an extensive influ- • 
ence among the clergy and chmxhes." Several 
of the last years of his life, by his own request, 
he was released from his pastorship ; but preached 
occasionally, supplying destitote churches around 
him, as long as his health permitted. He died 
April 29, 1855, of heart disease. After the re- 
signment of Mr. Merrill, the pulpit was tempo- 
rarily supplied by different clergymen, until the 
installation of the Rev. James T. Hyde, (preseut 
pastor,) June 10, \857. 





The history of St. Stephen's Church, and the 
Society to which it belongs, can only now be 
given with that brevity and incompleteness that 
results from deriving the knowledge that we pos- 
sess from di-y records of past occurrences, and 
not from the memory of an eyewitness, or an 
actor in the scene. Many matters, tliat to the 
worshippers in this church, scattered all over the 
land, would be of the greatest possible interest, 
must go unnoticed, unrecorded. The Society 
was organized Dec. 5, 1810, under the name of 
the " First Episcopal Society in Addison Coun- 
ty," according to an act passed Oct. 20, 1797, 
entitled, "An act for the support of the gospel." 
Services were held, and aiTangements made with 
clergymen who visited the village occasionally, 
and supplied, for a season, the wants of the people, 
until 1811, when a resident minister was secured, 
— the Rev. P. Adams, from 1811 to 1814. Pub- 
lic worship at first was held in the court-house. 
Then a room belonging to the late Judge Sey- 
mour was placed at the disposal of the Society, 
Vliicli was used for many years. At length a 
building belonging to Mr. Daniel Hcnshaw, was 
fitted up for the exclusive purpose of public 
worship, and continued to be so used, until the 
present edifice, known as St. Stephen's Church, 
was erected. There is no record as to the com- 
pletion of the erection, or as to the time of the 
consecration of the building. This, as we leam 
from other sources, took place on the 14th day of 
September, 1827. Rev. W. T. Webbe, elected 
by the vestry on the 4th of June, 1854, and in- 
stituted to that oflBce on the 4th of July, 1855, 
is the present rector. 



Rev. Ebenezer Washburn was on the Ver- 
gennes circuit in 1801. In 1842 he published in 
the Christian Advocate and Journal : "At Middle- 
bury I found a small and persecuted class. Our 
preaching was at the house of Lebbeus Harris, 
and in the midst of that village, our average 
congregation was from 25 to 30." 

Spcaldng of the trials which he endured on 
this circuit, he says, " I have had stones and 
snow-balls cast at me in volleys. I have had 
great dogs sent after me, to frighten my horse as 
I was peacefully passing through small vill,ages ; 
but I was never harmed by any of them. I have 
been saluted by the sound of ' glory ! hosannah ! 
amen ! hallelujah ! ' mixed with oaths of profan- 
ity. If I turned my horse, to ride towards them, 
they would show their want of confidence, both 
in their master, and in themselves, by fleeing like 
base cowards." 

Middlebury first gave its naine to a circuit or 
Btation in 1810, and Phineas Peck was the 

first resident pastor. Mr. Peck is remembered 
by some who yet live, and is represented as a man 
of sound sense, sterling integrity, and good 
preaching talents. At the end of his first year 
there were GO members reported. In 1813, Sam- 
del Howe was stationed in Middlebuiy, and 
again in 1816. During his first year tlie first 
chapel was erected, — a humble structure, yet, 
doubtless, much better than the " loft " in wliich 
they had worshipped since leaving the house of 
Lebbeus Harris. Mr. Howe became an itinerant 
in 1801, and labored diligently till 1831, when 
impaired health rendered it necessaiy for him to 
take a 'Superannuated relation. On the 16th of 
Feb. 1858, he went to Troy to attend the funeral 
of an aged and esteemed member of the church. 
After the sermon, which was preached by an- 
other, Mr. Howe made a few remarks, and closed 
by saying : "I have entered my 78th year, and 
expect Soon to follow the deceased, and hope to 
meet him in heaven." He immediately retired 
to one of the class-rooms in the basement, sat 
down in a chair, and expired before the proces- 
sion had left the church. " How many fall as 
sudden, — not so safe ! " 

The ne^t in regular succession was Cyprian 
H. Bridley. In 1820 he was compelled to 
take a superannuated relation, during which time 
— 24 years — he resided in Middlebury ; in 1844 
he became effective, and travelled till 1850. He 
is now at Appleton, Wis., with some of his chil- 
dren. Many in this place will call to mind his 
small, but wiry frame, — quick, elastic step, 
mighty prayers, and moving exhortations. When 
lie was young in the ministry, it was supposed by 
many, even in the moral and orderly village of 
Middlebury, neither unlawful nor dishonorable 
to disturb Methodist meetings, and maltreat 
Methodist ministers. Mr. Bridley has inter- 
esting recollections in this department of expe- 
rience. On many occasions he was followed 
from evening meetings by savage hootings, and 
assailed by dangerous missiles. On one occasion 
his window was broken in the night, and a large, 
heavy Jile, thrown into his house, was found 
sticking in the wall above the bed on which he 
lay at the time of the assault. He facetiously 
remarked that he thought the devil was about to 
retire from "business, as he had begun to distrib- 
ute his tools. Ebenezer Brown was a minis- 
ter of rare talents. Under his labors, "the place 
was too strait," and the house was enlarged. 
Still, a portion of the "old-fashioned Methodists " 
were not quite pleased with the preacher. He 
was not loud enough for them, though sufficiently 
so to be heard with distinctness and ease in aJl 
parts of the house. Besides, he had a fasliion 
of tying his white cravat in a douhle-how, in front, 
and moreover, his hair stood up in front, instead 
of lying smoothly down on his forehead. When 
labored with for this last offence, his explanation 
was that he had a " cowlick " on one side of his 
forehead, and his hair on that side stubbornly 



refused to comply with the usage, and he chose 
to allow the other side to keep it company. In 
1822, NoAii Levings,D. D. was appointed to this 
gtation. Having afterwards served tlie churches 
in Xi'oy, Schenectady, Albany, and Vestry street, 
New York, he was elected financial secretary 
of the American Bible Society. During his 
ministry of 30 years he officiated in 18 circuits 
and stations, — preaclicd about 4,000 times, dedi- 
cated 38 churches, delivered 05 miscellaneous ad- 
dresses, 273 addresses in behalf of the Bible Soci- 
ety, and travelled more than 36,000 miles. Ron- 
EKT Seeny is reported as one of the best pas- 
tors ever stationed in this place. In preaching, 
he greatly excelled, being full of thought, easy 
in manner, and rapid and graceful in elocution. 
On Sabbath mornings, however, feeling he could 
not possibly preach, he would hurry from room 
to room, in his efforts to prepare for church ; and 
yet, if his wife did not follow and put him in or- 
der by piecemeal, he was likely to go with half- 
adjusted apparel, and hair unkempt. In 1836, 
Joseph Ayers became the pastor for one year, 
and again in 1841, for two years. There was a 
great revival during his last term, and the num- 
bers went up to 451. J. F. Yates labored here 
2 years (1856, 1857). During his last year the 
house of worship was thoroughly modernized, 
and made one of the best in the denomination in 
western Vermont. Mr. Yates was succeeded by 
B. M. Hall, who is still the pastor. The same 
spring the Annual Conference was entertained 
here. Of those who were in fuU^.connection in 
1809, Betsey T. Bigelow is tlie only repre- 
sentative. Of all who joined on trial in 1809, 
Althea pemming alone survives among us. 
Present number of members, 280. 


For many years there was a respectable Bap- 
tist Church and Society, generally supplied with 
regular preaching, and the usual ordinances of 
religion. But for 10 or 12 years past, their mem- 
bers have been so much reduced by removals 
and deaths, that the organization has ceased, 
and the remaining members attend upon the wor- 
ship of the other churches. The church was 
organized Dec. 10, 1809. First pastor, Rev. 
Nathaniel Kendrick, from 1810 to 18i7. 



The first missionary Cathohe priest that came 
to this town was the Rev. James Macquaide, 
in 1822. He left the following year, and we 
had none here until 1830, when the Rev. Jere- 
miah O'Calogan came as a missionary of the 
whole State, — coming here occasionally, until 
1834. Then the State was made into two mis- 
sions, and the Rev. James Walch came on this 
part of the mission, and left in 1835. In 1837, 
Rev. John B. Daley came here and biult the 
present brick church, which is 60 feet by 40, in 

1839, and remained on the mission till 1854. 

Then the first and present Catholic Bishop of this 

Diocese, the Right Rev. Lewis Goesbriand, sent 

the Rev. Joseph Dugluc, who is here now. Tho 

number of hearers is about 400, and the number 

of communicants 300. • Some of these are from 

the adjacent towns. 

[The clerf;yman who resides here, is also charged 
with the spiritual direction of the Catholics who 
reside in Shoreham and Orwell, and visits at stated 
times the Irish settlement in Starksboro. — Ed. 


was born in New Haven, Conn., May 22, 1742. 
He had three wives ; his first, Abigail Chipman, 
who died 1790 ;t the second, Victoria Ball, who 
died, 1806 ; the third, Mrs. Ursula Ball, who 
survived him. By his fir-st wife he liad 2 sons, 
and by his second, 1 daughter, all of whom died 
before him, — his second son at the age of 25 was 
drowned in the creek. " He was a plain man, 
slow of speech, with but a common-school educa- 
tion, but possessed sound judgment, on which 
his friends placed safe reliance," and great 
shrewdness in the formation and execution of 
his plans. " He personally surveyed and laid 
out lands and public roads, was the first delegate 
who ever represented the town in any public 
meeting, — one of the first judges of the county 
court, and a leader in all important enterprises." 
"As early as 1791, when the village was little 
else than a wilderness, standing on the lot he had 
deeded to the county, he said to the by-standers : 
' This is tho place for the court-house,' " which 
tract he gave, May 22, 1794, "for the express 
use and purpose of erecting a court-house and jail 
thereon, and as a common, never to be put to 
any other use." 

Through his agency as a member of the leg- 
islature, his plans were accomplished. He su- 
perintended the erection of the Congregational 
church and stone college. Of the village he was 
one of the original trustees, and bequeathed about 
$13,000, all his estate, except an annuity to his 
widow, to that institution. He died May, 1819, 

aged 76. 


No man occupied so often the office of select- 
man, and so well understood and economically 

• We have found it most difficult of all our selec- 
tions to choose, from a score having claims to repre- 
sentation, the few for whom we could allow space 
for a biographical sketch. 

t We have the following account of the funeral of 
bis firsi wife. A raft was made by lashing together 
two canoes, and spreading boards over them ; on this 
the coffin was placed, accompanied by the mourn- 
ers and friends, and men to manage the boats, while 
a few others walked on the shore. Thus arranged, 
the procession moved up the creek, and the body 
was deposited in the burial-ground near Col. Chip- 
man's. The boats, on their way, leaked, and the 
men, having no pails or dishes with them, bailed out 
the water with their shoes. Ko clergyman was pres- 
ent on the occasion. 



managed the prudential and financial interests of 
the town. He was several years representative, 
and died in 1828, aged 78. 


was bom June 24, 1756, in Mansfield, Conn.; 
graduated at Yale College, 1778 ; was associate 
principal of a seminary at Northampton, Mass. 
several years, and then came to Vermont ; stud- 
ied law with the Hon. Noah Smith, of Benning- 
ton, and located in the town of Addison, where 
he mairied the daughter of Hon. John Strong 
and remained till his removal to Middlebury, in 
1794. From 1787 to 1797, he was first State 
Attorney. " Col. StoiTS was among the most 
active in advancing the prosperity of the village ; 
gave a large part of the land on which the gram- 
mar-school building was erected, and the common 
connected with it, and the whole tract which 
forms the handsome grounds of the college. He 
was a member of both corporations ; also of the 
Congregational church, of which he was one of 
the first regularly chosen deacons, and for many 
years church clerk, and town clerk. In brief, 
Col. Storrs was a " Christian gentleman," of the 
"old school." He died at the age of 71, while 
OD a visit to Vergennes, Oct. 5, 1842. 


the first tutor of Middlebuiy College, was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1801 ; in 1817, elected Judge of 
the Supreme Court ; a member of the old council, 
in 1815 ; in 1834, president of the council of cen- 
sors ; in 1819, a member of the college corpora- 
tion ; united with St. Peter's church at its organ- 
ization, and continued an exemplaiy and devoted 
member until liis death, at the age of 68, March, 


was born in Litchfield, Conn., May 31, 1778; 
graduated at Yale College in 1797 ; in October, 
1799, camet6 Middlebury; in 1800 was licensed 
to practise law, and, in competition with such dis- 
tinguished lawyers as Daniel Chipman and 
Samuel Miller, entered at once into an extensive 
practice. In 1800, he married Miss Lucy Case. 
He was one of the Directoi's of the Vermont 
State Bank, and from 1800 to 1809, postmaster; 
and in 1820 elected to the Senate of the United 
States, and re-elected for a second term. He did 
not often make any formal address in the Senate, 
but was greatly respected for his sound, modest 
opinions, and his influence, tliough unobtrusive, 
was generally recognized ; but when an advocate, 
poured forth, in his quiet way, a comprehensive 
argument that his opponent found it hard to 
meet, and manifested great ingenuity and tact in 
the management of his causes. No man had 
fewer enemies, or more attached personal friends. 
He was a patron of the literary institutions ; for 
many years a member of the college and gram- 

mar-school corporations, and senior warden of 
the parish of St. Peter/s church. lu 1847, the 
degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by 
Yale College. He died, Nov. 21, 1857, in his 
80th year, leaving 3 sons, and the children of a 
deceased daughter. 


was bom at HoUiston, Mass., Nov. 17, 1787. 
His father at an' early day removed to Newfane, 
Vt., where he labored on a fiirm till his 21st birth- 
day, when, with his wardrobe in a bundle, he set 
out " to seek his fortune." For several years he 
taught a village school in Townshend, and stud- 
ied Latin with the pastor. He afterwards studied 
medicine, attended lectures at Dartmouth, and 
received his degree in 1814 ; practised medicine 
in Windham Co, till 1820, from which time he 
delivered chemical lectures in Middlebury College 
till 1826. In 1822 he commenced the practice of 
medicine in this place, and as a learned physician 
and surgeon, built up and sustained a wide 
reputation. He made a valuable collection of 
minerals in the cabinet of the college, was a 
prominent member of both the Addison Co. 
and State Medical Society, and published many 
articles on the various branches of the science ia 
the Medical Journal. (In the Boston Medical 
Journal, a sketch of the life of Dr. Ralph 
Gowdy, who was for many years an esteemed 
pliysician in Middlebury. ) Dr. Allen died Feb. 
2, 1848. Of him it has been said: " The crown- 
ing trait of his character was stable Christian 


from Litchfield, Conn, settled in this town m 
1811. He was most distinguished as a Free 
Mason, and rose to the highest grade in that 
institution; lectured before Masonic Lodges in 
many parts of the State, was for several years 
Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the 
Knights Templars of the State, and had the 
rank of Past Grand Commander at the time of 
his death, June 8, .1859, aged 69 years. He was 
buried with Masonic honors, attended by a long 
procession of Masons. 


was bom at Litchfield, Conn., May 13, 1793; 
graduated at Yale in 1811 ; attended the Litch- 
field law school, the lectures of Judges Reeve 
and Gould in the winter of 1812; in the spring 
came to Middlebury, and continued his studies 
with Hon. Horatio Seymour. He was one of 
the 100,000 draft men of 1812,— was ordered to 
the Canadian frontier, and served in the ranks at 
Burlington and Plattsburg, and received the ap- 
pointment of paymaster in the United States 
service. From 1814 to 1831 he had an exten- 
sive and successful Isnv practice. In 1827 he was 
chosen on0 of the council of censors, whose^ad- 



dress to the people was wiitten by him ; in 1831 
was elected to the legislative council, ai\d during 
that session, appointed a judge of the Supreme 
Court, which office he held seven years, and in the 
fall of 1 838 was elected United States Senator, and 
again re-elected in 1844. As a judge, he was 
distinguished for his discriminating, comprehen- 
sive views ; as a reporter, for his clear, forcible, 
convincing arguments; as an advocate, — in his 
own State, and before the Supreme Court of the 
United States, — as a cogent, powerful reasoner; 
as a senator, cautious and conservative ; not in- 
clined to take a leading position ; one whose in- 
fluence, though silent, was felt, — who was rec- 
ognized through the Senate as a statesman of 
sound, practical talents ; and it is said that the 
recommendation of his reports, fortified as they 
were by a definite statement of the case, were 
seldom, if ever, rejected. His labors on commit- 
tees of claims and Indian affairs were highly ap- 
preciated, and several of his published speeches 
gave him a prominent reputation through the 
country. At the close of his second term he re- 
tired to private life. Nov. 11, 1852, before a 
large assembly at Middlebury, he delivered an 
unwritten eulogy on the life and character of 
Daniel Webster. Upon the death of Senator 
Upham, Gov. Fairbanks appointed him to fill 
the vacancy. The ensuing fall, it was a mooted 
question whether a Senator appointed by the ex- 
ecutive would fill the vacancy. By the solicita- 
tion of his friends he went on to claim Ms seat ; 
but a majority of the Senate decided against his 
claim. Judge Phelps died at his residence. Mar. 
25, 1855, in the 62d year of liis age. 


BILL, D. D. 

About 30 or 40 rods to the right of the road, 
leading N. E. from the village, and nearly 2 
miles distant, on very low land belonging to 
Messrs. William and Edwin Hammond, within 
a circuit of 20 feet radius, are 7 springs, the 
Septennary Springs. They appear to be inde- 
pendent of each other, as digging a channel and 
lowering one does not affect the others. They 
have deposited, especially the western ones, in 
abundance, calcareous tufa.wliich much resembles 
that of Clarendon. Some of this tufa exhibits 
its traces of iron, and all of it, probably, when 
exposed to intense heat, would show the presence 
of sulphur. Some of them, especially the larg- 
est and most southerly one, have often proved 
beneficial in cutaneous diseases ; and in cases of 
poison, they are said, when drunken freely, and 
used for washing the affected part, to afford a 
very speedy and certain cure.* 

• Thus far from Swift's History of Middlebury. 

By JSf. H. Wright, Author of ''The Fall qf Pal- 
myra,'''' a small volume of poems published at Mid- 
dlebury, 1817. 

The banner of freedom triumphantly waving, 

Displayed in bright colors the stripe and the star, 
Whilst the Ught-curling billow the war-ship waa 

And the foeman was seen on the water afar. 
In his bosom the heart of each freeman beat high ; 

He thought of his country, his love, and his honor; 
And he swore by the blood of his fathers to die, 

Or conquer, and share in the fame of Macdonough. 

And now the dire conflict with fury was raging, 

And many a hero lay panting for breath; 
Whilst the Genius of War forbade Pity assuaging 

The pains which could only be ended by death. 
Yet no pang tore the hearts of those freemen so brave, 

For they knew they had fallen in glory and honor, 
And their last parting sigh, as it fled o'er the wave, 

Was a prayer for their country, their friends, and 

Mid the blaze of the battle their spirits ascended, 

And hovered aloft till its thunders were o'er; 
Then to regions of glory, by angels attended, 

The tidings of victory triumphantly bore. 
The banner of Albion was lowered from its height, 

The flag which had erst proudly floated in honor, 
While the stripes and the stars beamed more bril- 
liantly bright, 

As they gracefully waved o'er the head of Mac- 

For the brows of the brave, let the fair hand of 
The laurels of victory, with pleasure entwine, 
And the heroes, whose ardor kept pace with their 
Like the stars in a bright constellation shall shine. 
Their country shall cherish their glory and fame. 

Their deeds be enrolled on the records of honor. 
And Memory shall treasure with fondness the name 
Of each warrior who fought by the side of Mae- 





Sir, I choose to deal with this subject, not as 
a matter of reproach to the people of the South, 
not as a question of morals, but as a political 
question of transcendent importance, to be de- 
termined by our legislation. • In that point of 
view I regard it, and in that aspect I feel at lib- 
erty to discuss it. Sir, I am confident that I 
speak the sentiments of three fourths of the 
people of this country, and of a very great pro- 
portion of the people of the slaveholding States, 
when I say that the institution itself is zA evil 
and a curse. When I say that it is an evil of 
which they would get rid in a moment, if they 
could do it with safety, I believe I speak the 
general sentiment of the slaveholding States. 



Veiy few men, at the present day, can be found 
willing to defend this institution as, in its origin 
and inception, just or expedient. Who is there, 
at this day, if the institution were not in exist- 
ence amongst us, who would raise his voice in 
favor of the introduction of 'the first colored 
slave 1 Who, indeed, would not protest against 
it, not only as an outrage upon humanity, and 
as incompatible with the fundamental principles 
of our institutions, but as introducing a political 
evil to endure to all generations, increasing in 
magnitude and in danger, the consequences and 
the termination of which no human sagacity can 
foresee. And yet, with this sentiment in relation 
to the institution pervading our people, we are 
called upon to extend it. The honorable Sena- 
tor from Georgia seems to be alarmed at the idea 
of the institution being pent up in some of the 
old States. Why should it not be pent up 1 
Where is the necessity of inflicting the institu- 
tion, if gentlemen will pardon the phrase, on 
territories where it does not now exist 1 I can 
conceive of but one consideration wliich should 
excite anxiety in tliis particular, and that is, the 
accumulation of the slave population, and the 
necessity of a safety-valve to the increase of that 
population. If the institution is limited, it is 
not necessaiy that the population should be pent 
up. Admitting the force of this consideration, 
the question results in this, whether that increase, 
if it should be thrown off, should be thrown off 
upon the rest of the world as freemen or slaves. 
Shall they be sent forth in the character of free- 
men, to aid in the extension of civilization over 
our immense territorial domain ; or shall they be 
sent as slaves, extending and perpetuating an 
institution acknowledged on all hands to be an 
evil ? Will you let these men, created in the like- 
ness of their Maker, go forth free, possessed of all 
the rights and advantages which the God of natm-e 
has bestowed upon us all ; or will you send them 
forth as the representatives of this relic of a bar- 
barous age, and the living monuments of the 
insincerity of yoiu* professions ? Sir, I am op- 
posed to this extension of an institution which I 
hold to be utterly at war with the opinions and 
moral sentiment of the age. The sense of the 
Christian world, and, I may add, of the civilized 
world, is universally against it. ShaH wo set 
the example of pei-petuating and extending an 
institution which the whole civilized world, with 
the exception of a portion of our own people, 
have combined to exterminate 1 . . . . 

While we are congratulating the world upon 
the progress of the great principles of human 
liberty, and the overthrow of ancient despotisms, 
shall we be called upon to propagate a system of 
slavery wliich reduces our fellow-man to the con- 
dition of a brute ; which converts a being, cre- 
ated originally in the likeness of his Maker, into 
an article of merchandise, like the beast of the 
stall 1 Let us be consistent. Let us prove the 
sincerity of our professions by our actions. 


Cousin, more years have flitted by 

Than we might choose to tell, 
Since, sworn moss-troopers, you and I 
Have lived beneath each summer sky 

So heartily and well. 
And little cared we all the while 

How fast those years were flying, 
And little marked how youth's bright smile^ 
That did their flight so" well beguile, 

From off the world was dying. 

Worthy of thine old-fashioned race, 

Well hast thou borne thy part, 
And, spite the gathering years, we trace 
Few wrinkles on thy manly face, 

And none upon thy heart. 
In sooth, old Time has hardly cast, 

A shadow on thy track, 
Though, as life's summer day flies past, 
The harvest moon is rising fast 

Above us, Cousin Jack. 

The woodcock in the tangled brake 

Marks well thy whistle's note ; 
The deer that by the wood-fringed lake 
A moment halts his thirst to slake. 

For thee looks sharply out ; 
The wild duck, as he scuds along, 

Seeth thine eye of black, 
And cries with shrill, despairing tone, 
" Don't shoot, old boy, I'm coming down! 

/ know you, Cousin Jack.' " 

Thou should'st have lived in that old day, 

Long famed in song and story. 
Of baron bold, and lady gay, 
Of tournament, and feast, and fray. 

Love, chivalry, and glory, 
When faces were of hearts the token. 

And hearts were true, like thine. 
When manly thoughts were boldly spoken. 
And healths were drunk, and heads were broken, 

O'er sparkling Bheni^ wine. 

Those bluff and hearty times are gone 

From off the changeful earth, 
Their monuments have crumbled down. 
And the sham virtues, then unknown. 

Are now of passing worth. 
But in the few and rare like thee. 

Left to this modern day, 
We sometimes yet are fain to see 
That frank, old-fashioned chivalry 

Has not all passed away. 

When o'er the woods another Fall 

Its lingering charm has thrown. 
My gun will hang upon the wall. 
My horses learn another's call. 

My dog, a stranger's tone. 
But still may thou, aye kindly known 

On Champlain's glorious water, 
Till many a year has come and gone. 
Wake the wild woodland echoes on 

Dead Creek and little Otter. 

E. J. Phelps. 

"My Cousin Jack" is veritably our excellent 
friend and fellow-citizen, John Pieupont, Esq. 
—Ed. Fergennes Citizen, 1855. 




Tis Father Time, the sexton, rich in wealth of smiles 
and tears, 

Who hurries to their crowded graves the many- 
tinted years, — 

Who dclveth for a hiding-place for all we know or 

Except the deathless beautiful that gleameth from 

Down into the dominion of the silence-fettered Past, 

The worn-out years, with all their freight of love and 
light, are cast; 

But lest they be among the glare of coming hours 

The flower of recollection blooms — the heart's for- 

The ice-glazed hills are green again, and brooks go 
singing by; 

The vernal queen is coining, with her train of sunny 

And on the air methinks I find the scent of orange- 

Oh, happy hour, when thus I mourned to see the old 
year die! 

Oh, happy time, — Oh, blessed love, that made so fit 
reply ! 

Oh, blessed years, so fullof light, that have so sweetly 

From birth to second-childishness, while we were 
growing old! 

The frost hath touched her scattered locks, but lieth 
gently there — 

The springlight glistens in her eye, and warmth of 
summer air. 

Beside the dead forget-me-not we laid the orange 

And wait for during blossoms in the land that fol- 
lows ours; 

For the garden-gates of Paradise are softly opening, 

And we see the heart's-ease blooming in the city of 
our King. Fkank Phelps. 


The autumn days have come at last. 

The swallows are southward flying, 
The brown leaves scamper adown the blast. 

And the flowers are withered and dying; 
The frost has humbled the summer's pride, 

And the tints of decay are vying 
With the hues which the spring-time birth supplied, 

And the autumn winds are sighing. 

Aye! the winds are sad, and the leaves are sere. 

And ^ voice through the pines is wailing, 
That sings the dirge of the dying year. 

All its hidden decay unveiling; 
But the holy calm of the " Harvest Home " 

Kests over earth's dead and dying. 
For we know that another spring will come, 

Though the autumn winds are sighing. 

So the soul has its autumn sere and brown, 

When its leaflets of bliss are falling, 
When each breeze that scatters its roses down, 

Is in desolate accents calling. 
When, its few good deeds of faith and love 

In golden sheaflets tying, 
It wails for the call to the realms above. 

Where no autumn winds are sighing. 

EaBKRT Phelps. 



To how many you are mother, 

I cannot exactly say ! 
Cannot tell one from another, 

Cannot name them, — how are theyf 

If a family is a blessing. 
And all children blessings are, 

Such a number you possessing 
Must be blessed, I declare. 

I've no child, while you have many; 

Which is best we scarce can know, 
To have twenty, or not any, — 

Future time alone can show 

If this life would end the story, — 
• If at death we ceased to be, — 
Children, riches, earthly glory, 
Would be all to you and me. 

But beyond this vale of sorrow. 
And beyond the scenes of earth. 

Comes to-day, and no to-morrow, — 
This is certain at our birth.' 

Louis McDonald. 


I -WOULD not forget, I would not forget, 

Though memory keeps for me 
A store of sorrows that brood in the soul, 

As the mist broods over the sea ; 
Though the tears may spring from a throbbing heart, 

When a careless word is said. 
Which brings to my mind the loved who sleep 

On the hill with the holy dead. 

I would not forget, though the joys of life 

Have ever been linked with pain ; 
Though hours of sorrow grow fresh to me, 

As I count them o'er again. 
For I never had known the peace that comes 

To the spirit weary and lone, 
Had I never said in my whispered prayer, 

" My Father, thy will be done! " 

And so when I sit at the twilight hour, 

With Memory's hand in mine. 
The song that she sings to my list'ning ear, 

Hath ever a wearisome chime; 
But I think of the time that yet shall come. 

When safe on the beautiful shore, 
I shall clasp the hands of the friends I love. 

To whisper good-by no more. 

C D. Noble. 




The cemetery at Middlebury is situated at such 
a retirement from the village, the centre of busi- 
ness and living, as you would choose as a matter 
of taste, if to select the spot where the eye would 
glance willingly upon those mimic pinnacles and 
towers, which the locust leaves conceal in part, 
and which separate the city of our destination 
from that where we abide. Reversing the view, 
and passing among the indefinite avenues of 
that imaginary city, we see the place of the liv- 



ing with an approval of good taste, and are 
grateful that the habitation of cares and trials, of 
hopes and labors endless, is pleasant, too, at the 
foot of its landmark liill, in the protection of the 
Mountains it honors, with spires and towers of 
worship glittering or sombre, with homes gay, or 
halls expanded, and in its own " visible sphere " is 
equally content. Nearer, the college rises heavily, 
and looks oflf across its neighbor of the valley, as 
if life, and not death, were its study. But here at 
the cemetery itself, is the company of either 
world, and in truth, to the visitor, either is equally 
harmless, equally instructive. Either has an 
angel aspect here, and neither denies an equal 
companionship to our humanity. Life would 
solicit one to duty, not as hardship, but as oppor- 
tunity, so pleasant when we can. Death dimin- 
ishes the lesson, having our passive ear, as if to 
be were the main thing with it, and not to do 
ever so bravely. And yet they clasp hands as 
friends about us, and are ready to wait upon us, 
each in his own good time. So it is, that man 
goeth to his long home ; and here the living are 
to lay it to heart. 

The summary of life is in the graveyard, with 
the memories of the dead. All we have lived 
for, so far as man is concerned, is that flour of 
life, sifted and treasured even by the carefulness 
of the winds, which indifference and neglect have 
failed to bear away. "We look less to fame than 
love to care for this food of the soul, with the 
zest of which wo attain companionship with an- 
gels at the table of good works. Great things 
are of little account with them, or here ; they 
banquet, as we do, at the memorial table, 
which presents the virtues of the meek, pure, 
beneficent, and serves us not out the decayed 
fragments of the feast, of falsehood or pride, 
except for pity that the servants of themselves 
have but menial places after death. The motive 
of hfe, in the highest, is that which endears what 
remains of it to memory ; the habit of life, its 
spirit, is that which imparts a pleasant fragrance 
to its choicest acts. No cheat comes to the 
grave. It has no pay for humbugs, and the 
glory of the cemetery is, that a weir is drawn 
across the river of death, or a fall dikes it, and 
man's abominable crimes come not up to the 
graveyard. They are not, as respects the dead, 
and virtues only warble inarticulately here, among 
the graves, with a melody like children's voices, 
sweeter than words. 

The voices of the virtues of friends they are. 
Kindred of soul of like objects and attachments 
with us. Home was theirs as mine, and still is, 
and will be while a ground of open communication 
is left us here. They differed in their love of 
home, and in the grace with which they orna- 
mented it, and tlms differ now. They differed in 
station, but this was nothing ; if they loved equally 
in another's act, it was as if they did it. Who was 
not daily pure and beneficent in Storrs' life, though 
not by education and habit a leader like him ? 

They cheered the Founder every day, as his 
shrewdness opened through some dust of sun- 
beams to the eye, the track of his beneficence, and 
the patriarch of reason, they lauded even the 
manner of that apostle of the gospel of reform, 
Physicians who ministered to us more for love 
than money, they with whom our inmost confi- 
dence mingled, trusted so often with our friends, 
recall themselves ; the princes of the people, too, 
for talent, authority, or generosity. The integrity 
of goodness was with another, but I recall no 
more, lest I should miss more than any. It is 
not well to single out among the beloved, though 
those who were merry with us will revive inti- 
macy, those who acted with us remind us, those 
whom I admired, if such there be here, repeat 
some test of my sincerity. You know that 
I was sincere, beloved of others ! That that 
which in you took hold on kindness, or taste, or 
purity to me was the resulting beam from the 
spring of the Infinite, that bore my thoughts to 

Ho is not here, but He is risen ! and they that 
chose Him, with Him ! The graves thus are 
hushed and beautified. I am with nature, where 
she dreams as in a garden ; even the Atlantic 
tempest, checked by the mountain-range, and 
moaning up its summit, respects the placid calm 
of verdure here. The symphony of the water- 
fall, from the place of the living, revives the les- 
son of the cemeteiy for them. The same virtue 
is their faculty and blessing. Not what you have, 
nor what you pretend, not what you are thought, 
but what you are ; ye that make your families 
happy, that fill those streets with welcome kind- 
nesses, that make the stranger commend your 
charities, that send the name of the home your 
predecessors planted, as a talisman of liberality, 
honor, truth, wherever the guests of your hos- 
pitaUty are spread ! 



15, 1854; AGAINST the Nebraska and 


With twelve of the nineteen transported tribes 
treaties were made during the administration of 
General Jackson, and they were all made in ac- 
cordance with the spirit of his message, and the 
law of Congress. 

No man but General Jackson could have car- 
ried it through. The Indians, feared, respected, 
loved, and trusted him. They looked up to lum 
as the great father of a great nation. He told 
them, that if they went to the new abodes as- 
signed in the West, they should there remain 
immolested forever. The Indians believed the 
word of General Jackson, backed by the pledge 
of Congress and the assent of the people. There 



is the solemn covenant of this nation; her 
honor is pledged to keep that covenant. It 
Beems degrading to ask, Will you do it ■? K so, 
now is the time to do it. Will the same Congress 
that sends medals of gold to Capt. Ingraham 
for the rescue of Koszta, of doubtful citizenship, 
crush the poor Indian we have sworn to protect? 
You took up these tribes from out the old States, 
because you could not allow them to have a gov- 
ernment of their own within another government ; 
you planted them tlicre, and told them to govern 
themselves. You took them from the midst of 
the whites, because you said they were cheated 
and besotted, and corrupted, and placed them 
there, to be beyond the reach of degrading en- 
ticement ; you tore them away from all that was 
delightful in the present, and sacred and glorious 
in the recollections of the past. Will you now 
throw around them again the lines of a local 
government, and expose them again to the un- 
bridled rapacity of the white man ? Now is the 
time for decision. 

But I may be asked if I would forever keep 
that large body of tenitoiy open on account of 
these Indians'? And I will answer, that I would, 
at all events, and aU hazards, keep my word. 
I would run a Unc north of those Indians from 
the Missouri to the Rocky Mountains, and make 
all territory soutli of it sacred to the red man. 
Ordain and execute laws to protect him ; you can 
do tliat peacefully. If not, keep your faith with 
the helpless, and do it by force ; plant a line of 
soldiers, a double or triple line, if needed, around 
the whole boundai-y. If that will not do, keep 
your word, and plant a Chinese wall around it, 
and let a flaming sword gleam over every gate- 

Can it be believed that this government is to 
be formed without even asking tlie consent of the 
Indians ? Your commissioner went to. a portion 
of the tribes. He found them in great alarm at 
the tidings of the threatened invasion of the 
whites, —'terror had taken hold of them. They 
had believed they were safe in their solitude when 
our government had vowed them protection. No 
wonder that a shudder ran through their savasre 
hearts, when tribe after tribe took up and bore on 
the fearful intelligence of renewing encroach- 
ments. They were about to call together a 
council of war, and confederate for defence. I 
shall be amazed if they sliall not yet do it ; if 
they do not look on the passage of these bills as 
their death-warrant ; and, seeing their last hope 
for existence has expired when our vow of pro- 
tection is revoked, if they do not light up their 
council-fires, and, together, dance their last wa,r- 
dance, determined, if they must have death, 
they will have revenge in advance. Does the 
report of your commissioner give promise that 
they will ever consent to another removal 1 Di- 
rectly and positively the reverse. All the tribes, 
except a few insignificant fractions, refused to 
dispose of any part of their lands. 

The intei'view, itself, of the commissioner with 
the Indians, but for the awful events connected 
with it, would have been supremely ridiculous. 
I do not blame him ; he acted ably and faithfully. 
Look at the scene. An agent of this govern- 
ment is having a talk with a baud of Kickapoos, 
in the far-off wilderness of Nebraska ; he is giv- 
ing them,, in the name of their great father, 
Franklin Pierce, a lecture on United States 
morality. He is chiding them for not having 
become better farmers, better mechanics, for not 
making more advance in education, in morals, 
and religion ; for adhering to the customs and 
traditions of their fathers, " and that therefore it 
was absolutely necessaiy, in their present igno- 
rant and feeble condition, that they should aban- 
don their present possessions." Wliy were those 
savages sent to that wilderness 1 Simply because 
they did not wish to conform to the rules of civ- 
ilized and Christian society. They were sent 
there to live as they list. When did they ever 
agree, or the United States thi'caten, to forfeit 
their possessions if they did not mend their mor- 
als ■? I should rejoice to see all of them become 
industrious, skilful, intelligent, and virtuous ; but 
I hope it may be voluntary, without the coercion 
of force or of forfeiture. If a religion is to be 
forced on them, I trust it may be brought from 
abroad. Import the crescent, and creed, and 
sword of Mohammed, to convert the Indian, but 
in such political and compulsory benevolence, I 
pray you not to degrade the religion of Christ. 

I had read, with deep interest, the report oa 
the progress of the transplanted Cherokees. 
Many of them, so soon after their migration, are 
living in a style equal to southern gentlemen in 
easy circumstances. They are inclosing and cul- 
tivating their farms, — building beautiful dwell- 
ings, — adorning their gardens, maintaining their 
schools, rearing churches, printing and circulat- 
ing the gospel. I acknowledge that a feeling of 
indignation and horror came over me when I 
saw that the boundary of the first bill ran di- 
rectly through the whole Cherokee country, and 
cleft it in twain. And are we so soon to make 
our pledges to them a hissing and byword 
among the heathen ? Is tliat tribe, who so nobly 
conquered themselves, and moved peacefully 
westward under the guardian care of our great 
military chieftain, again to be tora up, and its 
bleeding roots retransplantcd into some sterile 
and distant soil 1 The new bill, for some other 
political i-easons, without any reference to the In- 
dians, has moved the line to their northern fron- 
tier. But other tribes inclosed, are treated with 
equal injustice. Where, if their consent could 
be gained — and it cannot — can you locate 
them ■? You have no other place for them. If 
not safe here, in what province of Jehovah's em- 
pire can the hunted and persecuted Indian find a 
refuge from the grasping and remorseless cupid- 
ity of the white man ? Pause where you are. 
Look long and well as to what you are doing. 



Remember, that this act of injustice and atrocious 
♦reacheiy may provoke the wralh of the Etcmal, 
to inflict on this nation the woes he lias denounced 
against tlie truce-breaker, and against him who 
moveth his neiehbor's landmark ! 


The Rt. Rev. John Prentiss Hewley Hen- 
BHAW, D. D. was born in Middlctown, Conn. 
June 13, 1792 ; removed with liis parents to Mid- 
dlebury in 1800 ; at the age of 12, entered Mid- 
dlcbury college, and graduated at the age of IG. 
The following year he was a resident graduate at 
Harvard University, where, under the ministra- 
tions of the Rev. J. Hewley, he was received 
into the Protestant Episcopal church, and in 
gratitude' to his spiritual teacher adopted the 
name of Hewley. His first converts to the faitli 
of the church was in the family of liis father. 
Wo next find him a lay reader in Sheldon, Fair- 
field, and other neighboring towns, and doing 
good missionary service on the frontier of Yer- 
mout. On his 21st birthday he was admitted to 
deacon's orders, and soon after called to St. 
Ann's church, Brooklyn, N. Y. Two years 
after he formed a happy marriage with Miss 
Mary Gorham, of Bristol, R. I. with whom he 
lived 30 years, tlx,eir longest separation but 2 
weeks, the last of his life. On his 24th birthday 
he was admitted to priest's orders. In the spring 
of 1817, ho accepted the rectorship of St. Peter's 
Church, Baltimore, in which he continued 2G 
years, during which time he baptized over 1,000, 
confirmed 500, and received as communicants 
900. His free-school children numbered 6,000 ; 
his Sunday-school children 10,000. Aug. 10, 
1843, he was instituted rector of Grace Clmrch, 
R. I., and the day following in St. John's 
Church, Providence, was consecrated Bishop of 
the Rhode Island Diocese. While on a visiting 
tour to the churches in Maryland, accompanied 
by his youngest son, he died of apoplexy, at 
Urbanna, Jiily 20, 1850, at i past 1 o'clock. " Just 
24 hours before he had been in the pulpit preach- 
ing his last sermon, and the very hour of liis 
death was Iiis next appointment." But his work 
was done, and rest came. 

" How well he fell asleep! 
Like some grand river widening toward the sea. 
Calmly and grandly, silently and deep, 

Life joined eternity." 

His funeral was first performed at St. Peter's 
Church, Baltimore, and afterwards in Grace 
Church. The Diocese of R. I. erected a beauti- 
ful monument to his memory, on which is the 
following summary of liis character: "As a 
Theologian, he was sound ; as a Preacher, 
clear and earnest ; as a Pastor, faithful to the 
best interests of his flock ; as a Bishop, wise in 
counsel, and an example in woi'd, in conversa- 
tion, ia charity, in faith, in piety." True, Bishop 

Hcnshaw was not born among our green hills, 
and died not in our midst ; but fiom the age of 
8 to 21, he mostly resided in Vermont, and ever 
regarded Middlcbury as the cherished homo of 
his youth. Here he did much to promote the 
interests of his church ; here his father's family 
resided, * — his aged pai-ents died. And though 
he wrote several religious works much valued by 
liis church, a woman must be excused when se- 
lecting a specimen from his writings, if she turns 
from the volumes of learned theology, and quotes 
instead an extract from a " home letter." 

"Providence, Dec^ 10, 1849. 
My dear Friend and Brother: On ray 
return from Vermont, where I have been to en- 
gage in the last solemn rites of our religion over 
the remains of the best of inothers, I found your 
favor of Nov. 23d. My dear mother had reached 
the age of 79, without much visible impairment of 
her physical or intellectual powers. On Sunday, 
the 18th, she had received the Holy Communion 
with great satisfaction, and on the 25th, had en- 
joyed the pleasures of God's house at two full 
services. The 26th, after breakfast, according to 
her usual custom, she retired to her room for de- 
votional reading ; she heard her little grand- 
daughter read a chapter in the Bible before going 
to school ; one of my sisters also read to her in 
the course of the morning. She was at the front 
door about half-past 12 o'clock, and at a quarter 
before 1, my sister, Mrs. Whitney, went into 
her room to sit with her until dinner-time. My 
mother was seated in the same arm-chair in which 
my father died in 1825 ; the Bible and the prayer- 
book on the stand before her ; her spectacles on ; 
not a limb, feature, or muscle moved, perfectly 
lifelike, but her heart had ceased to beat, and an 
angel had kissed her soul away." 



MoNKTON was chartered by Gov. Wentworth 
June 24, 1762, 24,000 acres in 70 equal shares; 
first settled in 1774, by Barnabas Banium, John 
Bishop, and John and Ebcn'r Steams. Tradi- 
tion says John Bishop was the first settler. The 
first allusion to any resident upon the records of 
the town, is to Barnabas Barnum. We quote 
fiom the records of an old man, now deceased, 
who was a boy at the time. " The early settlers 
were noted for friendly and social feeling, visiting 
their neighbors who lived within 12 or 15 miles, 
and knowing the minute circumstances of their 

* Mistaking the house of a friend upon whom we 
wished to call, a few months since, at Middlebury, a 
kind-spoken, middle-aged gentleman at the door, 
after he had given us right directions, remarked, 
"This is the old Henshaw House! " We thanked 
the gentleman, and took a momentary survey, with 
an interested reverential curiosity, of the houee, 
which still wears an £piscop>al look. 



affairs more accurately than wc do of our neigh- 
bors within a stone's throw of lis. As the set- 
tlers increased, their visits became more circum- 
scribed ; but the same kind feeling existed in 

the eratherintrs at trainings and 

at the 

close of which they engaged in athletic sports, — 
wi-cstling, running foot-races, playing ball, &c. 
vicing with each other in feats of strength or 

On training-day mornings, the companies were 
accustomed to wake up their officers by firing a 
salute at their doors, for which compliment, his 
grace, from corporal up to captain, was expected 
to liberally treat. If any one became intoxicated 
it was quite disgraceful, but honorable to bear up 
with the largest quantity without intoxication. 

Afier the town had become so settled as to 
turn the attention of the inhabitants to the im- 
provement of stock, a race-ground was cleared 
off for about a mile, wliere the trial of speed of 
their horses was frequently made, and betting 
small sums. However, no large amount of bet- 
ting ever became the custom. 

During the Revolution, John Bishop, with sev- 
eral sons, and Mr. Ebcn'r Stearns, were cap- 
tm-ed by Tories and Indians, and taken to Can- 
ada ; and the settlement was broken up till after 
the war. Tradition says Bishop had some wheat 
stacks to which the Indians were about to set 
fii-e, when Mrs. Bishop, knomug them to be her 
main dependence, appeared with hot water, wliich 
she threw so vigorously that the Indians, admiring 
her courage, spared the stacks. Bishop and his 
sons were again returned to their homes. Bishop 
was noted for his eccentricities ; for instance, 
when any one came to the marsh near where he 
lived, to pick cranberries, ho always demanded a 
portion, for the reason that he brought the seed 
with him from New Milford. He also demanded 
a share of all the fish in an adjacent pond, as he 
had brought the original stock from the same 
place, in a leather bag, supplying fresh water 
from time to time, on his way. Barnabas Bar- 
num met with a more tragic fate. On the alann 
being given at the siege of Shelburn blockhouse, 
he repaired, with others, to the scene of action, 
and fell in the bloody skirmish of March 12, 

Tradition says that on hearing of the death of 
her husband, Mrs. Barnum, with several small 
children, went through the wilderness by marked 
trees, to the fort at Pitsford. A short distance 
south of Monkton Borough are some rocks, called 
the Toiy rocks, where a small party of Tories 
were captured, during the Revolution, by a less 
number of early settlers by stratagem. The 
early settlers of Monkton were men more noted 
for their physical strength and endurance than 
for mental culture or refinement. Yet they were 
not without those who sometimes tried their tact 
and skill at written composition. The following 
Doetical specimen is from the pen of one of those 

primitive and untaught bards, — Mr. Ebenezer 


When men rejoiced in days of yore 
That stamp-acts should appear no more, 
They fired their pump instead of cannon, 
And shook the very earth we stand on. 
But latter years, more full of glory, 
Since Whig has fairly conquered Tory, 
PSmp guns are thrown by in disgrace, 
And iron stationed in their place. 
The heroes of a certain town, 
To please themselves and gain renown, 
A cannon made, without a blunder, 
To send forth home-made peals of thunder. 
Never have such reports been given, 
Since Satan cannonaded heaven; 
To these reports 'twas merely whistle. 
When Queen Ann fired her pocket pistol. 
As that, so fame could never say less. 
Was fired from Dover unto Calais, — 
So this, without dispute we know 
Was tired from Monkton to North Hero. 
This thing was formed, our heroes say, 
To usher in our training-day ; 
But ere their training had arrived, 
To try her metal they contrived. 
Now courage aids their hearts of steel; 
She's mounted straight on wagon-wheels; 
In order firm the heroes stand, 
'Till the commandant gives command 
To load and fire, when at the sound 
Hills, dales, and vales all echo round. 
What transport fills these sous of Mars; 
They shout for joy, and bless their stars; 
But oh, how transient is their fun! 
They load too deep, and sijlit their gun. 
Earth, at the blast, turns shaking Quaker; 
Bqys curse the cannon and its maker; 
What havoc made 'mongst ducks and hens; 
The pigs run frightened round their pens; 
Young puppies setup hideous yells. 
While goslins perished in their shells; 
Lake Champlaiu shakes from shore to shore, 
And Camel's Hump was seen no more. 

John Ferguson was strong-minded, and a 
member of the legislature at an early day. His 
descendants, many of them, reside in Starksboro', 
where they are prominent citizens, — a portion of 
Monkton being set off to that town many years 

Jesse Lyman was for several years a resi- 
dent of Monkton ; removed to Vergennes ; was 
a major of militia, and an efficient officer under 
Gen. Strong, at the battle of Plattsburg. He 
died at Vergennes. 

BcEL Hitchcock was the first physician in 
town, and very skilful in bilious and intermittent 
fevers, that were prevalent among the early set- 
tlers. He once amputated a leg with a shoe-knife, 
using a rope and a stick for a tourniquet, Ebcn'r 
Barnum sawing the bone with a carpenter's saw. 
Ho built the first gristmill in town, and after 
several years' residence, removed to St. Lawrence 
Co., N. Y. where he died many years ago. 

IsAA-c Saavyer, with limited means for educa- 
tion, became a Baptist preacher, claimed the right 



to the lot granted to tlie first settled minister, 
which the town had leased for the benefit of 
schools, wliich after being in court several tenns, 
was finally compromised by a division between 
him and the town. He was ordained in a barn, 
Sept. 24, 1798, and became noted as a preacher 
of power and ability, and had several sons, who 
became preachers of the Baptist order. He died 
but a few years since, in Jay, N. Y. 

Samuel Barxum was chief magistrate in 
town for a number of years ; represented the 
town in the legislature a number of terms. He 
died at the residence of his son, Gen. A. W. Bar- 
num, of Vcrgennes. 

Gen. a. W. Barnum,. with very limited 
means for an education, by steady perseverance 
in business as a clerk in the mercantile profes- 
sion, became noted in mercantile, mechanical, 
and agricultural pursuits, acquired a large estate, 
was influential in improving agricultural pro- 
ducts, and the breeds of cattle and horses ; was 
for many years a leading citizen of Vergennes, 
and influential member of the legislature ; was 
quartermaster and general of militia in Vt., but 
experienced a reverse of fortune, and died at Ver- 
gennes in indigent circumstances. 

Dan Stone, a physician of large practice and 
great skill, resided in"town many years, and some 
of his descendants reside here still. 

Daniel Smith was of quick apprehension, 
shrewd in remark, gifted as counsel in law, for 
several years a representative to the legislature, 
and died in 1812, of the typhoid epidemic. 

Ira Smith, son of Dan'l Smith, has resided 
in town the longest of any person living in it, 
and has been an esteemed practitioner of medi- 
cine for nearly 50 years. 

Dan'l Collins, Jun., was for many years a 
deputy sheriff", judge in the County Court, and 
represented the town one term. He was a very 
ardent politician of the Democratic school. He 
died very suddenly in town. 

Stephen Heights was a self-educated man, 
of quick apprehension of any subject presented 
to his mind ; ardent in all his undertakings ; for 
many years a leading member in the legislature, 
judge in Addison County Court, and sheriff" for 
said county ; for several years an officer in the 
Senate of the U. S. He died at Washington, 
Jan. 12, 1841, aged 58, while holding the office 
of sergeant-at-arms in the Senate of the U. S. 
He was so much respected that the Senate voted 
an appropriation to pay the expenses of carrying 
his remains to BurUngton, Vt. for interment. 

Monkton is almost exclusively an agricultural 
town, with a population of 1 ,246 ; grand list, 
350,957. Iron ore is found here, the color of its 
surface a velvet black, white, and sometimes 
grayish ; dry to the touch, absorbs water quickly, 
is evidently decomposed feldspar, graphic, gran- 
ite, and kaolin clay, which was discovered at 
a very early day, by Stephen Barnum. 

The town was organized March 28, 1 786. First 

town clerk, Samuel Bumham ; fii'st constable, 
John Allen ; first selectmen, John Bishop, Jr., 
John Ferguson, and Sam'l Barnum ; first jus- 
tice, Sam'l Barnum ; fii'st representative, Eben'r 
Bai-num, 1787. The first birth was that of 
Ebenczer Steams, Jr., Oct. 17, 1775. The 
first death that of Eunice Church, date un- 
known. Number of college graduates, 8. The 
first church organized was the Calvinistic Bap- 
tist, July 24, 1794, and consisted of 12 members, 
present No. of members, 48. To the date of 
the organization of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, I can only approximate ; but it must 
have been near 1797. Their first preaclier was a 
man by the name of Mitchell. I am unable to 
state the first number of members. Some tiiqe 
prior to the organization there was but one Meth- 
odist in town, — Mr. Samuel Webb. The churcli 
now consists of 84 members. I am unable to 
state anything definite in regard to the time 
when the Society of Fnends was organized, but 
it was at a very early \ day. Their numbers at 
present are comparatively few. 

In the south part of Monkton is a pond cun 
ously located on a considerable hill ; in the north- 
western part a noted cavern. The orifice by which 
it is entered is at the foot of a large chasm of 
rocks on the side of a small Ipill. After descend- 
ing about 16 feet from the opening, you arrive at 
a room 30 feet by 16, from which is a passage 
leading to a second apartment, not quite so large, 
but more pleasant. 



A LOVE of preferment and honors is one of 
the oldest inhabitants of the heart. It pervades 
all classes, from the king on the throne to the 
peasant on the bleak moor. It is one of the 
great driving forces of the human intellect. If 
subordinated to beneficence and usefulness, it 
makes a strong and forceful character, — a Paul 
in the church, a Washington in the state. If 
not curbed and sanctified, it anarchizes the soul, 
overrides the character ; it makes autocrats, and 
despots, and traitors ; it forms an Erostratus, a 
Catiline, a Benedict Arnold. 

The gentle breast of woman is often shaken by 
ambition. " Then came unto Christ the mother 
of Zebedee's children, with her sons, desiring to 
speak with him. And he said unto her. What 
wilt thou ? She said unto him. Grant that 
these, my two sons, may sit, the one on thy riglit 
hand, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom !" 
The word is uttered. The heart speaks. But is 
this the highest good ? What does the Master, — 
"a greater than Solomon," — say? " Ye know 
not what ye ask. Whosoever will be great among 
you, let him be your minister." In my kingdom 



goodness Is greatness, usefulness is chieftainship, 
and beneficence is aristocracy. 

But goodness is a daughter of the skies. To 
he good and do good is to be like God, in the 
highest and best sense. No human greatness can 
nisemble us to him. As well might the ant talk 
of its hillock of greatness, or the beaver of its 
house of pride, as man to talk of mightiness, 
either of strength or wisdom. 

A good act, a kind word, an approving smile 
upon virtue, a reproving look upon vice, all may 
do good, and liken us to God. The whole earth 
is full of the goodness of God ! and let us reflect 
it, diffuse it. Let us dig little channels through 
every man's grounds, in which it may run. Such 
labor is not lost, but lasting; for all such rills 
will yet converge, unite, and fori^ the river of 
God's pleasure, and empty into the ocean of 
eternal blessedness. 

A selfish life resembles a leafless oak. A life 
of benevolence resembles that same oak full of 
flourishing branches, around whose trunk many- 
creeping plants entwine, and the grape fonns gay 
festoons of beauty and fruit, "recompensing 
well the strength they borrow by the grace they 

Mere valor, daring, and ambition must not be 
deified ; more regard must be paid to morals and 
piety. The head is not to be idolize'd, to the ne- 
glect of the heart and its beneficent affections. 
Napoleon was a man of gigantic talents, made 
up of unbounded ambition, military tact, unri- 
valled celeiity, and indomitable perseverance, and 
no doubt his wasting, earthquake wars did good, 
as thunderstorms purify the atmosphere, or the 
devouring fire the foul rookeries of a city. "We 
believe God used him as a scourge to punish 
guilty nations, to break down the old corrupt po- 
litical systems, and hoary fastnesses of evil, and 
let in the light of day upon the darkest despot- 
isms of Europe ; but that, through lack of an ed- 
ucation by Christian parents, and nurture in a 
Christian nation, the aims of his noble nature, and 
the scope of his fertile mind, could not be conse- 
crated to the highest good ©f man. 

Seekest thou great tilings for thyself? Seek 
them not. There is no permanent good for man 
in aught else than to " rejoice and do good in this 

The greatness of goodness, usefulness to oth- 
ers, is the pinnacle of fame to every right- 
minded man. Aspiration sanctified to benefi- 
cence, causes no regret. It looms before man 
through life. It is a softly-glowing vista ; as he 
looks behind him, it is a Drummond light, when 
all the earth is a " dissolving view." 

" Each deed that we do for the true and right, 
With purpose unshaken and high, 
Is graven in characters living as light, 
In hearts where it never shall die." 

A life of usefulness alone can make us happy. 
Selfishness is not the state of mind in which God 
made us. 

The gospel of Jesus is desigi od to restore to 
us the faith of holiness. How. happy would 
our state be if we, like him, " went about doing 
good." How soon would the bitterness of many 
hearts be dried up ; the wailings of the sorrow- 
ful, the prisoner, the oppressed, cease. Every man 
would be a brother, and a friend. The " good 
time coming," would have "come." Heaven 
would kiss the world ; the sons of heaven and 
the daughters of eaith would be married, and 
earth keep jubilee a thousand years. 

Men generally award lasting praise to those 
who are benefactors of their race. We are crea- 
tures of animal organization and sympathetic 
excitement. While the pageant, or triumphal 
show is passing, wc sometimes follow the multi- 
tude in huzzas, and the weak-minded abandon 
their principles ; but when the pompous exhibi- 
tion has passed, and become history, we give our 
meed of praise to the less gorgeous and more 
substantial. As time rolls on and brings us 
nearer the millennium, and heaven; as truth 
spreads her influence over the earth, and we live 
in the light of eternal splendor, will the little 
greatnesses of the earth, which have engrossed 
the attention of the infancy and ignorance of the 
world, fade, and grow dim, while the soul and its 
overwhelming interests, and the labor which ap- 
pertains to its salvation, will grow intensely bril- 
liant and enduring. While the name of Wel- 
lington, the victor of Waterloo, the conqueror of 
the great hero of modem times, is rusted in 
oblivionjthe name of Clarkson, the philanthro- 
pist, and of Wilberforce, the Christian statesman, 
will flourish in evergreen memory. Howard's 
life stands out in pure sublimity against the 
sky of glory wliich now hide* him from our 
sight ! Here are glory, honor, benevolence, hu- 
manity, — everything good and great. The grass 
will grow green over his grave ; his memory will 
be embalmed in the hearts of coming millions. 
Posterity will be pointed to him as the benefac- 
tor of the race ; mothers will teach the lesson to 
their children, and his name will be a " house- 
hold word," to the end of time. 

At the close of life we go back to the simplicity 
and artlessness of children. Sober reason re- 
turns, and our better nature longs for a " better 
and enduring substance." 



This town lies near the centre of the county. 
Its limits have been several times changed since 
its charter was granted, in 1761. A small por- 
tion in the N. W. comer became a part of the 
city of Vergennes. A larger portion in the 
same section was formed into the town of Wal- 
tham, in 1796. Not far from this period, a tract 
in the W. part was annexed to Weybridge, New 
Haven receiving, at the same time, a gore about 
1 J miles square, bordering on the K. line. 



In 1761, John Everts, of Salisbury, Ct., was 
deputed to repair to Portsmouth, N. H., and ob- 
tain charters of two townships. He first designed 
to locate them on the sites of Clarendon and 
Rutland, but learning that charters already cov- 
ered that region, and the territory N. of Leices- 
ter had not been granted, and having some knowl- 
edge of the lower falls on Otter Creek, now 
Vergennes, he began at these falls, laying off his 
townships S. of that place, and bounded on the 
W. by the creek. Finding a sufficient extent of 
territory between Leicester and the falls named, 
for tluree townships, he obtained that number of 
charters ; having redistributed the names of the 
applicants in such a manner as to secure the 
grants of three instead of two. This town he 
named New Haven, after the capital of liis State. 

To designate the starting-point more perma- 
nently than " a tree marked," a cannon was in- 
serted in a hole in the rock, with the muzzle up- 
wards. This cannon has ever since been the 
guiding landmark not only of New Haven, and 
Salisbury, but of Middlebury, inasmuch as Mid- 
dlebury took its boundaries from the S. line of 
New Haven, and Salisbury from the S. line of 
Middlebury. In process of years tliis cannon 
became hidden from view by earth piled upon 
it, and which, from repeated additions, now cov- 
ers it to the depth of several feet. But a bar of 
iron, seasonably inserted in the muzzle, can now 
be seen protruding above the superincumbent ma- 

In the charter, Gov. Wentworth reserved to 
himself 500 acres in the N. W. comer of the 
town, considered equivalent to two shares ; as- 
signed for the gospel and schools, 4 other shares, 
and one to each of the 56 grantees. 

In 1794, the legislature passed an act appro- 
priating to the use of common schools, in all the 
Hampshire grants, the shares of the " Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel." But that 
society, instead of abandoning their claim, trans- 
ferred it to the Episcopal Church. That church 
contested the constitutionality of the above- 
mentioned law, in the U. S. courts. After pro- 
' tracted litigation, the matter was decided in favor 
of the church. The suit which was to test the 
validity of the church's title, throughout the 
State, was brought against the town of New 
Haven. The share in New Haven for the first 
eettled minister, after an attempt made by the 
Universalists to obtain it, was, by a vote of the 
town, appropriated to the use of common schools. 

Of the original grantees, few ever became ac- 
tual settlers. Some of them forfeited their 
shares rather than' pay the incidental expenses. 
A few. were represented among the settlers by 
their children ; but most of them, having en- 
gaged in it merely as a speculation, sold their 
claims. Little is known of the proceedings of 
the proprietors previously to the settlement of 
the town, owing to the loss of the proprietors' 

records. It is, however, evident from the records 
of the other two towns, that the proprietors reg- 
ularly met and did business for their townships 
up to the year 1774. 

Although chartered in 1761, the town remained 
an unbroken wilderness until 1769. A few fami- 
lies that year removed from Salisbury, Ct. into 
the N. W. part, now Waltham, and settled near 
the creek. Among them were John Griswold 
and family of 5 sons. About 12 other settlers 
came near the siime time. A Col. Reid had 
received from the governor of N. Y. a patent of 
a tra<rt of land 4 miles wide, lying on both sides 
of Otter Creek, and extending from the mouth 
of the stream to Sutherland Falls. This Eeid, 
with a company of armed dependents, drove 
these settlers from their homes, after they had 
expended much in cutting roads, and cultivating 
their farms.* 

' We will only add, the block fort built by Col. 
Ethan Allen, at the falls, to protect the settlers 
from further encroachments of the Yorkers, and 
in which he left a small garrison, was within 
New Haven, and that after this they received no 
further molestation from that quarter. 

Scarcely had the early settlers began to feel 
secure from the inroads of the Yorkers, before 
the Revolution broke out, and in the first years 
of its progress they were entirely broken up. 
The history of the memorable raid made in the 
autumn of 1778, belongs properly to Weybridge, 
as that town now embraces most of the section 
that was the scene of that merciless foray. There 
were two families, however, whose farms and 
places of location are now in Weybridge, that 
were then in New Haven. These were the fami- 
lies of Justus Sturdevant and David Stow. 
This raid was made by Indians, British, and To- 
ries. The adult males were carried off; the 
women and children were left, but left without 
shelter, or any means of subsistence. All build- 
ings were burned ; and by burning, or other 
modes of destruction, grain and cattle were de- 
sti-oyed. David Stow, and Thos. Sandford, a 
near neighbor, had gone to Crown Point, to mill, 
in a canoe. This took them down the creek to 
the falls, a distance of 9 miles. Here they took 
their canoe and grist around the falls, and then 
proceeded to tl^ lake, 8 miles further. They then 
passed up the lake, and crossed over to Crown 
Point. The route could not have been less than 30 
miles. They were returning with their grist, and 
had got above the falls, when they were met by 
the marauding party, captured, and with their 
grist taken on with the rest of the prisoners 
and booty. Sandford, and others, subsequently 
found their way back from Quebec, whither they 
were taken ; but Mr. Stow, when he left home 
in his canoe, to get bread for his household, 
looked for the last time on his wife and children, 
(save his son Clark, who was a captive.) His 

* For further account, eee Ferrisburgh chapter 



sufferings ended in death a little over a month 
after his capture. Joseph Johnson, John Gris- 
wold, Sen., and 4 of his sons, John, Nathan, 
Adouijah, and David, Eli Rober'&s, and his son 
Duren, residents of New Haven, were taken in 
this foray. The elder Griswold, in consequence 
of his advanced age, was released. The others 
were taken on to Canada. Out of numberless 
instances of suffering, I will relate one. Doctor 
Griswold, the youngest son of John Griswold, 
Sen., then about 7 years of age, was left by the 
foe with the women. An Indian came into the 
house of his father, in search of plunder. He 
espied a pair of new shoes, belonging to little 
Doctor, on a shelf, and bagged them. This act 
of robbery obliged the little boy to go to Man- 
chester barefoot, over roads abounding in stumps 
and roots, his feet exposed to the frosty air of 
November. John Gi'iswold, Jr., induced by the 
promise of liberty, went as a hand on board a 
transport ship that sailed from Quebec for Ire- 
land, and was never after heard from. The pris- 
oners, save David Stow, and the one last named, 
returned at the close of the war. Their farms, 
which had been partially cleared, remained waste 
during their absence, and were covered with a 
thick growth of bushes. A portion of the live 
stock that escaped slaughter or capture by the 
enemy, ranged in the woods, grazing in straimer, 
and browsing in winter, and were found at the 
return of the settlers, to have multiplied, rather 
than diminished. They had formed a trail from 
the clearings on the creek to a beaver meadow or 
prairie of nearly ICIO acres, covered with wild 
grass, and situated between Beach and Town 
hill. It is related that one of the settlers was at 
work in the field, having with him a yoke of 
oxen fastened by a chain to a tree. When the 
alarm was given of the approach of the enemy, 
in his haste to release the cattle, and drive them 
to a place of security, he unhitched the chain 
from the yoke, leaving it wound around the body 
of the tree. The tree, in its growth, finally cov- 
ered the chain, and it remained imdiscovered 
until many years afterwards, when the tree was 
cut down. 

I have not been able, with such means as I 
could command, to ascertain with much preci- 
sion, the times when those parts of the town not 
lying on the creek were settled. Prior to the 
Revolution, and during that war, settlements were 
mostly made on the creek, and in the neighbor- 
hood of the falls. Settlements, however, were 
made in other parts of the town, prior to, and in 
the early part of the Revolution. Justus Sher- 
wood came in 1774, and settled on the farm now 
o^vned by Judge Elias Bottum, and erected his 
dwelling, — a log-house, — exactly where Judge 
Bottum's family graveyard is. Justus Webster 
settled in the earlier part of the year 1775, and 
others came on in the years 1775 and '76 ; 
Asahel Blanchard in '75 ; Joseph Thompson be- 

fore the Revolution. On the return of peace, 
the town became rapidly settled in all its parts, 
and was organized in 1785, and represented in '88, 
in the legislature, by Alexander Brush. By the 
beginning of the present century the land was/ 
nearly all taken up, and to a great extent 

At an early day becoming attention was paid 
to religious worship, and the town has always 
looked well to its common schools. An academy 
established a few years since, is doing good ser- 
vice in the cause of education. The first regular 
schoolhouse was erected on Lanesborough street, 
in 1794. Religious service was first held in pri- 
vate houses, barns, and schoolhouses. The prin- 
cipal denominations have been Congregational- 
ists, Baptists, and Methodists, the first mentioned 
always predominant. The Baptists early organ- 
ized a church in the west part of the town, and 
for many years flourished under Elders Ilayward 
and Hurlbut. After the retirement of the latter, 
no pastor has ever remained any considerable 
number; of years ; some remaining only 1 or 2 
years. The chm-ch, never very large, has suf- 
fered greatly from emigration. 

Near the close of the last century, the eccen- 
tric Lorenzo Dow, and his colleague, Sam'l Mitch- 
ell, preached in the east part of the town, and 
formed a Methodist Society, but it seems to have 
been in no wise permanent. Occasionally, Meth- 
odist itinerants have visited the central portion of 
the town, but have never met with sufficient en- 
couragement to justify the continuance of an 
appointment. A considerable proportion of the 
people iu the western section of the town belong 
to a Methodist society, located principally in 

There were originally two Congregational 
churches formed ; one in the south part of the 
town, Nov. 15, 1797, and the other in the North 
part. These were united in one, Sept. 29, 1800. 
The church was furnished with occasional sup- 
plies until 1804, when Rev. Silas L. Bingham 
became its first pastor ; dismissed in 1808. Rev. 
Josiah Hopkins was ordained in 1809, and con- 
tinued its pastor 21 years. Since his dismis- 
sion, in 1830, Revs. Joel Eisk, Enoch Mead, 
James Meacham,* and Samuel Hm-lbut have 
been settled ministers of the church. The latter 
died in 1857, greatly lamented for his numerous 
virtues, and decided ministerial qualifications. 
Rev. Mr. Hulbard has lately been installed over 
the church. This church has been much favored 
with revivals, and has always embraced in its 
membership many of the strong and influential 
men of the town. 

A church of Adventists has, within a few 
years, been organiised in tlie town. They have a 
meeting-house at Brooksville, and preaching a 
part of the time. 

♦For biographical sketch of James Meacham, see 
Middlebury department, college article. 



The early settlers found the town well tim- 
bered. On the east, the town stretches well-nigh 
but not quite to the base of the Green Mts. The 
rocks in aila composing Snake Mountains, lying 
between Weybridge and Addison, extend beneath 
the bed of Otter Creek at the reef bridge, at 
which place a reef of rocks crop out, giving 
name to the bridge. The rocks thus depressed 
it this place, rise again into a small mountain 
range in New Haven and Waltham, the principal 
peak of which bears the name of Buck Moun- 
tain. A line of limestone rock crosses the creek 
fi'om Weybridge, at a place called the Turn- 
pike bridge, and extends across the town in 
a northerly direction. This rock, on being 
burned, is a good material for building purposes. 
West of the meeting-house, where the road from 
the depot rises a tedious hill, there is an out- 
cropping of rock that has not as yet, I believe, 
received much attention from geologists. 

New Haven is well supplied with fountains and 
small streams. New Haven river enters the town 
near the S. E. corner, and washing the whole 
southern portion, flows into Otter Creek near the 
S. W. corner. It is an elegant stream, its waters 
limpid and pure, and makes a very beautiful and 
fertile valley. 

The soil of the town is good, consisting mostly 
of clay and loam. The suiface, in many places, 
is scattered over with boulders and pebbles. In 
places, these boulders and pebbles are found 
mingled with the surface-soil to some little depth ; 
pebbles to the depth of some 18 inches, while 
boulders lie sometimes half buried in the ground, 
and are sometimes found completely buried, and 
lying some feet below the suiface. These bould- 
ers and pebbles are of the same material of the 
rocks in situ, in the mountains and outeroppings 
around, and are abraded and rounded, evidently 
caused by being moved from their original posi- 
tions, and mingled together, and swept along by 
vast bodies of agitated and moving waters, in 
ages of the remote past. 

In 1813 and '14, the town was visited with 
ten-ible mortality. Mr. Ilopldns, then pastor of 
the Congi-egational church, in giving an account 
of the same, and the gloom it occasioned, re- 
marked that "theiiices of all he met were bleached 
to the paleness of marble." In 1830, a freshet, 
extending along western Vermont, and doing 
great damage, swept, with dreadful ruin, over 
New Haven. The Green Mountain toiTcnts 
rolled on -vvith impetuous fmy. New Haven 
river suddenly rose to an unprecedented height. 
Bridges and dams were swept away, and at a 
place then called Beman's Hollow, now Brooks- 
ville, many dwellings were carried off, and 14 
lives lost. At first the victims were borne along 
on the wrecks of houses, and other buildings, as 
on rafts, shrieking for help. A little below the 
place, rocks rise high on each side of the river, 
and are but a few feet apart. The cries of the 

sufferers were heard till they reached these nar- 
rows, when they became suddenly hushed. The 
waters, not passing readily through the narrows, 
rose the higher in the hamkt just above, and the 
timbers, and the victims upon them, were thrown 
and commingled together at the narrows, in one 
mass of ruin and death. The bodies of the dead 
were found along the banks of Otter Creek, into 
which the New Haven river enters. 

The population, by the last census, was 1,C63, 
and probably has not varied much in fifty 
years. The grand list, for the present year, is 

Some of tlie early settlers, by their enterprise, 
disinterestedness, and endurance, have laid pos- 
terity under lasting obligations. Among tliese, 
it is due that we should mention Justus Sher- 
wood, though the finale of his life was anything 
but such as demands the acknowledgment of ob- 
ligations from an American. As already men- 
tioned, he scttkd in 1774, on the farm now owned 
by Judge Bottum, on Lanesborough street. He 
_ was proprietors' clerk, from the first meeting held 
in town, Oct. 1774, until probably the latter part 
of 1776, when he left on account of the war. 
Among other improvements, he planted a nursery 
of apple-trees ; and though broken down by tha 
deer and moose, during the Revolution, they were 
found alive at the close of the war, and trans- 
planted. In 177G, Mr. Sherwood returned as far 
as Shaftsbury. On a visit to'' Bennington, — be- 
ing not a man to disguise liis sentiments, — ha 
gave utterance to remarks that denoted sympa- 
thy with the royal cause, at which the Whigs of 
that place taking offence, tried him before Judge 
Lynch, and sentenced liim to a punishment, of 
the precise character of wluch I am not informed; 
but which, according to the account before me, 
was common at that place and time, in respect to 
a certain class of political offenders, and much 
more amusing to the spectators, and wounding 
to the feelings of the culprit, than to bis body. 
Exasperated at this treatment, he raised a com 
pany of royalists, conducted them to Canada, and 
entered the Biiiish service. He was one of the 
agents employed by the English to conduct ne- 
gotiations with tlic leading men of Vermont 
respecting its reannexation to Great Britain. 
After the war he received a pension of a crown a 
day during life, and the grant of 1 ,200 acres of 
land in Upper Canada, opposite Ogdensburgh, 
N. Y. Before leaving New Haven, having in 
his hands, as proprietors' clerk, their records, he 
buried nearly all of them in an iron pot, having 
a i>otash kettle turned over it, near his house, 
marking the place, with the view of its being 
recognized, but it was never aftcnvards found. 

LuTHEn EvEETS, scvcral of whose grandchil- 
dren now reside in Waltham and New Haven, set- 
tled before the Revolution, in the west part of the 
town, near the town plat, laid out in the south 
part of what was set off as Waltham. He was 



a prominent man in the early history of the 
town, and an extensive landholder, having at 
one time near 2,000 acres. He was first town 

Hon. Ezra Hott, though not among the first 
settlers, came in an earJy day. He represented 
the town nine years ; was judge of the County 
Court 6 years ; and judge of Probate 5 years ; a 
man of talents and pul^lic spirit, land and urbane 
in his bearing. To him the town is indebted for 
his wise devotion to its interests. His death oc- 
cuiTcd some 20 years since. 

Capt. Mathew Puelps, and Maj. Mathew 
Phelps, liis son, were men of more than ordinary 
qualides. The former undertook an enterprise 
into the valley of the Mississippi, near the close 
of the Revolution ; but the enterprise proving 
greatly disastrous to him and his household, he 
returned. He published a book, giving an ac- 
count of his reverses and sufferings in tliat enter- 
prise. His death occurred in 1817, after having 
been a resident of the town some 20 or 25 years. 
Mathew Phelps, Jr. died about 4 years before his 
father, being cut down amid a course of useful- 
ness and honor. He graduated at Middlebury 
College in 1804, and was early called to fill re- 
sponsible stations in civil life. On the com- 
mencement of the last war with England, he 
entered the regular service, and held the office of 
major when he died. 

Peeseeved Wueelek was bom June 9, 1769, 
in Lanesborough, Mass. His father removed, 
with his family, to the Wyoming valley in Pa., 
where he fell in the massacre that occuiTcd there 
in the time of the Revolution. His mother re- 
turned, immediately after, to Connecticut, with, 
her young children. After her return she gave 
birth to a third son. She and her children passed 
through incredible hardships after the death of 
the husband and father. Preserved Wheeler 
passed his childhood and youth mostly with 
sympathizing friends. He settled first in Char- 
lotte, then in the north part of New Haven, 
where he spent most of his life, and accumulated 
an ample fortune. He died a few years since. 

Sol. Brown was one of the worthies of the 
town, a man of mind, probity, and firmness ; a 
soldier of the Revolution, and a participator in 
the battle of Lexington. He was a deacon in 
the church, and for many years held places of 
public trust. He died about 1837. 

We have already spoken of the admirable 
qualities of Rev. Samuel Hurlbut, grandson of 
Mr. Samuel Hurlbut, one of the grantees of New 
Haven, who was about 10 years pastor in this 
town. He was a man of a genial spirit, and 
active in every good work. Not only did the 
church prosper greatly under his pious and de- 
voted labors, but the temporal interests of the 
town were materially enhanced by his steady and 
enUghtened action. After no little labor and re- 
•eaich, he was bringing to a close the history of 

New Haven, when he was removed to the study 
of a higher history. 

Though the writer intended to give brief 
sketches only of those who have passed away, 
yet some notice of one still living, viz. Rev. 
JosiAH HoPKixs, ought not to be omitted. Ha 
was the second pastor of the Cong. Church. 
Unlike most of the Congregational clergy, he 
entered upon the sacred office without a classical 
education ; but his strong native sense made 
amends in a great measure. He had no sooner 
entered on his duties in New Haven, than liis 
mark was plainly to be seen ; and no one, perhaps, 
has left behind him a more enviable and enduring 
reputation. In 1826, he published a book deli- 
neating the doctrines and duties of religion, under 
the title of " Christian Instractor." Since leav- 
ing New Haveft he has filled responsible positions 
in the ministry, in the State of New York. A 
full account of the man will not bo attempted, 
and what we have said will be the more excus- 
able, as he is now far down in the vale of 

For materials out of which the foregoing has 
been formed, I am mostly indebted to papers left 
by Rev. Samuel Hurlbut, deceased. Mrs. Caro- 
line Hurlbut, widow of Mr. Ilm-lbut, placed 
these papers in the hands of Lewis Meacham, 
Esq., from whom I received them. Mi: Hurl- 
but quotes for authorities, " De Puy's Life of 
Allen," " Dr. Merrill's Semi-Centennial Ser- 
mon on the History of Middlebuiy," " Thom- 
son's Gazetteer," "Allen's Letter to Gov. Tryon," 
and " Vermont State Papers." He also had re- 
course to more original sources of information, 
as I have had. 



Mr. HtOiLBTiT was bom in Charlotte, Not. 
1816 ; graduated at Middlebury College in 1839, 
and at the Union Theological Seminary, N. Y., 
in 1845. He went to New Haven in Oct. 1846, 
and was installed over the church the following 
June ; he died Dec. 2, 1856, aged 40 years. 

" His eminence was first of -all as a preacher 
and a pastor. In the pulpit or the lecture-room, 
ho gained the attention and the affection of his 
hearers, by the earnestness of his manner." He 
had not to a great degree the graces of the orator, 
but he was imbued with those moral traits, which, 
as the source of influence over other minds, con- 
stitute the highest rhetorical power. 

He was also a very instructive preacher. From 
his strong tendency to metaphysical and doctrinal 
discussions, he became very familiar with the 
views of theologians, and, in addition to tliis, was 
always on the watch to learn how uneducated 
minds were impressed with the ordinary state- 



ments of the doctriaes of theology. When he 
entered the ministry he determined to read a 
chapter in the Hebrew Bible, daily. Tliis reso- 
lution he carried into practice nearly or quite to 
the close of his life, frequently reading from t!ic 
original Hebrew at tlio devotions of the family 
in the raoming. In tliis way he attained an un- 
common familiarity with the Jewish customs and 
habits of thought, which gave remarkable fresh- 
ness and impressiveness to his interpretation of 
Scripture. He was, moreover, a faithful pastor. 
He considered it his duty to know the religious 
condition of every person in his parish, and to 
give them such instruction and warning as they 
might need ; and he made it a point, so far as 
circumstances would allow, to converse with 
some person every day on the subject of personal 
religion. . . . The best proof of his faithful- 
ness, however, is in the results of his labors ; 
there were more than a hundi-ed added to his 
church during the 10 years of his ministry. 

He believed that the ability to preach without 
notes was indispensable to the pastor. How 
well he succeeded will be inferred from the fact 
that the hst of his written sermons numbers only 

He was one of the best citizens of the place. 
Convenient mail arrangements, the present con- 
dition of the cemetery, a well-selected circulat- 
ing library, the walks about the common, the 
Bchoolroom, the lecture-room, and town hall, all 
testify liis zealous and energetic public spirit. 

There wa,s nothing worth knowing that he did 
not take pleasure in. He had a remarkable knowl- 
edge of history ; was perfectly familiar with the 
ordinaiy operations of war ; and had much curi- 
ous knowledge about machinery. By such gen- 
eral information he made himself agreeable in any 
society, and was veiy apt to draw hearers about 
him iu familiar conversation. Though he was 
several miles from the college at Middlcbury, the 
students all knew and admired him. We should 
add, he interested himself deeply in all the moral 
questions of the day. His earnest advocacy of 
the cause of temperance will long be remem- 
bered in this county, and his stirring remarks on 
the question of slavery, especially on the relation 
of the federal government to that institution. 

But Mr. Hurlbut's praise is in tlie naiTative of 
his death and funeral. No one can describe the 
deep sadness of the whole county. The crowded 
weeping assembly, the deeply affecting services, 
the subsequent expression of a meeting of citi- 
zens, were convincing proof of a deep sense of 


Friends, I implore thee, nev«r let my clay- 
Be borne to the church in funeral array; 
Oh, never, never let my pallid brow 
Lie in its coflin as a public show. 
I would not that a stranger e'er should gaze 

Upon the death-fixed features of my face ; 

None but the few, — that circle near and dear, — 

The solemn words, " Dust unto dust," should hear. 

'Twill need no marble shaft to mark the spot, 

For those who love me will forget it not. 

And when the chi'.ling winds stalk fiercely forth, 

Like spirit giants passing o'er the earth. 

Then autumn's sere and faded leaves will come. 

And cluster sweetly round my narrow home; 

Hover, like dreams, which spirits ne'er disclose, 

Around the pillow of my last repose. 

Mrs. L. S. Warner. 


Orwell is a wealthy farming town, opposite 
Ticondcroga, N. Y., the average width of the 
lake between being about one mile. Tlie most 
of the township is very level and handsome land, 
with a fertile soil. The principal rivers are 
Lemon Fair and East Creek, on which are sev- 
eral mill privileges. The waters, where the land 
is clayey, are slightly impregnated with Epsom 
salts, or the sulphate of magnesia. , From a 
spring on the lake shore, very strongly impreg- 
nated salts have been considerably manufactured. 
Shells of various kinds are found in the lime- 
stone beds of this town. Specimens, also, of 
blende, or the sulpTmrate of zinc, have been found, 
and flint in the compact limestone on Mt. Inde- 

Aug. 8, 1763. This township was chartered 
(42 sq. miles,) toBenj. Ferris* and associates. ' 

John Carter lived here several years before the 
Revolution. He fii'st began improvements upon 
Mt. Independence, which lies a little south of 
opposite Fort Ticondcroga. A ganison of sol- 
diers from Connecticut, occupied it at the com- 
mencement of the war ; and upon it were a stock- 
ade fort and ramparts. Rev. Amzi Robbins, of 
Norwalk, was their chaplain, who published a 
diaiy, kept during his chaplaincy. A camp 
fever broke out among the soldiers, which in 
many cases, proved fatal. The graves of these 
patriots still appear, and rude stones mark the 
spot where they lie. On the 18th of July, 1775, 
news reached the garrison of the Declaration 
of Independence, which caused great joy, and 
they named the hill Mt. Independence. 

The first permanent settlement, after the war, 
was made by Mr. Ephraim Fisher, and Mr. 
Ebcr Muny, in 1783. The town was organized 
in 1787, when there appeared 70 electors. 

David Leonard was first town clerk ; Eben'r 
Wilson first representative, in 1788. In 1804, 30 
children were carried off by dysentery in 60 
days ; and the epidemic of 1813 was very mortal 
among heads of families here. 

The religious sects are Baptists, Congregation- 

* Thomson dates the charter Aug. 8, 1763, to Benj. 
Ferris &c; Demming to Benj. Underbill, in Aug. 18, 
1763. Whether Thomson or Demming is correct, we 
have no present means of ascertaining. 



alists, Methodists, and Univcrsalists.* The first 
church organized was the Baptist, Dec. 21, 1787, 
(says the Congregational Manual of 1856 ;) 
Thompson says about 1784. Rev. Elnathan 
Phelps, tlieir pastor, was the first settled minis- 
ter in town, who officiated 5 or 6 years. Elders 
Culver, Webster, JIurray, Fisher, Sawyer, An- 
ger, and I;le, have in turn ministered licre. Their 
meeting-liousc is in the eastern part of tlic town. 
The Congregational church was organized in 
1780; first No. of members, 7 ; whole No, 684; 
present No. (185C) 154; first settled minister. 
Rev. Sylvanus Chapin, of Bclchertown, Mass., 
ordained and installed pastor. Mar. 30, 1791 ; 
dismissed, May 26, 1801. June 1, 1808, Rev. 
Mason Knapen installed. Rev. Ira lugraham, 
pastor from June, 1820, to 1822 ; Rev. Sher- 
man Kellogg, from March, 1826, to April, 1832 ; 
Rev. Henry Morton, from Oct. 1834, to Oct. 
1841 ; Rev. Rufus S. Cushman, present pastor, in- 
stalled Dec. 21, 1843. 1798, 1810, '21, '29, '34, 
'35, '47, and '55 were special seasons of religious 
revival, ^hcir first meeting-house was built in 
1810. I 

May 13, 1820. Some 5 acres, partly covered 
with trees, sunk about 40 feet, and slid off into 
the lake. Some of the tredS on the sinking 
ground were uprooted ; others moved ofi' erect, 
and the impulse made upon the water 1 i miles 
distant, at the opposite shore, raised the lake 3 

There are two small villages in this town, but 
the people are generally "independent farmers." 
The writer was told, when in Orwell a few 
months since, " we have no poor people." We 
particularly noticed the good looks of their 
houses and yards, the second-class farm-houses 
having given place, almost eveiywhcre, to com- 
modious, well-painted, two-story dwellings. At 
Chipman's Point the lake scenery is very fine. 
The population in 1850 was 1,470. 


Carlos Wilcox was bom Oct. 22, 1794, at 
Newport, N. H. When about four years of age 
his parents removed to Orwell, where two broth- 
ers of the deceased poet still reside. He entered 
Middlebury College in his 15th year, where he 
graduated with the highest honors ; after which 
he graduated at Andover, and though his incli- 
nation was strong to devote liimself • to poetry, he 
decided for the ministry, and was ordained pas- 
tor of the Congregational North Society of Hart- 
ford, Ct. As a minister he united faithfulness 
with the most delicate propriety, and was greatly 
beloved. He died of consumption at Danbury, 
Ct.jMay 29, 1827, and was interred in the North 

* A Catholic church has lately been erected by one 
of the wealthiest citizens, who has two daughters, 
members of that church. 

Cemetery,-* in Hartford, Ct. The histoiyof thi3 
man has shades of sadness and mystery; and 
thus he sang : — 

" I seem alone 'mid universal death, 
Lone as a single sail upon the sea, 
Lone as a wounded swan that leaves the flock 
To heal in secret or to bleed and die." 

But liis character was exalted and beautiful. 
His testimony to the love of poetry is, "From it I 
derive the most exquisite enjoyment." His prin- 
cipal poems are, "Age of Benevolence," in five 
books, and " Religion of Taste," delivered before 
the Society of Phi Beta Kappa at Yale CoUege. 


" What manner of child shall this 
BE." While we look upon an interestingichild, 
the object of many cares, and many fears and 
hopes, and the loved one of many hearts ; and 
while we think of the part which he is to act 
on the theatre of life, and of the lot which he 
is to enjoy or suffer ; and while we think of the 
rationable and accountable soul in his little frail 
form of dust, and of the unending existence 
which he has commenced, under the government 
of the great God and Saviour, how can the ques- 
tion fail to rise in our minds, " What manner of 
child shall this be ? " . . . Should we view 
with breathless admiration the starting of a new 
planet in the heavens, ordained to move on 
thi'ough years and centm-ies, till the end of the 
world ; and can we behold with indifference, the 
setting forth of a living and rational being, on a 
career wliich will be but just begun, when suna 
and planets shall stop, and wiU be continued be- 

* "While at Orwell, we stopped over the Sabbath in 
the family of the Congregational pastor, with whom 
Dr. Hooker, of Fairhaven, had an exchange. The 
venerable Doctor is one of the few remaining mem- 
bers of that Andover class, of which Carlos WiJcox 
was the loveliness, the halo, the glory. At table, (at 
breakfast, I think,) our visit called up memories of 
Wilcox, and the following incident, which, calmly 
and affectionately as the character of the man of 
whom he spake, the Doctor told. Some years since, 
he was on a tour to Hartford, and went to visit the 
cemetery where this dear classmate was buried. As 
he drew near, within the sacred enclosure he saw a 
lady of sweetly serious aspect, sitting by that mound- 
side, sketching the monument. A gentleman, who 
seemed in attendance, stood a few feet from the lady, 
o'erleaning another headstone. " I could not," said 
our pleasant narrator, " intrude upon such a visitor, 
at such a moment, and turning, walked at a distance 
unobserved, watching the quiet sketcher, wondering 
who she could be that kept in her heart the same at- 
tachment for that grave that had drawn me thither- 
ward." Thus he tarried till hersketch was completed, 
and she rose to depart, when feeling that their mu- 
tual reverence for him who there slept, transferred 
unto him the privilege of a friend, he drew near, and 
told her he too had come to visit that grave, — the 
grave of his best beloved classmate; and he found 
the lady a sister, (I think he said an only sister,) who, 
after the lapse of years, had been enabled at length 
to visit this, to her, most sacred spot of earth, and 
bear away a sketch of the last resting-place of hei 
favorite brother. 



yond them and without them through eternal 
ages 1 Can we behold, without intense interest, 
the commencement of an existence, which is to 
be perpetuated in another world 1 . . . . 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind." 

Tliis sentiment is universally adopted and 
acted upon in the various departments of secular 
learning and employment. And it must be uni- 
versally acknowledged that the children of Hin- 
doo parents, and those of Mohammedan parents, 
uniformly become, in the natural course of things, 
by the influence of early instruction and habit, 
the confirmed disciples of their respective reli- 
gions. And must early instruction and habit go 
for nothing in Christianity ? . . . Though 
men arc never made Christians in heart, merely 
by a course of early instraction anfl discipline, 
independently of the special influences of the 
Holy Spirit, are they not frequently made so by 
such a course, in connection with these influ- 
ences 1 And would they not uniformly be, if the 
instraction and discipline in question were not 
more or less neglected 1 Is there not fulness and 
firmness enough in the promise of God to fur- 
nish ground for sucl^ an opinion 1 Can anything 
be plainer than the language, " Train up a child 
in the way he should go, and when he is old he 
will not depart from it ? " 



KoTJSSEAU could weep, — yes, with a heart of stone 
The impious sophist could recline heside 

The pure and peaceful lake, and muse aloue 
On all its loveliness at even-tide, — 
On its small running waves in purple dyed, 

Beneath bright clouds, or all the glowing sky, 
On the white sails that o'er its bosom glide, 

And on surrounding mountains, wild and high, 

Till tears unbidden gushed from his enchanted eye. 

But his were not the tears of feeling fine, 
Of grief, or love; at fancy's flash they flowed, 

Like burning drops from some proud, lonely pine, 
' By lightning fired; his heart with passion glowed 
Till it consumed his life, and yet he showed 

A chilling coldness both to friend and foe; 
As^tna, with its centre an abode 

Of wasting fire, chills with the icy snow 

Of all its desert brow, the living world below. 


He, too, could give himself to musing deep; 

By the calm lake at evening he could stand, 
Lonely and sad to see the moonlight sleep 

On all its breast, by not an insect fanned. 

And hear low voices on the far-off strand; 
Or, through the still and dewy atmosphere, 

The pipe's soft tunes, waked by some gentle hand, 
From fronting shore and woody island near, 
In echoes quick returned, more mellow, and more 

And he could cherish wild and mournful dreams 
In the pine grove, when low the full moon fair, 

Shot under lofty tops her level beams, 
Stretching the shades of trunks, erect and bare, 
lu stripes drawn parallel with order rare, 

As of some temple vast, or colonnade; 

While on green turf, made smooth without his care, 
He wandered o'er its stripes of light and shade, 
And heard the dying day-breeze all its boughs per 

'T was thus in Nature's bloom and solitude 

He nursed his grief, till nothing could assuage; 
'T was thus his tender spirit was subdued. 

Till in life's toils it could no more engage; 

And his had been a useless pilgrimage. 
Had he been gifted with no sacred power. 

To send his thoughts to every future age ; — 
But he is gone where grief will not devour. 
Where beauty will not fade,, and skies will never 


brother of Carlos Wilcox, was born in Orwell, 
June 10, 1806; graduated at Middlebmy College, 
1830; was principal of an academy in Ogdens- 
burg, N. Y., and Columbus, O., and afterwards, 
till his death, Nov. 9, 1839, teacher in St. Louis, 


As hurrying speeds the stranger by, 
As flits the trackless cloud on high, 

Our joys and ills are gone. 
Bright hopes ascend with orient pride, 
The laughing hours unconscious glide,— 
They sink before the evening tide, 

On rapid pinion borne. 

Then why, amid the meteor gleam, 
The shadowy show, the feverish dream, 

That wind our swift career, 
Can life with treacherous wiles impart 
A spell to bind the inconstant heart. 
While Time, resistless, warns, " Depart! 

The parting hour is near." 

That welcome hour, supremely blest, 
•Which yields the thirsting soul to rest, ' 

In tenderest mercy given : 
Farewell, desponding doubts and fears! 
For radiant o'er this vale of years, 
'Mid stormy clouds the bow appears, 

The peaceful bow of heaven ! 

No more on life's bewildered stage 
Shall mortal cares and thoughts engage, 

Or mortal joys inspire ; 
The uplifted portals wide display 
A living blaze of cloudless day; 
I mount, I rise, I soar away, 

And join the eternal choir. 
Feb. 10, 1827. H. Wilcox. 



What ft the relation of the federal govern- 
ment to slavery 1 It is this : That the Constitu- 
tion so far recognizes the existence of African 
slavery, in certain States of the Union, and ex- 
isting there by State laws, over which it has no 
control, — that it agrees three fifths of the slaves 


shall be counted in the census, for representation, 
and taxation. 

Also, that the several States may import ne- 
groes for twenty years, — under the restriction 
tax of $10 on each person thus imported. After 
which the importation may by Congress be utterly 
prohibited. Finally, it so recognizes the munici- 
pal laws of slave States, that in the case of a run- 
away slave, he shall not be considered as being 
absolved from his relation to his master by a new 
jurisdiction, but may be seized and carried home 
as a slave, wherever within the territory of the 
States he may be found. Beyond this, the Con- 
stitution, as such, is strictly silent. And from 
the time of its adoption, until quite lately, this 
has been the concun-ent opinion of statesmen, 
judges, and citizens. 

All above or contrary to this, is in open hostil- 
ity to the guarded language, the stern and yet 
free spirit, of the fathers of it, — nay, of the Con- 
stitution itself, as interpreted by the vciy men 
who struggled in the high and noble impulses of 
revolutionary patriotism to frame it, amid trials, 
and obstacles, and sacrifices, of which we, their 
descendants, know but little. 

We are what we are as a people, and by the 
benignant smile of Heaven, because of this Con- 
stitution. Wc toust abide by it, or we tumble 
into ruins. If we fail to do this, if we fail to 
abide by it, if we make it pander to our party 
wishes, or to our sectional animosities or condi- 
tions, if we wrest it from its pure and simple 
teaching, and caus'e it to utter its behests in con- 
trariety to its original and liberty loving spirit, 
then we are doomed to anarchy, madness, and 
bloodshed, such as no other nation ever experi- 

This Constitution in its real, and vital, normal 
spirit, is the " powers that be " to us, and which 
we are bound to obey. 

If we abide by it, union, peace, and prosperity 
will mark our being as a nation. 



Vkemont! ah, what music there is in the word! 
By us, her own chiFdren, no sweeter is heard ; 
No land can be found on the face of the earth, 
So dear to our hearts as this land of our birth. 
These valleys so lovely, these plenty capped hills. 
And these crystalline rivers, and pure mountain rills, 
And these mountains, whose summits reach upward 

so high 
That they seem like foundations upholding the sky, 
And these forest-fringed lakelets, by kind Nature 

To mirror the beauties of earth, and of heaven, 
And these forests and groves, and these ragged rocks, 

Are all dear to Vennonters, the brave and the true. 
And we thank the All-Giver, who, knowing our want, 
Has favored with plenty our little Vermont. 
But the sons of Vermont, ah! what can I tell 
Of their valorous deeds, which ye know not full 


They are genuine Yankees, and that is enough 
To prove that they're made of the genuine stuff; 
And in trad-e it is certain they cannot be beat. 
For they make splendid bargains, and do it so neat 
That you 're hardly aware of the fact until told. 
That in selling your goods, you yourselves have leen 

And in politics, too, there is no kind of use 
For me to affirm that they 're " sound on the goose," 
For they all vote the ticket that seems to them best, 
And with consciences pure leave to God all the rest. 
They are death to oppression, and lovers of right. 
For which with their lives they are willing to fight; 
For look at the fields where their blood has been 

Where defending their homes, they have died by the 

sword ; 
Look at Bennington's field, and at Hubbardton,too, 
Where they proved themselves sons of the brave and 

the true; 
Where, cheering their comrades, they spent their 

last breath. 
And smiled as they faced such a glorious death. 
Ay, Vermont has raised heroes who'd die in the field, 
Ere to foreign oppression their rights they would 

Such men as with Allen went over to " Ti," 
Determined to conquer, but ready to die ; 
Who dumfounded the foe by presenting their claim, 
And took the " old fort" in Jehovah's great name. 
The Vermonters are fanners, and wherever found, 
You may safely conclude that they live on the 

For who ever knew one that didn't know how 
To flourish the scythe, or to handle the plough ; 
And what wonderful crops are expected to grow, 
When he tickles the earth with a spade or a hoe, 
And what corn and potatoes, and pumpkins arise, 
To cheer up his heart, and to gladden his eyes. 
On all these green hill-sides, so rugged and steep, 
Like a shepherd he pastures his cattle and sheep ; 
And, besides, he has horses as fast as the wind, 
Which can leave even fleet iron horses behind. 
In short, he possesses contentment of heart, 
From which a king's crown would not tempt lum to 

The girls of Vermont! ah, I must not omit 
To speak of their beauty, their wisdom, and wit; 
For even Circassia's daughters so fair, 
With the girls of Vermont can but poorly compare; 
And their power is so great, that in truth I might say 
That they govern the men, and have things their 

own way ; 
And unaided by bayonet, musket, or sword. 
They make governments shake by the power of their 

word. '*' 

.With their smiles so bewitching, and manifold 

They can conquer a legion of soldiers in arms ; 
Yet their beauty is not all contained in their faces; 
They have beauty of mind, and so many fair graces, 
That even the angels, those dwellers above, 
Are constrained at the same time to covet and love. 
They stand forth as the heralds of mercy and truth, 
As guides to the erring, and guards to the youth; 
Working hard for the world and humanity's cause. 
Supporting the gospel, the State, and the laws; 
And wherever their fortune or lots may be cast, 
They are willing to labor, and love to the last. 
But surpassing all else, it may truly be said 
That they have common sense, and are never afraid 
Their lily-white fingers with labor to soil. 
Or acknowledge themselves as the daughters of toil. 
Vermont! ah, how long mightl sing in thy praise! 
Of thy present bright prospects, and past gloriona 




Of thy heroes and statesmen who toiled for thy name, 
Disregarding the pomp and vainglory of fame; 
Of thy teachers, and scholars, and patriots bold, 
"Whose names in their countrymen's hearts are en- 
rolled ; 
Of thy godlike divines, whose lives have been spent 
That the erring and wicked might turn and repent ; 
Of thy churches, which point with their glittering 

To the land of our hopes, and our highest desires ; 
Of thy homes, where contentment and unity dwell, 
Preserved by thy mothers and daughters so well 
That contention, and discord, and hate never dare 
To enter the homes or the hearts gathered there. 
But I must be done, and trusting, I pray 
That "Vermont may be ever as she is to-day ; 
That when wroag and oppression sweep over the land. 
As firm as her own native hills may she stand; 
That the minds of her children forever may be 
Like her own mountain breezes, as pure and as free, 
And as hard to be chained as the roar of the wave ; 
The haters of tyrants, the friends of the slave; 
The foremost in peace, and the foremost to fight 
For their homes and their freedom, for God and the 


E. HiBBARD Phelps. 

Though fortune now may darkly frown, 

And hope's bright star is dim, 
"We'll not forget, in hours of gloom, 

The joys that once have been. 
Though wealth and fame have taken wings, 

"We'll mourn no more to-day ; 
But gather up the roses that 

Still bloom around life's way. 

The past is like a fairy dream, 

Seen in fond memory's light; 
The future shall unfold its leaves ■ 

Mope beautiful and bright. 
"We will renew those blissful hours. 

When all was bright above. 
And we were poor in this world's goods, 

And only rich in love. 

Dost thou remember, long ago. 

How bright love's glory shone. 
And wrought such wond'rous beauty 'round 

Our lowly cottage home? 
I would that I could gaze upon 

Its vine-clad walls again, 
And see the morning-glories pressed 

Close 'gainst the window-pane. 

How bright the sunshine used to steal 

Within our humble door, 
"With noiseless step, a shining path, 

Upon the snow-white floor. 
And in our hearts the sunshine dwelt, 

But we have never been 
In after years, as near to heaven, 

As near to God, as then. 

JCLIA A. Bakbeb. 


Ali. across the level meadows, in the gray October 

Stretch the withered bleaching grasses, and the yel- 
low stacks of corn; 

While the wind with fitful marmurs round the brown 
old gable grieves, 

Tossing through the open window bandfuls of the 

Autumn leaves, 
Little leaves, why came ye hither, painted with your 

gold and red? 
What care I for all your splendor? You are only 

dry and dead. 
Yet, withal, there is between us, or it seemeth so to 

Something kindred and congenial, — something nigh 

to sympathy. 

For like you, my joy is withered, and beyond the 

garden wall, 
"Where the sunbeams linger longest, and the shadows 

softly fall. 
Where in June the blushing roses in the west wind 

sweetly wave. 
There, amid the chill and silence, is a headstone and 

a grave. 

Sarah E. Hall. 



To the casual observer it may seem idle to ex- 
pect, that in our quiet farming towns in Vermont, 
with so many evidences of peaceful, happy pros- 
perity presenting themselves on every hand, 
events and incidents of former days can be gath- 
ered, worthy of a place in our common history. 
But a little reflection must convince any one that 
the change of our former dense forests, and al- 
most impassable swamps, into the present pro- 
ductive farms, could not be effected without great 
trials . and severe suffering ; and when we con- 
sider the turbulent state of the times, our sym- 
pathy is increased for the first settlers in their 
tiials, our conviction strengthened that they must 
have witnessed scenes of thrilling interest, and 
our desue quickened to rescue the names and 
deeds of those brave and earnest men from the 
oblivion that is fast covering them. The actors . 
in those scenes have passed away. The tradi- 
tions handed down to us need a careful scrutiny 
and comparison with written history. Our 
ancient records are brief and unsatisfactory, 
and much of interest, undoubtedly, is beyond 
the reach of any now living. In the hope 
thsCt some one, better suited to the task, may 
be stimulated to make more extended search, 
I have endeavored to embody so many of the 
local facts and incidents of the town of Panton, 
as the brief space allotted will permit. I shall 
confine myself to facts of wliieh I have good 
evidence, and though some dates and statements 
may differ from ' published accounts, they are 
based upon the early records of the proprietors 
of Panton, which are the earliest, and perhaps 
the only record of the first English settlement 
in Addison county, kept by men sworn to fidelity, 
who put down at the time of their occiuTcnce 
the public acts of the proprietors. 

Various causes have operated to deprive this 
township of as much importance in the county 
as the character and efforts of its proprietors de- 
served, to whom belongs the honor of having 



"Established and fostered the first English settle- 
ment in the county, and of having first settled 
two of the neighboring towns. At the first sur- 
vey, her limits, by charter, were found to extend 
so far into the lake as to leave less land than was 
expected. But with commendable zeal, the pro- 
prietors commenced the settlement, by oiFering 
bounties to settlers, paying for roads, surveys, 
&c., the principal outlay being upon that part 
nearest to Chimney Point, the most noted place 
in the whole region, and which, it was generally 
supposed, would be a central point of business 
for future generations. 

After the formation of quite a settlement at 
that place, they were obliged to relinquish more 
than half their territory, covering all the first set- 
tlements made in the present town of Addison ; 
and now as a nucleus for a village, and the 
foundation of extensive business, attention was 
turned to the water-power at the lower falls of 
Otter Creek, clearly within their limits. But 
this, too, after improvements were made at great 
expense, was taken from their jurisdiction, not- 
withstanding their remonstrance, by the legisla- 
ture of 1788, to form a part of the city of Ver- 
gennes, giving to Vergennes about 500 acres of 
Panton territory. Yet even then, with a con- 
tracted territory, covered with a dense growth of 
heavy timber, with no point of peculiar attrac- 
tion for commerce, or manufactures, they ap- 
plied themselves to the task of making it a farm- 
ing town, which should yield to none, except in 
size. Their success can hardly be denied, al- 
though the small extent of tenitory occupied 
with extensive farms, forbids that multiplicity of 
votes which might give her a more commanding 
position in the county. 

The earlier titles to the lands in this vicinity, 
both from the Mohawks, and French government, 
having been either ignored, or cancelled by the 
British government, after the surrender of the 
French possessions in Canada, Sept. 8, 1760, our 
ancestors seem to have been possessed of the 
same mania for land speculation, which in later 
years, has sent so many of their descendants to 
the western prairies. Among the 60 towns 
in "Vermont, chartered in 1761, was Panton, 
probably named in honor of a British nobleman. 
Lord Panton. Nov. 3, 1761, George the Third, 
through Benning Wentworth, issued a charter to 
James Nichols, and 69 others, mostly citizens 
of Litchfield Co., Conn., granting them "some- 
thing more than 25,000 acres," lying 7 miles west 
and 6 miles south from the lower falls of Great 
Otter Creek. 

The opinion prevails that the proprietors of 
Panton, when they found there was not room for 
a 7-mile line between the falls and the lake sur- 
rendered their charter, to obtain a new one, cov- 
ering the full amount of land intended to be con- 
veyed in their grant, and that, in the interim be- 
tween the 1st and 2d charter, Addison charter 
was issued, covering a portion of the tenitory 

of Panton, which being dated previous to the 2d 
charter of Panton, held the land by prioiity of 
grant. It has so often been published as a fact, 
that Panton was rechartered, Nov. 3, 1764, that I 
can hardly be expected to prove the negative, but 
I may give some of the reasons which seem con- 
clusive to me that no second charter was obtained. 
The charter of 1761 is now in the possession of 
the proprietors, and no other is noticed in their 
records. On the back of this charter is the fol- 
lowing record : — 


" Surveyor General's Ofpicb, J 
Sept, 26, 1782. / 

. " Recorded in the first book for New Hampshire 
Charters, page 125, 126, and 127. 

" T. Allen, Surveyor Gen''l." 

Would the proprietors of 1782 have sent a 
cancelled charter for record ? The charter of 
Addison was dated October 14, 20 days previous 
to the original charter of Panton, so there is no 
necessity of supposing a recharter of Panton, in 
order to give Addison priority. In Nov. 1766, 
we find the proprietors petitioning the king to 
lengthen the time allowed them in their charter 
for completing the settlement. The time being 5 
years, was then just expiring, if the charter of 
1761 was in force; but the movement was pre- 
mature, if they held under a charter dated 1764. 
The inference from the records is, that, in the im- 
perfect knowledge of the country, existing at 
that time, the estimate of distances was incor- 
rect, and the same territory was conveyed by 2 
charters ; that without being aware of this fact, 
the Panton proprietors surveyed and settled ac- 
cording to their charter, and some years after, 
when the Addison proprietors came to survey 
and settle their lands, according to their grant, 
they were resisted by the owners of Panton, until 
convinced of the justice of the Addison claim 
by priority of title, and the correctness of their 
bounds by actual measurement, when an amica- 
ble arrangement was efibcted. 

The first known survey of Panton was made 
in 1762, by Deacon Ebcn'r Frisbee, of Sharon, 
Conn., in company with Isaac Peck, and Abra'm 
Jackson, who surveyed the lines of the town, and 
laid out sc'.'enty 50-acre lots on the lake shore. 
They were paid for 53 days' service. With 
what interest should we now read a journal of 
the adventures and observations of those 53 
days, and the appearance of our town in all its 
native wildness. In 1763 but little was done 
towards a settlement. The records show their 
efforts to collect the taxes previously voted, and 
a vote to send Capt. Sam'l Elmore, as agent, to 
procure from Gen. Amherst, then Commander- 
in-Chief of the British forces, " a pass for any of 
the proprietors of Panton, to go or come to and 
from sd township," exhibits the state of the 

In April, of 1764, a bounty of £70 was offered 
to any number of proprietors, not less than 15, 



who would go to Panton, and make the necessary 
clearings required by the charter, and the same 
spring or following summer it seems that, — 

"Messrs. Jas. Nichols, Griswold, and Barnes, Da- 
vid Vallance, Tim'y Harris, Jos. Wood, Capt. Sam'l 
Elmore, Wm. Tatterson, Eliph't Smith, Zaddocli 
Everest, Amos Chipmau, Sam'l Chipman, &c., to the 
number of 15, did go, and there build, clear, and 
fence, and do the duty on 15 rights in sd town- 
ship." . . . 

Upon this evidence we fix the date of the first 
clearings for settlement in 1764. In April, 1764, 
an agreement was entered into with Isaac Peck, 
Jer. Griswold, and Dan'l Barnes, Jr., to build a 
sawmill on the fills. The mill was commenced 
that fall, but not completed until the fall of '65. 
It appears certain that these 3 men built a saw- 
mill there, and that Eeid took it from them in 
1766. It is probable httle if any clearing was 
done on the lake shore in '65. The record of a 
vote in March, '66, shows that Tim'y Harris, 
Jos. Pangborn, Jed. Ferris, Zadock Everest, 
and David Vallance intended to come to Panton 
in the spring of that year, and the tradition in 
the Strong family asserts that several settlers did 
come at that time with their families. They 
were — 

"Appointed a committee to fence the whole town 
of Panton into one common field as soon as they get 
there in the spring." 

And this year Benj. Kellogg, and Zadock 
Everest procured a surveyor, and laid out 76 city 
lots, of 1 acre each, which, though not fulfilling 
the high hopes of the proprietors, make an ex- 
cellent sheep pasture, now mostly owned by Gen. 

In the summer of '66, the difficulties growing 
out of the controversy with New York com- 
menced. Gov. Moore's proclamation, giving 
notice of the King's decision that Connecticut 
Eiver was the boundary between New Hampshire 
and New York, and directing the settlers to pro- 
cure grants from New York, excited their fears 
that their titles would not be respected, and Col. 
Wooster, under a patent from New York, 
" warned off some of the inhabitants, and har- 
assed one of them with a lawsuit." "Wooster 
says some of them promised to leave, and others 
took leases of him for the time being, but th'cy 
had no definite settlement till Sept., 1772, when 
he fell into the hands of 13 of the settlers, and 
their friends, and the fear of the " Beach seal " 
overcoming his cupidity, he not only promised, 
but kept the promise then extorted from him, to 
leave them unmolested. 

Col. Reid, who held a N. Y. grant of the falls 
in Panton and New Haven, this year forcibly took 
possession of the sawmill. I am aware that a 
later date has usually been assigned for this trans- 
action, and that in all the published accounts of ' 
it Pangborn has been considered the owner; 
but our records are explicit as to the date and 
ownership. Peck, Griswold, and Barnes being 
the acknowledged owners till 1769, when the 

proprietors decided they had forfeited their privi- 
lege "in not having it built by the time set, and 
after it was built, suffering it to be wrested out of 
their hands by Col. Reid, and detained from 
them ; " and therefore voted to resume the right 
to it, and "assert their rights against Col. Reid." 
Pangborn had the privilege granted him of build- 
iag a gristmill, but did not build one, and if he 
built the sawmill, it must have been under Peck, 
Griswold, and Barnes, which is quite likely, as 
he and several sons were strong, robust frontier 

Donald Mcintosh, one of Reid's tenants, is 
said to have settled at the falls in 1766, wliich 
corresponds with the date of Reid's occupancy 
of the sawmill. Between June 15, and July 15, 
1772, Allen and his party dispossessed Reid. 
The next summer Reid regained possession; 
but, Aug. 11, the same season, Allen and his 
Green Mountain Boys so effectually routed him, 
that he abandoned his claim. 

The record of the title to the property after- 
wards is incomplete, but a part of it came into 
the hands of Remington, the Tory, and was 
deeded by the commissioner of confiscated estates. 

The number of settlers in the fall of 1773 
were sufficiently numerous, and confident of final 
success, to warrant the transfer of the proprie- 
tors' meetings and records from Connecticut to 

The charter difficulties with the proprietors of 
Addison commenced in 1770, and continued till 
an agreement was ratified May 17, 1774, by 
which Addison held according to her charter; 
but gave 8,000 acres of the disputed temtoiy to 
the Panton proprietors, " for a reward for duties 
done in settling sd tract," which was defined and 
ratified at the first meeting held after the Revo- 
lutionary war, at Pawlet. This agreement left 
115 acres of Panton territory, lying on Otter 
Creek, near Reef Bridge, detached from the rest 
of the town, and long known as "little Panton," 
which was annexed to Wcybridge in 1806. 

The last appointment of a meeting before the 
war was for the second Tuesday of October, 1776 ; 
but as this was the week, perhaps the day of the 
battle at Ferris' Bay, it is not strange, that, with 
British cannon sounding in their hearing, and the 
smoke of battle in sight, they should not meet 
to deHberate in regard to the titles to their lands, 
when the great care with them must have been to 
preserve the titles to their lives. Events had by 
this time occurred vri thin the immediate neighbor- 
hood, that had convinced them that they could not 
remain inactive spectators of the struggle in their 
exposed locality. The year before, Ethan Allen 
had sent Capt. Douglass, of Jericho, to Panton, 
to consult his brother-in-law, and procure boats 
to assist in carrying his men across the lake to 
attack Ticonderoga; and among the reinforce- 
ments sent to Canada, under Gen. Thomas, after 
the death of the lamented Montgomery, and so 
many of his brave companions, was Edmund 



Graadey, the father of the lato Judge Grandcy, 
and brother of Elijah Grandey, then living in 
Panton, who passed down the lake on snow-shoes 
in the winter. Nathan Spalding also enlisted, 
and left home, Jan. 20, 1776, and died at Que- 
bec, the May following, of the smallpox, wliile 
being carried in a cart, when the army retreated 
in such haste. And now, in October, Arnold 
having command of the first American fleet on 
Lake Champlain, consisting, some say, of 9, and 
and others of 15 vessels, of different sizes, manned 
by 395 men, was attacked by a British naval 
force, under Capt. Pringle, greatly superior in 
numbers and equipments. After 4 hours' hard 
fighting at Valcour Island, in which one of Ar- 
nold's vessels was burned, and another sunk, the 
British retired from the attack. Arnold endeav- 
ored to escape in the night with his vessels, to 
Crown Point, but was overtaken, Oct. 11, near 
Een-is Bay, in Panton, and the battle was re- 
newed, and kept up for 2 hours, 6 of Arnold's 
vessels being engaged, those foremost in the 
flight having escaped to Ticonderoga. The 
Washington galley, under Gen. Waterbury, 
owing to her crippled condition, was obliged to 
surrender, and in order io prevent the rest of his 
men and vessels from falling into the hands of 
the enemy, Arnold ran ashore, and ble^v up, or 
sunk his fleet. "We have the statement of Squu-e 
Fenis, as first published by ISIr. Tucker, that 
Lieut. Goldsmith was lying wounded on deck, 
and blown into the air at the explosion, Arnold's 
order for his removal not having been executed, 
much to his sorrow and indignation. This afiair 
gave Arnold's name to the Bay where it occurred. 
Of the 5 vessels sunk, 3 are known to have 
been raised, and 2 of them may still be seen in 
low water, Mng where tlicy sank 83 years ago, 
and have often been visited for the purpose of 
fishing up tlie balls, and other articles which may 
be seen in clear water. One brass cannon was 
taken out many years since, by Ferris, and 
fired in the militia gatherings aftcr the war, and 
is said to have been used at the battle of Platts- 
bm-g. It is not known whether the British pur- 
sued Arnold on land, but " several shots fired by 
them at liis men struck the house of Peter Fer- 
ris, near the shore where they landed. Ferris 
and his family, and probably some others in the 
town, went with Arnold to Ticonderoga, but soon 
after returned." * 

I am told by Isaac Spalding that a few years 
before his father's death, a traveller called at his 
house, who claimed to Iiave been in the engage- 
ment at the Bay, and that he was one of the Brit- 
ish soldiers that followed Arnold some ways on 
land, that his comrade, McDonald, unable to go 
further, was canied into a. deserted house, and 
Spalding's father told him that when the fami- 
lies came back soon after, Henry Spalding found 
a dead body in his house. 

♦ See a fuller account of Ferria in Swift's History 
of Mlddlebury. 

From this time the inhabitants were frequently 
visited by straggling bands of Indians and To- 
ries, who plundered them of any movable prop- 
erty desirable in their eyes, and after Bui'goyiie 
came up the lake, in June, 1777, these robberies 
were more frequent. Some few of the families 
again left, and it is thought by some this was the 
time of the general flight ; but we have good evi- f 
dence that the Holcomb, Spalding, and Grandey 
families were not burned out till the next year. 
Some of the men were taken prisoners in '77. • 
It is supposed that Oct. of this year was the time 
when Phineas Spalding, and 1 1 others of Pan- 
ton and Addison were taken and kept awliile on 
board a vessel in the vicinity. Spalding was 
employed to dress the animals brought on board 
for food, until an opportunity occurred to liim to 
jump into a small boat lying aside the vessel, 
when he paddled for shore, but before he reached 
it, was observed, and ordered to return. Know- 
ing they would fire upon him, and tliinking his 
body too large a mark to escape, he jumped into 
the water, and swam safely to shore, amid the 
bullets of the British. On the evacuation of 
Crown Point, about one week later, the other 
prisoners were released. " In the fall of 1778, a 
large British force came up the lake in several 
vessels, and thoroughly scoured the countiy on 
both sides," and evciy house in Panton was 
bui-nt but one. Timothy Spalding's house es- 
caped, for some reason not known, although the 
enemy came to the front v/liile he was escaping at 
the back. The house of Elijah Grandey was visit- 
ed before his wife left. She was then but 19 years 
of age, but had become accustomed to the visits 
of the Indians for plunder. After witnessing the 
burning of her house and furniture, she earned 
her son Edmorud, two years old, to the batteaux 
at Merrill's Bay, where the women of the vicinity 
assembled. Her husband was taken prisoner, 
with others, and canied on board a vessel, but 
was released by the officer commanding, to go in 
company with Thomas Hinckley, of Wcstport, 
to take the women and children to Skeensboro. 
Five of the Holcomb family, 2 Spaldings, and 
2 Ferris' were taken prisoners about the same 
time, and the town remained deserted till after 
the close of hostilities, when those of the settlers 
who were still living, gradually returned, rebuilt 
their houses, and again commenced the cultiva- 
tion of theh long-neglected farms. March 30, 

1784, the first public town meeting was held in 
Panton. Elijah Grandey, town clerk ; Noah 
Fenis, Benj. Holcomb, and Henry Spalding, 
selectmen ; Asa Strong, constable, &c. ; and as 
the number of freemen in the to^vn was then but 
11, there were few disappointed office-seekers. In 

1785, Zadock E'verest and John Strong, living in 
Addison, were appointed a committee to look 
after the interests of Panton in the legislatm-e, 
and in '86, Peter Fenis was chosen then repre- 
sentative. In the summer of '88 the wheat crop 
was so much injured by rains that before the 



next harvest, there was a great scarcity of bread- 
stuffs, and considerable suffering. A few bar- 
rels of flour brought into Woodford Bay gave 
some relief, although no one could obtain more 
than 10 pounds at one time, because of the neces- 
sity of a general distribution. In 1793, a de- 
structive fire swept across the town in the woods 
between the Ledge, and Dead Creek, and in 1816 
a large tract was burnt over on the east side of 
Dead Creek. 

Previous to 1804, there was no bridge in the 
town, over Dead Creek, and the summer travel 
was eitlier by a ferry across Otter Creek, at the 
mouth of Dead Creek, or by a road in Addison. 
In 1804 tlie south bridge was completed ; the 1 
north in 1805; the tui-npikc finished, and toll- 
gates erected in 1818, and became a free road in 

A log-house, covered with bark, was first built 
for a school, in the fall of '86. It is not certain 
who was the first teacher, but Thomas Judd 
taught two winters about that time, and not long 
after. Dr. Post (who died at Elizabethtown the 
last summer, aged 81,) taught several seasons. 
Tlie first framed sehoolhouse was built in 1791, 
and has come down to the present generation, 
though perverted from its original pui-pose, being 
used for a barn. In later years, 4 good district 
schools have usually been open to all from 6 to 
10 months in each year, and the select boarding- 
school, kept by the late Eev. Jas. Ten Broeke, 
(for many years unrivalled as a teacher of English 
branches,) afforded good facilities for a superior 

While thus providing for a secular education, 
our fathers did not forget that something more 
was needed, in order to secure the prosperity and 
well-being of their childi-cn, and upon their re- 
turn after the war, not having neglected, as is 
sometimes the case, to can-y their religion with 
them to their new settlement, they were accus- 
tomed to meet at private houses for prayer and 
conference, and in 1794 a Baptist church was 
organized, consisting of 10 members, one of 
whom occasionally preached to them, till 1799, 
when Eld. Henry Chamberlain was ordained 
their first pastor. In 1810, a meeting-house was 
completed, which, in 1854, gave place to a new 
one. The present number of members is about 
40, — pastor. Eld. Reuben Sawyer. In 1858, the 
Methodist society erected a house of worship, 
near tlyj Baptist house, and very similar to it, 
both of them being neat and tasteful, and well 
adapted to the wants of the societies. Present 
number of members of the Methodist church, 
about 65 , — preacher in charge. Rev. Wm. T. 
Stearns. Few of those who now worship in 
these houses appreciate the strength of principle 
which our predecessors possessed, to surmount 
the difBculties in establishing or attending upon 
public worshiJ>, or the quaint simplicity of man- 
ners, when it was thought in no way derogatory 
for the young ladies of that day, as they often did, 

to carry their shoes in their hands till near the 
house, when they put them on to wear through 
the service, and then carried them home again 
in the same way they brought them. Tradi- 
tion says that one of our early ministers, not 
having the fear of Bishops before his eyes, and 
ins«tigatcd thereunto by that necessity that knows 
no law, sometimes performed his public duties 
in the pulpit, without coat or shoes. Certainly, 
there is no doubt that out of their scanty means 
they contributed cheerfully to the support of reli 
gious teaching ; and our obligations remain to 
them fortheir religious zeal and perseverance. 

The soil is mostly a heavy clay, better adapted 
to grass than tillage ; and the principal business 
is the raising of stock. Its present area is about 
10,000 acres, with no waste land except that oc- 
cupied by Dead Creek, which divides the town 
nearly in the centre, leaving a little more land 
on the east side, and more inhabitants on the 
west side. An extensive ledge of beautiful lime- 
stone is found on the west side of the creek, and 
a bed of very fine marble has been opened, but 
not much worked, on account of its depth. 
Within a few years, the discovery of a mineral 
spring in ^le S.E. part of the town, — possess- 
ing great healing virtues, especially in cutaneous 
diseases, — has made the place a resort of inva- 
lids and pleasure-seekers from abroad, and occa- 
sioned the opening of a boarding-house and hotel, 
by tlie proprietor, Mr. Allen, near- the spring, — 
known as the Elgin Spring, — about 3 miles S. 
from Vergennes. The analysis of the water 
shows it to contain sulphate of magnesia, sul- 
phate of iron, sulphate of soda, carbonate of soda, 
carbonate of lime, and carbonic acid gas. 

A ferry across Lake Champlain was recognized 
as a necessity at an early day, and has long been 
kept up from Arnold's Bay to Westport, — at 
first by Ferris, — in 1796, by lungman, but for 
many years has been owned in the family of 
Friend Adams, (a prominent and wealthy citizen 
of the place, who died here in 1837,) and is 
widely known as Adams Ferry. At one time 
the travel to a large part of northern New York 
passed by this ferry, and a wharf, store, and 
storehouses, were needed to transact the business 
that centred there ; but the opening of new 
routes of travel, and the change of business 
centres has affected this place, in common with 
many others. 

Those of the early settlers, whose descendants 
have remained in Panton, and have always con- 
stituted a large portion of its population, were 
Pet. Ferris, Elij. and Edmond Grandey, Phineas 
Spalding and sons, Phineas Holcomb and sons ; 
and of those who came immediately after the 
war, Wm. Shepherd, and Benj. and Abner Hol- 

Peter Ferris was bom in 1722, and before 
coming to Panton had married a second time. 
Leaving his first family of children in Duchess 
County, he came here with a wife and two sous. 



Squire and James, about the year 1766. His 
femily was, probably, the first in the present 
limits of Panton, although Odle Squire and 
Joseph Pangborn have always been classed with 
Ferris as the first settlers. 

Ferris' third son, Darius, is supposed to be 
the first child born in the town. Priority of birth 
has been claimed for Edmond Grandcy, and for 
Timothy Spalding, Jr. ; but the records show that 
Grandcy was born in 1776, and Spalding in 1773. 
The statement of Deming, that Lois Farr was 
born hei'c in 1764, is not accepted, because there 
is no evidence that there was a family in the town 
at that time. Ferris' wife died in Panton before 
the Revolutionary war, and was the first adult 
white person buried in the town. 

Peter Ferris died in 1815, aged 93. The story 
of his imprisonment and tenible sufferings, from 
Nov. 1778, to June, 1782, has been too often 
published for me to repeat here. It is said that 
when Fen-is' house was burnt by the British, 
John Reynolds, a tory from Shorcham, formerly 
a neighbor of Ferris, in Duchess County, in his 
zeal for his king, requested the privilege of put- 
ting the torch to Fera^' house with his own 

Squire Ferris died at Vergennes in 1849, aged 
77 years. 

Elijah Grandet, born March 14, 1748, in 
Canaan, Conn. ; came to Panton about the year 
1773 ; commenced a clearing and built a log- 
house where Isaac Spalding now lives ; was 
manicd Feb. 23, 1775, to Salome Smith, of 
Bridport, then 16 years of age; (they were 
obliged to go to Ticonderoga to find an olficer 
competent to perform the ceremony.) Lived on 
his farm till the war ; was taken prisoner, and 
released to take care of the women and childi-en ; 
went to Canaan, and left his wife and child at 
his brother Edmond's; returned to Vermont, 
where ho frequently acted as scout and guide ; 
and, after the close of hostilities, returned to his 
farm, where he died in 1810. He, as well as his 
brother Edmond, appears to have possessed ad- 
vantages of education superior to most of the 
early settlers ; was for many years Proprietors' 
Clerk, and first Town Clerk. His son Edmond, 
bom in 1776, died at Panton, in 1849. Elijah, 
bom in 1782, is still liWng. 

Edmond Grandey was a soldier of the Rev- 
olution ; was at the siege of Quebec in 1776, and 
with the amiy in their retreat in May. In 1788 
he came with his family to Panton, where he 
resided till Ids death, in 1826. He was several 
times chosen to represent the town, and held 
other offices. Of his four sons, Jesse and Elijah, 
who settled near their father, left large families, 
mostly settled in this vicinity. 

Jesse Grandey was born in 1778, and died 
in 1846, having long enjoyed the confidence and 
esteem of his townsmen. He was often called 
to the more important town offices, and in 1832, 
appointed Judge of Probate. 

Phineas Spalding, born at Plainfield, Conn., 
in 1720, came from Cornwall, with a large family 
of children, by way of Fort Edward and Lake 
George, in 1767, to whr«t he supposed was Pan- 
ton (of which town he was an original proprie- 
tor). He remained on the Swift farm, now in 
Addison, till Nov. 5, 1778, when his house and 
goods were burnt, and two of liis sons taken 
prisoners. He escaped to Rutland, but died 
there not long after. 

Phineas Spalding, Jr., born 1749, married 
for his second wife Sarah, daughter of Phineas 
Holcomb. Driven from his farm, he went to 
Rutland, and enlisted for six months. In the 
spring of 1779 went to Canaan; late in the fall 
of 1783, came back. Was once taken prisoner, 
as before related, and died in Panton, 1825, at the 
age of 76. Of his descendants bearing his name, 
Isaac and John, children of a third wife, remain 
with us. 

Philip and George were captured on their 
father's farm, Nov. 5, 1778, and carried to Can- 
ada in company with other prisoners. They, 
however, managed to escape ; and Philip, with 
some others, wandered in the woods 21 days, 
when they struck the Connecticut River, at the 
gi-eat Ox-bow, in Newbury. 

George was retaken and put in irons, but after- 
wards ofiered his liberty if he would first go one 
trip in a vessel to Great Biitain. Stopping at 
some port in Ireland, he availed himself of his 
permission to go ashore with the crew, when he 
was taken by a press-gang, and nothing more is 
known of him. 

Philip, after his retiun, enlisted and served 
through the war ; then married and moved on to 
the farm, where his son Hiram now lives. Of 
his five sons, two are dead ; one living in New 
York, one in Iowa, and one in Panton. 

Phineas Holcomb came from Duchess Co., 
in the spiing of 1774, with a large family, and 
settled on land now owned by Edrick Adams, 
Esq. On the morning of Nov. 5, 1778, his 
son Joseph, then 16 years old, was cutting fire- 
wood under an elm-tree now standing, at the 
door of his brother-in-law, Spalding, who was 
away from home at the time. Being intent upon 
his work, he saw nothing of his danger till an 
Indian stepped up from behind, and a number 
more surrounded him. They took him off to a 
vessel on the lake, with his father and three 
brothei-s, who lived a short distance from Spald- 
ing's, and who were taken by the same party, 
and their houses burned. They were taken to 
Quebec, and endured great privation and suflfer- 
ing, which lesulted in thfe death of the two oldest 
brothers, Joshua and Samuel, in the prison, in 
the summer of 1781, and of the fa^er, in Sep- 
tember of the same year. 

The two younger boys, Joseph and Elisha, 
allowed more liberty, and treated with less sever- 
ity (being permitted to aid in the care of the sick 
prisoners), escaped the disease and death which 



was the sad fate of so many of their companions 
in misery, and were exchanged after three years 
and eight months imprisonment. Joseph died at 
Panton, Jan. 20, 1833, in his 71st year. Elisha 
moved to Elizabethtown in 1813, where he died. 

William Shepherd moved from Simsbury, 
Conn., with 6 children, in 1785, having purchased 
two 50-acrc lots for £100. He died in 1 802, at the 
age of seventy. His oldest son, William, died at 
Panton in 1836, aged 77. Abel G., the second 
son, settled in Ohio. Samuel was born in Conn., 
1768; married to Rachel Grandey in 1790. Not 
long after built the smrrll house near his late 
residence, where he lived till the completion of 
his large house, in 1815, then the most expensive 
one in the town. In 1795 he was elected con- 
stable, and held the office till 1802; was town 
clerk from 1803 till 1817 ; town representative 
in 1804, 1807 to 1814; also in 1816-18; was a 
justice of the peace more than 40 years. In 
1812, appointed by the legislature one of the 
assistant judges of the County Court ; and he 
and his wife were among the ten members who 
united to form the first Baptist church, of which 
he was a member at the time of his death, in 
1858, in his 91st year. . 

Lieut. Benjamin Holcomb was an officer 
in the Revolutionary war, who lived in Panton 
from 1783 to 1790. He was a man of ability, 
and competent to discharge any of the duties of 

In the spring of 1788, Abner Holcomb moved 
into a house he had built near where Dea. Aaron 
Curler now lives, and in 1802 removed to West- 
port, his children going with him except Abner 
G., from whom I have obtained many incidents 
of early times, of which he is the oldest known 
survivor in the town, and retains a distinct recol- 
lection of the condition of the town, and of the 
persons here at the time of his arrival. 


Harriet A. Tappan, bom at Panton, March 
25, 1838; married to Wm. E. White, Jan. 19, 
1 858 ; died of consumption three days after- 
wards. Mrs. W. had been a pupil of Fort Ed- 
ward Institute, and contributed for a number of 
periodicals. We give below a paragraph from 
one of her sketches. 

" The sun sinks in the distant west, and with 
light as from heaven, shines on the sculptured 
marble above the perishing casket of an immor- 
tal jewel. Precious dust ! too sacred to be for- 
gotten, we desire to offi^r silent homage to that 
which once was the tabernacle of a living and 
lofty soul. The sun and moon might as soon be 
darkened, as the glory of that soul be shut from 
the world forever. Its splendor is like 

" ' The star that sets beyond the vrestern wave 
It brightens in another hemisphere, 
And gilds another evening with its rays.' 

"Oh! glorious hope of immortality. Tomb 
of tlie Gifted ! Hallowed abode ! Thy trust is 

precious ! And when He, who sits in judgment, 
and judges each accoi-ding to his works, shall 
command thee to open thy marble gates and give 
up thy dead, then the sacred dust committed to 
thy keeping may meet with a glorious resuiTCC- 
tion. The giftv.d may then come forth from thy 
silence, with bodies purified and clothed in gar- 
ments of immortality, all wending their way, 
hand in hand, toward the throne of the King 
Eternal. ' Their sun shall no more go down ; 
neither shall their moon withdraw itself, for the 
Lord shall be their everlasting light, and the 
days of their mourning shall be ended.' 

H. A. T. 


A 12mo. vol. 342 pp. By Harriet E. Bishop, 
a native of Panton; born Jan. 1, 1818; who 
graduated at Fort Edward Institute, and went 
under Gov. Slade's administration a pioneer 
teacher to Minnesota. Miss Bishop was married 
to a Mr. McKonkcy, Sept. 1, 1858. 

ttte first schoolroom in minnesota 

a mud-walled log-house a primitive 

blacksmith's shop. 

Some wooden pins had been driven into the 
logs, across whi-ch rough boards were placed for 
seats. The luxury of a chair was accorded to 
the teacher, and a cross-legged table occupied 
the centre of the loose floor. . . . Soon all 
was bright and joyous. Our domicil was con- 
verted into a rural artor, fragrant evergreens 
concealing the rude walls, with their mud chink- 
ings, and even the bark roof. A friendly hen, 
unwilling to relinquish her claim, on the ground 
of free occupancy, daily placed a token of her 
industry in the comer, and made all merry with 
her loud cackle and abrupt departure. Snakes 
sometimes obtruded their heads through the 
floor, rats looked in at the open door, and dark 
faces were continually obscuring the windows. 
An old pitcher, minus the handle, received the 
rarest specimens of wild flowers, from wliich our 
" centre-table " exhaled a generous perfume. In 
front, and at our feet, flowed, in silent majesty, 
the Father of Waters, with two beautiful green 
islands reposing on its bosom, which have since 
been named Raspberry and Hairiet* Isles. 

Why should I pine for halls of science and 
literature, when such glorious privileges were 
mine ; when to my weak hand was accorded the 
work of rearing the fabric of educational interests 
in the unorganized territory ; of establishing the 
first citizen school within its undefined limits. 
There was not a spot in earth's broad domain 
that could have tempted me to an exchange. 

The first Sabbath School. The duties 
of the first week in school were over, and books 
were deposited upon the rough shelf. The open 
Bible, from which we had just read, lay upon 

♦Named for Miss Bishop. 



the table. The eyes of all were upon their 
teacher, awaiting the closing exercises. . . . 
"Want of space forbids a notice of those who at a 
later date settled in the eastern part of the town. 
"Children," said she, " I remember when I was 
a very little girl, and went to Sunday school, 
that I read in a little book of a young lady who 
went to visit some fiiends a long way from her 
home, where the cliildren had never heard of a 
Sunday school. She invited them to come 
together to form one, and they soon learned to 
love it very much ; and she, too, was very happy 
in instructing them ; and a great deal of good 
resulted from it. . . . While I am with you 
I wish to do you all the good I can, and there- 
fore wish you to obtain your parents' permission 
to come here next Sabbath, and we will have a 
Sunday school. 

The day proved dark and rainy, but there was 
a gleam of pleasure in the eyes of the seven chil- 
dren who composed the first Sunday school* in 
St. Paul. 

An Offer of Marriage. The Indians are 
flattered by attention, and often become exceed- 
ingly obtrusive and presuming where it is be- 
stowed. From my debut in St. Paul, they had 
regarded me with a curious eye, and bestowed 
upon me the appellation of Woa-wan-pa Warma- 
don-ka Wash-ta, (good, book woman.) Among 
the many'who honored my " teepee " with a call, 
was one of unusually commanding appearance, 
and of proud, graceful, and dignified bearing. 
His profuse ornaments were exhibited for espe- 
cial admiration, and a smile, a pleasant recogni- 
tion, or a cordial shake of the hand, was always 
ready. Early one morning, having been unusu- 
ally careful in making his toilet, so that, in his 
own eyes, he was perfectly irresistible, he called 
upon me. 

Beside the ordinary costume of calico shirt, 
cloth "leggins," and "breechlet," and the blanket 
which, in careless negligence, gracefully en- 
shrouded his person, he wore a huge brass brace- 
let, scoured to unwonted brightness, and a bear's 
claw appended to his numerous silver ear drops, 
an additional number of finger rings, and a 
heavy mass of wampum about his neck, wliile a 
new ribbon of scarlet flannel ornamented his 
long, braided black hair, from which waved two 
pea-fowl feathers, and his embroidered "'leggins " 
were fastened with high-colored bead-wrought 

His deep, sonorous voice sounded in the outer 
room, and, by a glance at the aperture of the 
door as it stood ajar, his graceful movements 
were visible as he loaded his massive red-stone 
pipe with " kinnekrikniek," and proceeded to 
light it. This pipe was highly polished, curi- 
ously wrought, and so heavily inlaid with lead 
that when used it was rested on the ground. 

*To Miss B. belongs the credit of sustaining, in 
this almost unknown wilderness, this school for 
a year, unassisted by any co-laborer. 

An unusual brightness lurked in his eye as he 
drew a whifiF or two through the stem, three feet 
long, richly and ingeniously wrought with highly 
colored porcupine quills, and then passed it until 
it had made a circuit of the family, — a reassur- 
ance of peace and friendship. During this pre- 
amble, a pair of eagle eyes were constantly peer- 
ing into my sanctum ; and I was about to close 
and secure the door, when, with the silent move- 
ment of a cat, he threw it open, profiered his 
hand in morning salutation, with a careless, 
easy grace, took a seat directly in front, and, with 
those same eagle eyes scanning me through and 
through, commenced a spirited and animated 
" talk," — of course in an unknown tonjrue. 
The expressive pantomime bespoke the impor- 
tance of the subject. The good lady, knowing 
the trepidation of her boarder, came to the 
" rescue." Departing from the customary man- 
ner of wooing, he said, " Say to Woa-wan-pa 
Wa-ma-don-ka that she must be my wife." In 
vain it was m-gcd that he had one, and ought 
not to have another. "All the band have as 
many as they can keep, and I have but one," 
was his reply. " She shall have the best comer 
of the lodge, and the dark squaw shall pack the 
wood and water, plant and hoe the com ; white 
squaw may ride by my side in the hunt, and the 
other shall carry the game, set the ' teepee,' and 
cook the food, and hush the pappoose, while 
white squaw eats with me." Arguments irresisti- 
ble ! To be permitted to eat with my lord, to be 
Jirst in the lodge ! But then, to have another 
claiming even a menial's fare as a right, and 
regarding mine as tier lawful lord and master, 
might, and doubtless would, awaken the " green- 
eyed monster," and I was incorrigible. " Then 
when she is dead," said he, for he declared she 
was dying with consumption, and could not pos- 
sibly live more than two or three moons ; but, 
at last, finding that no arrangement couhl be 
made, he begged " a dollar to buy a new shirt," 
and, with a haughty, defiant air, took leave. 

Scene at Little Rock. On these unin- 
habited shores, where the dying embers of the 
council-fire still smoked, and where, but a few 
days since, the war-whoop resounded, some 200 
U. S. troops were landed to erect a defence 
against the encroachment of the Indian. . . . 
A solitary Indian approached, and, with folded 
arms and speechless tongue, watched the opera- 
tions of the soldiers. . . , When the soldiers' 
tents were pitched, their camp-fire built, and 
camp-kettle hung thereon, our visitor slowly and 
sadly ascended the blufi^, and disappeared in the 


Not a word he spake, not a gesture made, 

As he gazed on the passing scene; 
But he folded his arms across his breast 

With proud and majestic mien. 
The warrior's plume is adorning his head, 

The iire of the brave in his eye, 
His pallid lips are together pressed, 

Nor kindred, nor friend is nigh. 



Closely with grace his blanket he drew 

As he thought of the white man's skill ; 
But he mastered each muscle of face and form 

With an Indian's iron will; 
For surely no good was tokened to him 

In^the scene that was passing around ; 
For the strong defence of the white man's walls 

"W ould rest on his hunting-ground. 

He looked on the graves where his fathers slept, 

On the spot where his teepee had stood, 
On the stream where glided his light canoe, 

And the wild deer coursed in the wood. 
And never again to his vision would seem 

The sky so bright and fair. 
Or earth be dressed in such beauty and green, 

Or so pure and serene the air. 

The pale face come, so potent in skill! 

His own race were dwindling away; 
The remnant doomed ; how brief the hour 

They might on their hunting-ground stay! 
And sadly, oh, sadly, his spirit was stirred. 

For life was bereft of its charms. 
Since these flower-clad plains and crested bluffs 

Were marked for the white man's farms. 

And closely, more closely, his blanket he drew. 

More firmly his li|)s compressed ; 
And stronger he folded his brawny arms 

O'er his painfully heaving breast. 
His eagle eye had divined the scen^, 

The river and plain he has crossed ; 
And he climbs the bluff, and, westward away, 

He is soon in the distance lost. 



The history of Ripton must be small when 
compared with Middlebury, or Cornwall^ or 
Bennington. The face of the country, up among 
the mountains, was forbidding ; and for a long 
while after its charter was granted, (which hap- 
pened on the 13th day of April, A. D. 1781,) 
nothing more transpired, for a period of 20 years, 
than the surveying of a part of the town, and 
dividing it, by draught, among the proprietors. 
I have seen no one who could tell the exact time 
When the first and second divisions of lots were 
made. The charter was granted, by Vermont, 
to Abel Thompson and 59 otliers, besides 5 
rights for public uses, (24,000 acres.) The name 
given by charter was " Eiptown ; " but, by com- 
mon consent, the "w" was left out. I have 
thought that, if it had had a better name, it 
would have been sooner settled. There is a 
great deal in a name, and there have been several 
attempts to have its name altered ; but it still 
bears the cognomen of " Ripton." About 39 
years after its charter was granted, the popula- 
tion became so dense (?) 6,200 acres of land were 
Severed from the " land of Goshen," and added 
to Ripton, who wanted more room. And it 
eeems annexation was the order of the day, for, 
about four years after, a large slice of 1,940 acres 
Was taken from Middlebury, and set to the 
town ; and, about 8 years after that, 900 acres 

from Salisbury was added thereto ; so that its 
present limits covers an area of 33,040 acres- 
But yet, in 1825, there were only 18 families in 
town ! - 

There was a rumor that the first child bom in 
the charter bounds would be entitled to a right of 
land. So, a man by the name of Ebeuczer 
Collar cut his way into the dense forest of the 
town, on to lot No. 10, and there, almost without 
a shelter, Nov. 11, a. d. 1801, (cold November,) 
his daughter Fanny was born. She is now liv- 
ing in town, the wife of Mr. Amasa Piper. 

But the rumor was groundless, 
And she was landless. 

But Ebcnezer Collar had the honor to be the 
first settler. In about one year after, his father, 
Asa Collar, came and put up a log-house, and 
began to clear the land. About the year 1803, 
Mr. Thomas Fuller moved into the Goshen part 
of Ripton, (Goshen then.) About the year 1805, 
Mr. Ebenezer Collar buried an infant daughter 
by the name of Polly ; and, a few years after, a 
son by the name of Harvey, about 1 7 years old. 
Those were the first deaths in Ripton. About 
1803-4, the centre turnpike was made, which 
passed through the S. W. corner of what was 
then Ripton. A part of the turnpike was then 
located not where it now is, but southwardly, on 
a hill ; but aftei-wards, in 1825, was made down 
on the river. This is one reason why the town 
did not settle more rapidly, they had to go so far 
round to get to Middlebury. After the town 
was organized, (which was in 1828,) the settle- 
ment increased ; saw-mills were erected ; lumber 
was sawed ; and the people began to have means 
to pay for such things as constituted the neces- 
saries of life. Ripton is situated on a table 
land, westerly of the high range of the Green 
Mountains, with its east line extending quite to 
the top thereof, and taking in what is called 
the "Bread Loaf" Mountain, and having a 
range of high hills on the west, which separate 
it from the valley of Otter Creek. The town 
is somewhat diversified with hills, the most 
noted of which is called " Cobb Hill," which 
lies in its northerly part. The soil is generally 
of a pnmitive formation ; but little clay is found, 
and no lime as yet ; generally of a sandy loam, 
with many large boulders scattered promiscuously 
over the surface, having the appearance of being 
cast from the interior of the earth, when the 
mountains were thi-own up ; many of them 
resembling the slag which is drawn off from 
smelted iron, (opaque crystallized quartz. ) The 
primitiveness of the soil is determined by the 
production of the most primitive of vegetables : 
the treefoil, or moss, which abounds to a great 
extent, especially among those parts densely 
covered with spruce and balsam, and on knolls 
made by the upturning of the forest-trees. No 
minerals, to any great extent, have been dis- 
covered as yet ; although there are indications of 


vt:kmont histoeical magazine. 

iron in some localities and also of gold, in some 
of the streams. The forest contains spruce, 
beech, birch, (the yellow and cherry,) liemlock, 
maple, balsam of iir, lynn or basswood, white 
and black ash, and a very few pines, elms, and 
black cheriy. In some marshy places, may be 
found the tamarack. The poplar, white birch, 
and pin cherry generally make their appearance 
as a second growth. The streams, in Ripton, 
are " Middlebury Eiver," viz: the North Branch, 
the MiddlcF Branch, and the South Branch, 
ordinarily, not very large ; but in 1850, in July, 
they were swollen to such an extent, by the 
heavy rains, that East Middlebury was well-nigh 
drowned out. Some of the small streams which 
form the South Branch, have their rise in the 
westerly part of Hancock ; the others have their 
rise in Ripton. The South and JMiddle Branches 
unite a few rods below the new sawmill of N. 
Lewis & Son. The North Branch joins the 
others a short distance west of the present town 
line. A branch of New Haven River has its 
rise in the N. E. part of Ripton. The farm 
productions consist of oats, Indian wheat, 
potatoes, some wheat, rye, and Indian corn. 
Peas, beans, and other garden vegetables, are 
raised in small quantities for homo use ; only 
a few potatoes and oats have been exported, 
while large quantities of that which constitutes 
" the staff of life " have been imported. There 
are only three farms in town but what have 
changed owners since the first beginning to clear 
them ; and this has been accomplishex^l under 
many difficulties and privations. The exports 
of Ripton consist chiefly of spruce boards, shin- 
gles, clapboards, and square timber, hemlock 
boards and timber, cord wood, coal, and some 
hemlock bark. About as many neat cattle, 
horses, sheep, and swine are imported as ex- 
ported. Hops have been raised, to some extent, 
for export. The dwellings of the first settlers 
were the "log-cabin," thatched ■with long slun- 
gles, with a floor made of plank, split and hewed 
from the bassWood ; having a pile of stones to 
make a fire against, with an opening in the roof 
to let out the smoke. These gave place to more 
architectural and comfortable buildings as the 
facility for sawing timber into boards and shin- 
gles increased. It is a remarkable fact that the 
first framed house built in town (and is it not so 
in most of all the towns ? ) was made for a 
tavern ; wlucli, in those days, ccald not be kept 
without " spintual kuockings " at the bar ! If 
this had been confined to the travelling public, 
there would not have been so much harm ; but 
those in the vicinity of the tavern are generally 
the greatest worshippers of this " spirit rap- 
ping god." However, there were some who 
would not "bow the knee " to "Bacchus," "nor 
even Idss his lips." But I am moralizing. The 
next substantial building was a two-story house, 
erect-cd by the Hon. Daniel Chipman,^ about the 
year 1830, into which he moved, and lived until 

a few years of his death ; when he sold his larga 
house to his son George, and built him a neat 
little cottage house, in which he lived ftie remain- 
ing part of liis life. He also erected a good grist- 
mill, and did more, during the ^0 years of his 
residence in town, towards tlft increase of the 
settlement thereof, by good and useful inhabi- 
tants, and the promotion of learning and good 
morals, than any other person who has ever 
lived in town ; but his biography will appear in 
another article. There are others who have 
contributed their share in causing the town to be 
what it is. In 1830-31, Messrs. Geo. C. & 
Horace Loomis built a tannery, which was sold 
to Thomas Atwood in 1835, where the Atwoods, 
Amos A. & Charles E., earned on the business 
of tanning and shoemaking for quite a number 
of years ; when A. A. sold out his interest tliere- 
in to C. E. Atwood, who carried on the works 
until they were burned in 1852 or '3. On its site, 
is now a large sawmill, erected and owned by 
Mr. Norman Lewis & Son. From 1830 to 1840, 
there were no less than 12 sawmills in town. 
Lumber bore so high a price in the market, tliQre 
was a perfect furor ; almost every available mill- 
seat was occupied, and the lots were stripped of 
their spruces ; but, like the hop business, when 
everybody was expecting to get rich, lumber 
went down in price, and the mills have gone to 
decay, — only 1 of the 12 is now doing anything 
at sawing. But, in their stead, have sprung 
up 4 good circular sawmills, which cut out 
more lumber in a year than did the whole 12. 
All this has had an influence to advance. the 
interests of the town. But still, not more than 
one third of the good settling land has been im- 
proved. Much of the land now vmder cultiva- 
tion yields a good return to the owners ; and the 
more the forest is cut away, the more the seasons 
arc made to conform with those in the valley of 
Otter Creek. 

Two large coal kilns have been erected in town 
dm-ing the present year (1859), for the purpose 
of supplying the iron forge, at East Middlebury, 
with coal. There has been no regular dry goods 
store in town, — an inconvenience which the peo- 
ple feel to be considerable. Of late years cord 
wood has been a profitable article of export to 
Middlebury village. No one born in Ripton has 
had the misfortune to be a doctor, lawyer, judge, 
or member of any of the learned professions. 
Only one has had the honor of being a type-setter 
and a practical prixter. An occurrence trans- 
pired on the night of the 31st of May, 1858, 
which caused about as much honor among the 
town's people and vicinity, as John Brown caused 
among the Virginians, except the militia were not 
called out. They probably would have been, if 
we had such Wise men here as they had there. 
On the morning of the next day, June 1, on an 
extinguished brush heap, was found the body of 
Jonathan R. Fumal, blackened and burned to a 
crisp condition, his apparel being totally con- 



sumcd. It appeared, upon examination, that the 
upper part of tlie frontal bones of liis chest were 
broken in; but nothing fui'thcr was then discov- 
ered, nor has there since been elicited anytliingto 
show how he came to be burned. If he was mur- 
dered, it will come to light in due time. In closing 
the history of Ilipton, I would further state that 
Calvin Pier was the first town clerk ; he held the 
office 5 years. After him, the Hon. Dan'l Chip- 
man, 6 years ; Henry Downer, 3i years ; Chas. H. 
Champlin 2J years ; Amon A. Atwood, 3 years ; 
the writer of this, almost 7 years ; Benj. H. Bacon, 
1 year ; Reuben A. Damon, 3 years, and J. M. 
Holden, 1 year. The town was first represented 
in the General Assembly, 1843, by Sam'l H. 
Hendrick. The Hon. Dan'l Chipman held the 
office of postmaster nearly 20 years, and until his 
death. After him, his son, George Clupman, 
Frederick Smith, Samuel S. Fletcher, and Zcrah 
Porter, have successively been appointed post- 
masters. There are 5 school districts, which 
maintain both summer and winter schools ; and 
the juvenile education is as good as in most other 
places. There are now only two denominations 
.of Christian worshippers in town, — the Congre- 
gational and the Methodist Episcopal. The Con- 
gregational own the only meeting-house, and 
number about 40. The Methodist hold their 
meetings in the school-houses, and number 
about 60. The population numbers between 
6 and 700 inhabitants; in 1850 its population 
was 567. 

Up on the mountain lies a town, and Riptown was 

its name! 
It is not of so great renown as those upon the 

'plain !(?) 
It Las its present size obtained by ripping other 

towns ; 
Ten thousand acres it has gained, but not so many 

Crowns! ^ 

A Collar did the town adorn, therein first to 

abide, — 
Therein the first one to be born, and also first who 

The town produces well most kinds of grain, except- 
ing maize, 
Which fails by frosts, to fill, sometimes, — but yet the 

Cobb wc raise! 
We lately raise good crops of Beans, which goes 

with pork " first rate," 
When they 're well Cooked it often seems the best 

we ever ate. 
Its hist'ry I have written out, but still another Page 
I add thereto : but not about what others did engage. 
We had a Bakeu ; but his bread we did not like to 

chaw, — 
We like it done quite Bkown, instead of having it so 

The Birds oft make a visit here to Platt their nests 

But EoBBiNS tarry all the year to labor and to toil. 
Our rivers do abound with trout, — a Fisheb does 

them take ; — 
We have no ducks to swim about, — but yet wc have 

a Drake. 
Here we have Day the whole year round ! I tell you 

nothing Kew; 
For in this place no knightis found, — and whati say 

is true! 

I've filled my sheet some Fuller than at first was 

my intent; 
But you will see, thus Fare, I am on punning surely 


We have but Little of our own, — and that we mean 
to keep, — 

Since we've a Kino upon our throne to watch us 
while we sleep. 

We have a Portkr at the door, our missives to re- 

And send, — but I will Brao no more of Bipton, I 


son of Samuel and Hannah Cliipman, was bora in 
.Sahsbury, Ct., Oct. 22, 1765. At the age of ten 
years, his father removed with his family to Tin- 
mouth, Vt., where the subject of this sketch lar 
bored on the farm till nearly the close of 1783, 
when he commenced fitting for college with his 
brother Nathaniel, then a lawyer in Tinmouth. 
He entered Dartmouth College in 1784, and 
graduated in 1788. Immediately after leaving 
college, he entered ujfon the study of law with 
his brother Nathaniel, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1790. He first opened an office in Rut- 
land, where he was in the practice of law till 
1794, when he removed to Middlebmy, and 
opened an office there. 

In 1796 he was united in marriage with Miss 
Elutheria Hedge, daughter of Rev. Samuel 
Hedge, a minister of Warwick, Mass., and sister 
of the late Levi Hedge, professor in Harvard 
College, then residing with her mother in Wind- 

Between 1798 and 1803, Mr. Chipman repre- 
sented Middlebury in the General Assembly for 
several years, and afterwards was chosen a mem- 
ber of the Council, to which office he was elected 
for several years in succession. In 1812, 1813, 
and 1814, he again represented Middlebmy, and 
the last two years named, he was elected Speaker 
of the House, in which position he is said to 
have been dis-tinguished for his promptness and 
decision. In 1814, he was elected a representor 
tive to Congress, which appointment he was 
obliged to resign after one session, by reason of 
protracted illness. After regaining his health, 
the year following, he resumed the practice of 
law, and in 1818 and 1821 represented Middle- 

In 1828 he removed with his family to Ripton, 
where he had invested considerable property, and 
had built a commodious house. There, retired 
from public life, he found leisure for preparing 
several works for the- press, viz : the life of his 
brother, Hon. Nathaniel ChJpman, LL. D., 
memoirs of Col. Seth Warner, and Thos. Chit- 
tenden, first Governor of Vermont. In 1850, 
he was elected delegate to the constitutional 
convention of that year, and while in attend- 
ance on his duties there, he was attacked ^vith 
sickness, from which he never recovered. He 
reached his liomc in Ripton, in a feeble condition. 



and died April 23, 1850, in the 85th year of his 
age. At a meeting of the bar of Addison 
County, the following Dec., resolutions, highly 
commendatory of the character of Mr. Chipman, 
" as a lawyer, a statesman, and a man of letters," 
were passed by that bedy, and ordered to be en- 
tered on the records of the court. 

A. Hemenwat.* 



When we formed a representative democracy, 
we considered we had made an improvement 
upon all civil governments which had ever been 
instituted. A pure democracy had ever been des- 
titute of every property of a good government. 
The laws were ever in a ruinous state of fluctua- 
tion, and it utterly failed of protecting the people 
in the enjoyment of their rights. By instituting 
a representative democrsyy, we hoped to avoid 
all these evils, but as our government is founded 
on the democratic principle, unchecked by any 
other, that principle is gaining strength, and the 
tendency of the government is towards a pure 
democracy. Both political parties have long 
since discovered this, and it is amusing to wit- 
ness their struggles in the race for popularity, — 
both make use of democracy as a condiment, 
with which they season every political dish, and 
democratic is considered a necessary prefix to 
every party name. The whigs call themselves 
democratic whigs, and the republicans call them- 
selves democratic republicans. The next step 
will be, that one of the parties, no one can tell 
which, will attempt to shoot ahead of their oppo- 
nents by assuming the name of democratic dem- 

Whether this tendency of our government 
toward a pure democracy will be for evil or for 
good, we shall be taught by experience. If it 
proves injurious, as we haye reason to fear it may, 
the experience and intelligence of the people 
will induce them to retrace their steps, and the 
government will be improved and perpetuated. 
It is the natural government of civilized man, 
and as nature ever makes efforts to cure all dis- 
eases in the human body, she will be sure to 
make efforts to heal all wounds in the body pol- 
itic ; and she will effect a cure, if not prevented 
by quackery, as she often is, when making efforts 
to cure diseases in the human body. 

Daniel Chipman. 


I THEN was but a prattling boy, 
And knew not of life's Borrow, — 

A mother's love was all my joy ; 
I thought not of the morrow. 

• A native of Shoreham, and 12 years missionary 
at Siam, now home miseioiiary and pastor at Bipton. 

The pain and anguish racked her form, 

She knew that we must part, 
And pressed my tiny hands so warm, 

It thrilled my very heart. 

She closed those eyes, — her lips they moved,- 

It was a silent prayer 
For him she left, and whom she loved, 

For God's protecting care. 

Her prayer is answered, — yes, his care 

He tenders day by day ; — 
His love, unmerited, a share 

He does to me convey. 

Perchance some guardian angel comes,— 
Methinks it is my mother, — , 

And gently watches as I roam, 
E'en closer than another. 

James F. Mobbs. 




This town received its grant in 1761, and was 
named after Salisbury, Ct. Mr. John Evart* 
obtained the charter ; and Sam'l Moore made a 
survey of the town in 1762, and laid it out into 
lots. The settlement progressed slowly until 
after the close of the Revolutionary war. But, 
in 1785-86, and 87, emigration was so rapid, it 
was difficult to obtain food for the inhabitants. 
A controversy with Leicester arose from the fact 
that nearly half of the land of each town was 
claimed under bgth charters, that is, the charters 
of the two towns lapped. At the first town 
meeting, attention was called to this matter, and 
committees appointed to undertake to adjust the 
difficulties. Many lawsuits were commenced 
for trespass; but finally, in 1796, the division 
line was run, by which the loss of land was 
divided between the towns. When it was found 
that the original survey of Middlebury had em- 
braced more land than it was entitled to, on the 
resurvey it gave some of its oi-iginal territory to 
Salisbuiy. By the terms of the charter, the 
Governor of N. H. was to have a share of 500 
acres in any part of the town he chose ; this land 
was located in the N. W. comer, and afterwards 
sold to Holland Weeks. One share was given 
for the first settled minister ; one for the support 
of the gospel in foreign parts ; one for schools, 
and a glebe for the Church of England. Some 
of these shares were lost in the compromise with 
Leicester, while others were located on lands of 
little value. 

In 1789, the town was divided into 3 school 
districts. That in the west part was organized 
Oct. 22, 1789. Matthew Sterling, the first 
teacher, taught in this district several winters in 
succession. School taxes were paid in labor or 
grain, until money became more plenty. The 
first books used were Webster's Spelling Book 
and Thiid Part, Dillworth's Spelling Book, 



Pike's Abridged Arithmetic and Latin Gram- 
ta&r. All kinds of grammar were afterwards dis- 
carded, as being out of place in a district school. 
A very limited education was considered suffi- 
cient to enable a man to perform all the ordinary- 
duties of life ; and the Rule of Three the ultima- 
tum in mathematical research. Many of the 
settlers were very illiterate men, and some held 
V important town offices, who could nefther read 
Hor write. 

The^oil is mostly loam and alluvium. Nearly 
one third of the town lies on the mountains, much 
of which is good pasture, and has much valuable 
timber. Most of the pines ol the lower lands 
have been cut. The middle and western por- 
tions are better adapted to the growth of grass. 
There are three quite extensive swamps, well 
timbered. The ridge lands are nearly equally 
. divided into loam and clay, the loam usually 
stony, the clay free from stones. The former 
was most productive of wheat when it was 
first cleared. Sweet walnut was known by most 
of the early settlers only by the bark of the 
trees lying on the ground in the woods while the 
timber had gone to decay. The walnut again 
made its appearance, in the second growth, 
about the beginning of the present centuiy. At 
an early day, vast crops of wheat were raised 
from the newly cleared lands. About 1801, the 
Hessian fly appeared, and did great injury. A 
little more than 20 years afterwards, it was suc- 
ceeded by the midge, (improperly called weevil,) 
which also wrought great havoc among the 
wheat fields. Rye, oats, corn, flax, beans, peas, 
and buckwheat have been quite extensively 
cultivated. The adaptation of the land to 
grass has made raising stock a very lucrative 

In 1856, the town organized an agricultural 
society, taking the name of Lake Dunmore, 
which has had the effect to stimulate the people 
to a generous competition. It has holden three 
fairs, which have been attended with an increas- 
ing intei-est. 

Many of them planted their nurseries the year 
previous to moving their families into the coun- 
try. Apples thus became plenty and cheap, 
giving rise to large quantities of cider. In 1 806, 
Cider was worth $3 per bbl., but 3 years later, 
not more than $1. A distillery was built in 
1811, which exercised a baneful influence for 
several years. But, about 1 830, the temperance 
reform commenced, which resulted in destroying 
a good number of the apple-trees. This was 
unfortunate, as the trees have proved, in most 
instances, to be but short-lived. Most of the 
fruits are incorrectly named, taking their names 
from the person from whom they were obtained, 
or from the town in which he lived. Moreover, 
a great confusion of names has been brought 
.about by unprincipled grafters who came this 
way. Pears, grapes, and plums have also been 
raised with good success among us. Indeed, 

some of the indigenous fruits have been culti- 
vated, and found to be of excellent quality. 

Bees were made a source of luxury and profit 
to the settlers. Their hives were usually made 
of straw and sections of hollow trees. The honey 
was obtained by killing the bees, usually done m 
October, by the fumes of burning brimstone. As 
the land was cleared, and hard timber destroyed, 
tlie product of honey was much lessened, and 
the interest in bees began to decline ; moreover, 
the appearance of the moth, about the year 1807, 
brought great dcstniction among the bees. At 
an early day, the lake and livers were filled with 
excellent fish. The pickerel was brought from 
Lake Champlain, and committed to the waters 
of Otter Creek, in 1819. 

The outlet of Lake Dunmore forms a stream 
of no ordinary kind for the purposes of propelling 
machinery. In its ascent to Salisbury Village, 
a distance of about 2 miles, it will admit of at 
least 20 mill-seats, several of which are occupied. 
Its clear water i.-! well fitted for the paper-maker 
or fuller. Never filled with anchor-ice, and not 
subject to floods, it affords facilities to the manu- 
facturers which cannot be surpassed in the State. 
To the east of Lake Dunmore, is Lana River, so 
called in compliment to Gen. ^Yool, of the U. S^ 
army. The stream was previously known as 
Sucker Brook, on account of the vast numbers 
of suckers found in its waters. The falls of this 
stream, known as Lana Cascade, cannot be sur- 
passed for beauty in this State. 

Among the most important inventions of the 
town, was that of the screw-plate by A. L. Beach. 
He never had it patented, and in fact d^d not 
know himself how important an invention it was 
until it had come into quite general use. This 
plate is found in all the shops and machine 
manufactories in the United States. Jacob 
Bartholomew invented a new kind of steelyards, 
which received quite an extensive patronage. 
The first forge* in town was erected in 1791, 
Sam'l Keep was the first bloomer ; Step'n Gill 
made its first coal. In 1811, the legislature 
granted a charter for the manufacture of glass, 
and a factory was put up on the western shore 
of Lake Dunmore. About 40 operatives were 
employed for many years. But finally, on 
account of sudden changes in the price of glass, 
the company was compelled to close its business. 
Afterwards, in 1832, Geo. Chipman and others 
repaired the establishment. But the factory, not 
able to compete with foreign manufactories, soon 
closed. In 1853, this property passed into the 
hands of the Lake Dunmore Hotel Company, 
which soon became insolvent, and passed over 
to a gentleman who purchased it for the purpose 
of making a fashionable place of resort. A 
building, on a commodious and expensive plan, 
has been erected, called the Lake Dunmore 
House. In 1815, a charter was obtained for the 
incorporation of a cotton manufactory, and the 
work commenced; but the enterprise proved a 



failure. The manufacture of shovels has been 
carried on to good advantage many years, also 
that of woollen cloths, and iron, and wagons. 
And the facilities for making Salisbury a promi- 
nent manufacturing town are veiy great. 

Lake Dunmore is the spot most sought by the 
lovers of natural scenery. This lake lies in the 
S. E. part of the town, and covers about 1,400 
acres. Its extreme length is about 5 miles, and 
its greatest width a little more than 1 mile. It 
has but 1 main inlet, and 1 outlet. Its avcrasrc 
depth is about 60 feet, and its water of the purest 
kind. It is surrounded witli mountains and hills, 
affording the most magnificent scenery. Moo- 
sa-la-moo is the highest of its surrounding peaks, 
though Rattlesnake Point, which more imme- 
diately overlooks the lake, is none the less inter- 
esting, and affords some commanding views. 
The fonncr has a height of 1,959 feet, and the 
latter of 1,319 feet. On the slope of the former, 
is "Warner's Cave," a place rendered celebrated 
by the imagination of Thompson, in his "Green 
Mountain Boys." 

A post-oflSce was first regularly established in 
1801. Another, under the name of West Salis- 
bury, in 1850. 

Most of the settlers lived to an advanced ace, 
the oldest of whom, Mary Holt, died in July, 
1844, aged 102 years. 

Six divorces have been granted to parties in 

The Congregational church was organized in 
1804, composed of 9 members ; present number, 
103. Rev. Geo. W. Barrows, present pastor; 
Rev. Rufus Pomroy was first installed over the 
church ill 1811. He being the fii-st settled minis- 
ter, was vested with the ministerial right of land ; 
but retained only half of it, as his stay in town 
was somewhat short. The remaining half was 
afterwards deeded to Rev. Mr. Cheney. 

The I\Iethodist Church was commenced under 
the guidance of Rev. Mi-. Mitchail, a missionary 
who came through these parts about the year 
1799. The nucleus of the present M. Ch. in W. 
Salisbury, he first formed in Leicester. In 1836, 
this society erected a neat little chapel in their 
part of the town, and in 1859 put up a parson- 
age which well corresponds with the chapel. The 
present number of the church is not far from 50. 

But, previous to the organization of any 
church, the people were not without reUgious 
meetings. Eleazer Claghorn, Solomon Story, 
and Holland Weeks, immediately, on their ar- 
rival, commenced regular meetings, which con- 
tinued many years, held in schoolhouses or 
bams, and usually consisted of prayer, and a ser- 
mon read. The clergy of adjoining towns assisted 
much in keeping up an interest. The church 
(Congregational) held their meetings for a gi-eat 
many years at the centre of the town, but finally 
the meeting-house at that place was taken down, 
and one of more agreeable stylo erected in the 

The first persons who undertook to make a 
permanent settlement, were Joshua Graves and 
his son Jesse, who came here in the spring of 
1774. In the autumn of that year, Amos Story 
and his son Solomon also came on and made a 
pitch near Mr. Graves. But a short time after 
Mr. Story commenced his labors, he was killed 
by the fall of a tree, and his son was compelled 
to find his way back to his friends in Rutland. 
Mrs. Story, nothing daunted by the death of her 
husband, came on and took possession • of her 
husband's land, and soon developed those won- 
derful cliaractcristics of body and mind which 
rendered her so remarkable a person in the early 
history of the town. She entered in person into 
all the labors of the farm, and performed an im- 
portant part in tlie political moves of the com- 
munity in which she lived. She dug a cave 
into the west bank of Otter Creek, in which 
she remained concealed with her family during 
the nights, imtil the most dangerous period of 
the Revolutionaiy war was past. In 1792, she 
was married to Benjamin Smauley, who died in 
1808, and his widow was thrown upon the town 
as a pauper. She afterward sustained herself 
for a number of years, and was again married to 
Capt. Stephen Goodrich, with whom she lived 
until her death, April 5, 1817, aged 75. 

The settlers, before the Revolutionary war, 
met with great trouble and danger from the 
Indians. The Graves' were once carried off by 
them, and did not reach their home again for 
several weeks. 

After peace was declared, people began to 
come in very rapidly, and mills were immediately 
erected. Addison, Weybridge, Bridjwrt, and 
other towns, came to Salisbury to have their 
grain ground, for a long time. 

The first child bom was Joshua Graves, 
grandson of the one before mentioned of the 
same name, July 9, 1785. 

For many years the town had no particular 
place for the burial of the dead. Amos Story 
was buried on the bank of Middlebury river. 

Of wild beasts, the wolves did much more 
damage than any other. These animals were 
dangerous not only on account of their relish for 
human blood, but for their nightly depredations 
upon domestic animals, which the settlers were 
compelled for many years to keep closely guard- 
ed during night. 


GiLBEET Everts, from Salisbury, Conn., was 
the only one of the original grantees of this 
town who came on and took possession of liis 
land. He was a Royalist ; settled in this town 
in 1786, and took an active part in all its early 

Plint Flagg, from Royalston, Mass., settled 
in 1784. He came on with his mother, who was ^ 
a widow with quite a numerous family. Mr. 



Flagg was longer a resident of this town than 
any other pci-son, having resided here 67 years 
and 3 months. He died in July, 1851. 

Capt. Joel Newton, from Cheshire, Conn., 
moved into town in 1784. He was a Revolution- 
ary soldier. He died in 1842. 

Asa Lawrence, from Canaan, Conn., came 
here in 1789. He was a useful and influential 
citizen, noted for his honesty and frankness of 

Holland Weeks, from Litchfield, Conn., 
moved to Salisbury in 1789. He purchased the 
lot known as the Governor's lot. He died of 
lung fever, in 1812. 

SoLOJiON Story, from Dalton, Mass., took 
a prominent part in all the early religious moves, 
and died in 1816, aged 90 years. 

S VLATHIEL Bump, a Revolutionary soldier, 
was from Oblong, N. Y., and came to this town 
in 1790. Ho was one of the most active mem- 
bers in town, and did it great service by his 
energy of character and sound judgment. 

Reuben Saxton, from Northampton, Mass., 
settled in 1799. He received the most honorable 
offices in the gift of the town, and was long one 
of its leading men. He moved away in 1837, 
to the great regret of a large community of 


was a native of Bolton, Mass., who engaged 
in milling till the Revolution, in which he at 
once enlisted, and was master-workman in con- 
structing the fort at Bunker or Breed's Hill. 
He afterwards commanded a company at Rut- 
land, Vt., and the fort of Ticonderoga, after 
its capture by Allen, and the following De- 
cember led a company from thence to Rutland, 
through a heavy fall of snow, in which some 
of tlto men, exhausted by the march, sank 
down during the night, and were frozen by the 
way. Seeing his men ftist losing heart, the fol- 
lowing story is told of him. He bade them 
hold on a little longer, — there was a house just 
ahead, in which he had ordered a warm supper. 
This roused them so much that they pushed 
bravely on, till they came to the house, when 
finding the supper a hoax, they so warmed with 
anger that they were enabled to reach Rutland 
without any more freezing. He was afterwards 
stationed, with 15 men, in a block house at Shel- 
burne, which was attacked in the night by a band 
of 57 Tories and Indians ; but the history of this 
siege and brave defence we reserve for the his- 
toiy of Shelbume, to which it more properly be- 

In 1783, the Colonel came down Otter Creek 
to the mouth of a tributary, now called Leices- 
ter river, and followed up that stream in quest 
of a mill privilege, till he came to the present 

*Rev. Mr. Ames, of Brandon, Rev. Mr. Walker, of 
Salisbury, Salisbury History, &c. furnished facts. 

site of Salisbmy village which was then claimed 
to be in Leicester. Her. h'. determined to build 
a gristmill, and returning to Rutland, dressed his 
own millstones from rookd in the vicinity, took 
them in two canoes, and s-inding his son (the 
father of E. Sawyer, now oi Leicester) with a 
yoke of oxen, through the woods, by the aid of a 
compass, and marked trees, to meet him at their 
destination, ho proceeded to Ms new location, 
and erected a gristmill and sawmill, sonic of the 
timbers of which now remain where he put them. 
Before the boundary line between the two towns 
was established, he was regarded by Leicester 
as belonging to them, and represented their town 
in the legislatm'c 3 years. About the year 1800, 
he removed to Farmington, N. Y., where he died 
in about 2 years. The name of his wife was 
Eunice Carpenter. They had 9 childi-en. The 
Colonel was a man whose traits of character can 
be best learned from his acts. 


" History of Salisbury, Vermont," by John 
• M. Weeks, with a memoir of the author. Pub- 
lished by A. H. Copeland, Middlebury. Printed 
in New York, 1860. A 12mo vol. 362 pp. 
tasteful in type and binding, embellished with 
4 plates, a model for a town history. 

Here we read of widow Story, — first woman 
known to have passed a night in Salisbury or 
Middlebury, — who came on with six children ; 
amid wolves, bears, and panthers, surrounded by 
hostile Indians, eagerly and hopefully undeitook 
the work of making a home for her family ; of 
her large stature, and skill in the use of the axe ; 
how stalwart men admitted her to be among the 
most efficient in handling the lever, and rolling 
logs ; what a tnie Whig she was, making her 
home an asylum for all her country's friends. 
Again we read : Jonathan Titus and Elizabeth 
Kelsey had appointed their wedding day. A 
brother of Elizabeth died. They indefinitely 
postponed the event ; but after the services of the 
burial, the father of the deceased and the bride 
suggested the marriag-e should be there solem- 
nized, whereupon, Mr. Prindle, the officiating 
clergyman, standing at the head of the new-made 
grave, and the groom and bride at the foot, the 
astonished audience witnessed a bridal among the 

Anon we read how Lord Dunmore and his 
party came up Leicester river to the site of Salis- 
bury village, and from thence on foot over to the 
lake; where the Earl waded into the water a few 
steps, and pouring upon the waves a libation of 
wine, proclaimed, " Ever after, this body of water 
shall be called Lake Dunmore, in honor of the Earl 
of Dunmore." Two Indians bend down and 
split the main branches of a small tree standing 
near, insert the emptied bottle, and the christen- 
ing ceremony is finished. 



From his description of this lake we quote : — 
"The scenery about Lake Dunmore is of that 
character which is rarely found. It combines 
sublimity witli beauty. On the one hand are 
immense masses of rocks and earth, which noth- 
ing can move, and on the other the fugitive 
beauty of changing Ught and shade. The maj- 
esty of the cloud-capped mountain is here associ- 
ated with the undulating curve, and the awe of 
the precipice relieved by the laughing of the 

" From these mountains one of the most re- 
markable instances of mirage was once observed. 
Lake Champlain was seen to rise and widen out, 
so that tlic intervening hills appeared like islands, 
and finally all these hills disappeared by being 
swallowed up by the mighty flood which seemed 
rapidly covering up this whole landscape territory, 
and soon appeared like one vast lake of water 
from Burlington to Benson. Trees standing on 
the slofje of the mountain waded in the water, 
while others lower down, and nearer its base, 
were entirely covered, and out of sight. Burling- 
ton, though never before seen at this place, even 
with a telescope, now was in perfect view, and 
all natural points, as well as artificial? monu- 
ments, forts, and other buildings on Lake Cham- 
plain, were most distinctly visible to the naked eye. 
This atmospheric refraction took place about the 
20th of Aug. 1833, and was doubtless produced 
by the rays of the sun passing under a long, nar- 
row, black cloud, (as described by one of the 
witnesses,) which hung in the west just before 
night. The weather was very hot, and the air 
was remarkably clear." 

In connection with Lake Dunmore we would 
also quote the following biographic sketch, fur- 
nished by a historical friend at Middlebury, and 
an appropriate song, that came to us without sig- 
nature ; but which, having remembrance of " The 
Mayflower," in the "Poets of Vermont," we are 
in no doubt of its Addison county authorship. 

Edward Downing Barber will always be 
associated with tliis distinguished scene, tliough 
his course of private and professional life was 
passed principally at Middlebury. He had the 
spirit and enterprise of a man of true talent, the 
sentiment of a man of genius. He was born at 
Greenwich, N. Y., August 30, 1806. His father 
was Rev. Edward Barber, an esteemed Baptist 
clergyman. He graduated at Middlebury Col- 
lege in 1829, in a class distinguished for talents 
and scholarship, and at once assumed the edi- 
torship of the Anti-Masonic Republican, at Mid- 
dlebury, and was one of the most influential of 
the politicians who led in the triumph of that 
period over secret, social, and political combina- 
tions. Mr. Barber's impulses in respect to gov- 
ernment, were democratic, which attached him 
afterwards to the Freesoil section of the Demo- 
cratic party, in which, also, he was a leader. He 
married Miss Nancy Wainwright, of Middlebury, 
in 1833, and left two daughters and a son sur- 

viving him. He died at Lake Dunmore, Aug. 
23, 1855. The following song, written in mem- 
ory of Mr. Barber, set to a beautiful air, was 
published by 0. Ditson, of Boston. 


Whose was the glance that kindest marked thy 
billow ; 
Whose the fond word went sparkling with thy 
Who in his dream beheld thee from his pillow — 
Who in his fate would mingle with thy name? 

Whisper it when thy soft, sweet wave is breaking, 
And laps the shore, with fondness for its sand : 

Blow with it when from night and sleep awaking, 
Shadows descend, and hills inverted stand. 

Moosalamoo! the mountain's head above thee, 
Deep in thy breast its purest shadow forms; 

So to the heart, the soul that fondest loved thee, 
Comes for its love, when flies the shade of storms. 

Moosalamoo ! the hand thy wave has painted, 
Linked in his own, has felt his bosom's thrill; 

Now from each breast that rapturous sense has 
Yet in thine own and mine they mingle still. 

John M. Weeks, son of Holland Weeks, 
was born in Litchfield, Conn., May 22, 1788. 
He came with his father's family to Salisbury, 
when a little more than one year of age. De- 
nied the advantages of a liberal education, he 
nevertheless early read some of the classics, and 
addressed himself, to a greater or less. extent, to 
literary pursuits through life. He invented the 
Vermont bee-hive, patented in 1836, (the first 
improvement by which the honey was obtained 
without destroying the bees, ) for which he received 
a silver medal from the American Institute in 
New York, and which was rapidly introduced 
into most parts of the United States. The same 
year he published a treatise on the instincts and 
habits of the honey-bee, which he revised and 
enlarged, till more than 20,000 copies were sold. 
This work was reprinted in England. He also, in 
1841, secured patents on 8 other classes of hives. 
He was a scientific farmer, and took an early 
and active part in establishing the Addison 
County Agricultural Society, was for many years 
a contributor to the best agricultural papers in 
New England, whose articles met with general 
favor, and at his death left a manuscript history 
(yet unpublished) of " The Five Indian Naitons," 
which for interest of adventure, and historical 
detail, would doubtless elicit more general inter- 
est than any other production of its author. 
He was twice married ; to Harriet Prindle, of 
Charlotte, in 1818, who died in 1853, and in 1856, 
to Mrs. Emily Davenport, of Middlebury. As a 
husband and father, his character is sketched as 
one who " rendered the family circle a pleasant 
and sacred place." " One who cared well for the 
intellectual culture of his sons and daughters." 
He was for many years of the Episcopal church 



at Middlebury, an exemplary member. After a 
week's illness he was gathered to his fathers, 
Sept. 1, 1858. 


That we shall know each other in heaven, is a 
doctrine clearly taught in the Bible. It is as- 
sumed by eveiy inspired writer, — some arguing 
their points as though it was a principle no one 
denied, and others giving us historical narratives 
including instances of it. 

But we also believe that philosophical argu- 
ments may be adduced, which go very far in 
establishing this delightful and desirable doc- 
trine. Wo shall propose two, either of which, if 
sustained, will bid us expect to greet in heaven 
those friends who, with ourselves, have washed 
their robes, and made them white in the blood of 
the Lamb. 

Our first proposition then, is, that unless our 
memory is destroyed, we shall most certainly rec- 
ognize each other. If our power of memory be 
retained, then shall the names, the mental pecu- 
liarities, and the personal appearance of our 
friends be known by us as soon as we discern 
them. If memory be retained, the individual 
would remember his own name, and in all prob- 
ability sometimes refer to it, — would remember 
events which transpired on earth in connection 
with himself, and would refer to them, — would 
remember the names of his parents and relatives, 
and would refer to them. Now these, and a 
thousand other things, would be recollected, and 
be the topics of the individual's conversations. 
Hence wo see how readily, from these circum- 
stances, we shall be able to recognize each other. 
That the memory shall not be destroyed, is evi- 
dent, — we shall certainly retain it until after the 
judgment-day, in order to give our account ; and 
every one who will think, will see that the de- 
struction of the memory would be the destruction 
of the individual himself. 

Our second proposition is, that, assuming our 
memory shall be retained, we shall certainly 
know each other if we preserve our individual 
identity. Scripture does not teach a change in 
appearance, it is simply one of nature, viz : from 
mortality to immortality, — from corruption to 
incomiption. Now this does not at all imply an 
external, visible change, and hence, the appear- 
ance of the person would be- the»same as when 
on earth. Besides, this occurs only to the body, 
so that if it did change its appearance, the mind 
might still preserve its identity, and would be dis- 
tinguished by its peculiar manifestations, and by 
these alone the individual might be known. As 
we have said it would be with the memory, so 
we say it must be with our identity, its destruc- 
tion would imply the annihilation of the person 
himself. Rev. Chables Morgan. 

West Salisbury. 


Morn broke in beauty o'er a world. 

Fresh from the touch of Heaven, 
And ushered in the day of rest, 

Which crowned the perfect seven. 
And from the new-born world arose 

Upon the morning air, 
This grateful, oft-repeated strain 

Of true and fervent prayer, 

" Praise God." 

The morning stars that gemmed the arch 

Of heaven's unfathomed blue, 
Together sang their hymns of joy, 

And trimmed their fires anew, 
"While all their harps the sons of God 

Tuned to a new employ, 
And o'er that first, sweet Sabbath calm. 

Shouted the song of joy, 

" Fraise God." 

In all their awful majesty 

The lofty mountains stood, 
Their jutting rocks, all covered o'er 

With moss and tangled wood ; 
And from each cliff and craggy peak, 

One peal of gladness came, 
Till all the valleys caught the sound, 

And echoed back the same. 

" Praise God." 

The flowers a tinge of vermeil caught, 

While tremblingly they stood, 
As if they blushed to hear their God 

Pronounce them " very good ; " 
And from their dew-bathed petals rose 

An incense pure on high. 
And from their gently parted lips 

The sweet, but mute reply, 

» Praise God " 

Man, too, majestic in his strength, 

And woman, sweet as fair, 
Went forth and laid their sacrifice 

Upon the altar there. 
The noblest ones that walked the earth, 

All sinless, and all blest, 
Sent up the homage of their hearts 

On that first day of rest. 

» Praise God." 

Mrs. E. a. Sbverenok. 



1761. Shoreham, a handsome township, with 
the lake for its western border, 40 miles S. of 
Burlington, and 12 S. W. of Middlebmy, was 
chartered in 1761, earlier than any other town 
W. of the Green Mountains, N. of Castleton. 
26,319 acres to 64 grantees, — obtained through 
the agency of Col. Eph. Doolittle, captain under 
Gen. Amherst, who served at the capture of 
Ticondcrogaand Crown Point ; and is said, with 
many of his men, to have been engaged in laying 
out the military road from Crown Point to 
Charleston, N. II., which passed from Chimney 
Point, in Addison, through Bridport and Shore- 




ham, in each of which towns the Colonel became 
proprietor of 6 rights. 

1773.' Samuel Woolcot settled with his fam- 
ily, who, witli his son, was one of Allen's party, 
and went with him into the fort. 
, 1774. Amos Callender came from Connecti- 
cut to Shoreham. The family fled in 1777, but 
returned in 1783. In 1793, he built a brick house, 
and kept tavern for many years, — the most ele- 
gant in this part of the country, and the resort 
of pleasure parties froin the towns around. 

1766. In the spring. Col. Doolittle, with 12 
or 14 others, among whom were Dan'l and Jac. 
Hemcnway, Robert Gray, Jas. Forbush, Paul 
Moore, John Crigo, Dan'l Southgate, Nahum 
Houghton, and Elij. Kellogg, came in a company 
from Worcester County, Mass., built a log-house, 
(whose site is still pointed out,) and lived as one 
family the first year, the men taking turns in 
cooking. Fever and ague prevailing, some of 
the party left ; but the Colonel spent most of his 
time here, though he did not remove his faraijy 
till 1783. Both he and his son, Col. Joel Doo- 
little, died in this town. The father built the 
first sawmill, assisted by Marshal Newton, a 
large land-owner, who was active in promoting 
the interests of the settlement. 

Elias Kellogg is said to have been the first 
man who entered the fort of Ticonderoga, after 
Allen and Arnold. After the capture of Moore, 
he spent one winter here entirely alone. He was 
taken prisoner not long after, and confined 
awhile at Ticonderoga, from which place he and 
two other men, by the name of Hall, made their 
escape across the lake. 

Wm. Reynolds, son of John Reynolds, from 
New Concord, N. Y., was a tory, the only one 
who ever lived in this town. Some time after 
the war, he settled hi Canada, on land given him 
by the British government. 

Dan'l Newton, another one of Allen's party, 
settled here before the Revolution, and died here 
in 1834, aged 80. He was a practical surveyor, 
a man of influence, and a Christian. 

1775. Only 6 families are known to have lived 
here previous to this date. In 9 years, the inhab- 
itants did not probably exceed 30. 

Shoreham was the final rendezvous of Allen's 
party before his expedition to capture Ticon- 
deroga ; Hand's Cove was the starting-point. 9 
men from this town were known to have been 
with Allen when he entered the fort. 

1783, and the succeeding year, most of the set- 
tlers returned to their homes, and others soon 
joined them. 

1787. John S. Laeabee, a trustworthy, 
intelligent man, who made many friends by his 
fine social qualities, came in 1 783, and settled at 
Larrabee's Point, to whicli he gave the name in 
1787, where (except wliile 6 years county clerk, 
he resided at Middlebury) he spent the remainder 
of his life, dying Nov. 28, 1847. He was one of 
the early pubUc surveyors ; estabHshed the fia-st 

regular ferry at the Point ; hefd the office of town 
representative ; was Judge of Probate and the 
County Court ; and, late in life, united with the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

Dea. Stepii. Barnum, (of the Congrega- 
tional Church,) who died in this town Aug. 24, 
1834, aged 77, was another Revolutionary soldier. 

Smith Street takes its name from 4 brothers 
from Nine Partners, N. Y., who settled on the 
lake road : Seth Smith, in 1784 ; Dea. E. Smith, 
elsewhere noted ;' Maj. Nathan Smith, who, with 
Benjamin Vaughan, first scaled the breastwork 
in pursuit of the enemy at the battle of Benning- 
ton, and died previous to 1800 ; and Amos Smith, 
a carpenter, joiner, and merchant. 

1785. Two brothers, said to have been great 
hunters, Thomas and Nathaniel Rich, settled 
near the present village of Richville. 

1786. The town was organized, Thomas Bailey 
first town clerk. Measures were taken to build 
a gristmill, and 63 families are repoi-ted to have 
moved into town. 

Thomas Barnum, who died here Feb. 17, 
1836, aged 84, was an early settler, a soldier of 
the Revolution, in the battle of Trenton and sev- 
eral other engagements, — a man of character 
and piety. 

Amos Lenox, another early settler, as he had 
no children, left a handsome legacy to the Cong. 
Society, and directed, on "his death-bed, that a 
large portion of his large property, after the de- 
mise of his wife, should be devoted to benevolent 

Wm. Larabeb was the first physician in the 
village, Moses Strong the first lawyer, and Geo. 
and Alex. Tumble kept the first stose at Lara- 
bee's Point, about 1789. 

1797. Richville flourished finely ; had a black- 
smithery with 4 fires and 2 bellows, worked by 
water ; a forge ; nail and a trip-hammer shop ; hme 
works, 2 stores, &c. It long went by, and even to 
this day is sometimes called, Hacklcburnia, from 
Dan'l Newton looking on its desplation after a fixe, 
and exclaiming, " Hackle and bum." It is called 
Richville out of regard to the family who were 
the first founders of the settlement. 

Early as 1786, Geo. Leonard built of logs the 
first house in the village. He was a German, a 
tailor by trade, and the only one in town for many 
years, and a soldier in Burgoyne's army. 

Paul Shoreham Crigo, the fii-st male child 
born in town, received from Paul Moore, the first 
settler, 100 acres of land for his name. Daniel 
Newton Kellogg, the first male child born after 
the Revolution, received from Dan'l Newton, 25 
acres. Sally Smith, now living at the age of 
74, was the first female born in town. The wife 
of Abijah North was the first woman, and Isaac 
Chipman the first man, who died in town, both 
in April, 1783. 

When the meeting-house was raised, in 1800, 
all the people from the country around assem- 
bled to participate in the joyous occasion. After 



the last timber had been laid, one Mark Marzcn- 
Bon went up to the top of the belfiy, and, to the 
great amusement of the spectators, stood with 
his head downward on the cross timber. This 
was a great feat at that day, but greatly outdone 
some 4 years after, when the cupola was finished, 
by one Itandail Wells, an apprentice boy, who 
went up the lightning-rod and stood on the 

During the winter of 1814, more than 60 per- 
sons died of the spotted fever; in 1832, Dea. 
Philip Wodlcot, of the cholera, aged 63. 

About 1825, tlie Shoreham wharf was com- 
menced at Watch Point. 

Population, in 1791, was 721 ; in 1850, 1601. 

The first school was taught by a lady, on 
Cream Hill, as early as 1785 or '86 ; present No. 
of districts, 12. 40 years since, the number of 
scholars was twice as large as at present. The 
first teacher said to have resided in town was one 
Sisson, an eccentric individual of excitable tem- 
perament, but a finished scholar in the higher 
mathematics, excelling particularly in naviga- 
tion and surveying, who taught his scholars in so 
pleasing, comprehensive, and original a manner, 
they became, under his instruction, ready adepts 
in the sciences taught, and greatly attached to 
their teacher. 

Newton Academy was incorporated in 1811, 
and named for Dan'l C. Newton ; fi^-st principal, 
Benj. Nixon, in 1813, — present principal, E. J. 
Tompson, A. M., and Miss L. A. Hemenway, 
music teaciier and preceptress. 

The Shoreham Union Library Society was 
formed Dec. 31, 1821. 

1792. A Congregational church of 15 mem- 
bers was formed on the half-way covenant. The 
present church was organized M«arch, 1794. On 
the^eth, 15 persons were added; Rev. Ammi B. 
Rollins, pastor. Not long after, Paul Mcnona, 
a native preacher of the tribe of Sampson Oecani, 
was supported by voluntary contributions 3 or 4 
years. He is described as having possessed su- 
perior Indian eloquence, which, outpoured in his 
sweetly melodious voice, frequently drew tearg 
from his auditors. Like many of his race, he 
was sometimes beguiled by the intoxicatii.g cup ; 
but after such indulgence ahvays manifested such 
contrition, his piety was never doubted. From 
here he went to the vicinity of Lake George, 
where he preached several years and closed his 
life. Previous to 1800, the chmxh was occasion- 
ally supplied by Rev. M. H. Bushnell. Rev. 
Evans Beardsley was ordained first pastor, Dec. 
26, 1805; dismissed. May, 1809. Asapreacher, 
he was sound in iiiith, but dry and metaphysical. 
He died in New York. Rev. Samuel Cheevcr 
preached from 1809 to 1812. During his minis- 
tration, there was the most extensive and impor- 
tant revival that has ever occurred in the annals 
of the church. Atone communion, in 1810, 60 
were added ; at another, 46. He is said to have 
been better adapted to labor in revivals than for 

a permanent pastor. He died at Stil'.water, N. 
Y., in 1814. 

Rev. Dan'l Morton was ordained and installed 
June 30, 1814, and ministered unto the church 
over 17 years, during which 277 members were 
received. After his removal, Mr. Morton la- 
bored for the Vt. Missionary Society, about 1 
year ; was pastor in Springfield, Vt., 5 years ; 
Winchendon, Mass., 5 years. He was a native of 
Winthrop, Me., born Dec. 21, 1788. Dr. Smith, 
of Fairfiix, pays lum this tribute : " No man 
ever had to inquire whether he was a minister ; 
the countenance, the wliole style of the man, 
showed that." He devoted much time to pas- 
toral visits, and of the childi-en and youth was 
particularly a friend. 

In person, he was rather slim and above the 
common height, had dark hair and eyes, a coun- 
tenance benign and kind, combining decision 
with urbanity. 

His last message was, " Give my love to the 
church, to the Sabbath school, to the singing 
choir, and to the people. Peace be with them 
now and forevermore." He died at Bristol, N. 
H., where he had labored 10 years. May 25, 
1852, aged 64. 

Rev. Josiah Fletcher Goodhue* was installed 
Feb. 12, 1834, officiated till Sept. 13, 1857 ; 173 
members added. He was born in Westminster, 
Vt. ; graduated at Middlebury College, 1821 ; 
studied theology at Andover ; preached at Ar- 
lington, Vt., 10 years ; is now in Whitewater, 
Wis., without pastoral charge. After Mr. Good- 
hue, Rev. A. Flemming supplied the pulpit most 
of the time till May, 1859, when Rev. E. B. 
Chamberlyn commenced his labors here, and was 
installed Sept., 1859. 

Total number of members, 674 ; present No. 

The first meeting-house was built in 1800; 
the present house of worship in 1846, by James 
Lamb, Esq., does great credit to the arcliitect, 
and is one of the best edifices of the kind in 
the State, with a bell of fine tone ; cost, about 


1784. EQ and Stephen Smith came to this 
town, cleared three acres, put up a house, and 
moved on their families in 1785. 

June 2, 1794, these leading Baptist men fonned 
with other Baptists into a church of 15 members ; 
Eli Smith, deacon, with Rev. Abel Woods, pastor, 
— ordained Feb. 26, 1795, — who continued with 
them till 1811, wheo he removed to Pan ton ; 
from thence to Albany, N. Y., where he died. 
During his ministrations here, 170 members were 
added. 80 were added, in all, after Eld. Wood 
left. Till 1824, there was preaching most of the 
time; from then to 1837, only occasionally; at 
present, the church has lost its visibility. 

* The writer of Shoreham history. 



About 1788-89, Eld. Samuel Skeels came to 
this town, preaching here and in neighboring 
towns. He was the first preacher in town, and 
his labors were acceptable to the people. The 
meetings were well attended, without distinction 
of name. He remained about 3 years. 
Among tiie Baptist ministers who have preached 
in town, were several eminent for ability and 
usefulness. Eld. Eph. Sawyer, distinguished as 
a preacher, was very successful in his labors, 
from 1813 to '16. Truly a zealous man and de- 
voted servant of his Master, he is still held in 
grateful remembrance. 

Eld. H. Chamberlain, who preached here till 
the infirmities of age disabled him for the duties 
of his sacred office, and who died here, was 
an eminently meek and godly man, respected 
by all. 

Eld. IT. Green was a man of strong native 
powers of mind, energy of character, and com- 
manding eloquence ; a very efficient preacher. 
He went to Malone, N. Y., where he is supposed 
to have died many years since. Dea. E. Smith, 
the first deacon, was the most active and influen- 
tial man of his denomination, in sustaining meet- 
ings before any church was formed, and after- 
wards looked up to with deference for counsel and 

Dea. Ja. Barber, who came from Bridport in 
1814, was a man of lovely Christian character-, 
eminently gifted in prayer and exhortation, 
against whom no one ever had aught to say. He 
recently died in Geneva, Wis. 


It appears. Elders Chamberlain, Shepherd, 
Wickton, and Mitchell, preached here at an early 
day, and Lorenzo Dow was here between 1805 
and '10. About 1804 or '5, the church is sup- 
posed to have been organized. From 1 807 to '20, 
the society was partially supplied with regular 
preaching, Revs. T. Spicer, S. Boynton, and S. 
Draper being presiding elders. 

In 1832, the number of members, the largest 
at any time, was 40 ; whole number since organ- 
isation, over 100. Probable number of Congre- 
gational, Baptist, and Methodist members, since 
their organizations, — total, over 1,000; present 
number, less than 200. For tlie last two years, 
the Methodists, decreased by many removals and 
deaths, have not been able to sustain regular 



Probably a larger number of this sect settled 
in ShoreHam than in any other town in the State. 
The sentiment of the final holiness and happi- 
ness of all mankind, on the broad trinitarian, 
substitution platform, they had imbibed, retained, 
and disseminated here. It appears quite a num- 
ber of this faith had settled in town prior to 

1800. Among the early prominent members 
were Lieut. Thomas Rich and family, settled 
in 1787; Hon. Chas. Rich, his sons and their 
families ; Jonathan Williston, who held manj' 
important offices in town ; Dr. John Willis- 
ton ; Eben and Amos Atwood; John Ormsbee ; 
Benj. Ilacly; Dan'l Newton; Thomas Goodale ; 
Noah Callcnder ; Wm. P. Bailey ; Benj. Bailey; 
Bcaley B.iilcy ; Benjamin Bissel ; Jonas Leon..,^ 
Marsh ; John RamsdcU ; Ashbel Catlin ; Eben 
Hawes ; John Beard ; Eben Wright ; Joel Doo- 
little ; and Levi Jcnnison, father of Gov. Jcuni- 
son, who was also to his death a truly valuable 
member of the society, and constant attendant 
on its meetings. 

From 1795 to 1806, this society had occasion- 
ally the services of Elders Rich, Hilliard, and 
FarwcU ; and their meetings, held at Richville, 
were numerously attended. In 1806, the society 
was organized. Rev. Richard Carrigue, pastor, 
who preached to them till about '14. Meetings 
were held in schoolhouscs till, 1810, tlu-ough 
the influence of Judge Rich, an academy build- 
ing was erected on tlic village common, and the 
upper story finished into a chapel, owned by 71 
shares, the Universalists owning 51. Here they 
subsequently added free seats, a pulpit, and or- 
gan, and worshipped till 1852, when they had 
completed a commodious and handsome biick 
church, which they have since occupied. Rev. 
K. Haven, their resident clergyman, located hero 
in 1828. During their existence of rising half 
a century, they have shared the reverses common 
to religious bodies. Death and emigration has 
thinned their ranks at times ; but they have been 
generally filled up by their descendants, and they 
may consider their condition (numerically, fis- 
cally, and socially) quite as eligible as the 
average condition of religious bodies in town. 

The lake-shore soil, except on elevations of 2 
or 300 feet, is a strong fertile clay. Commenc- 
ing near the S. line, about a mile E. of the lake, 
the land rises above the clay formation, where an 
argillaceous slate appears, in a range of hiUs oc- 
casionally broken, extending more than half 
through the town. Beyond the first range, there 
is a depression into valleys, in which the clay 
soil and beds of small streams are found. To 
the E. line of the town, the hills run N. and S. 
Most of the higher portions consist of strong 
loam soil, as Cream Hill, named from its remark- 
able fertility, noted for beautiful sites for rich 
farms, and Barnum Hill, still more free from 
clay mixture. 

About 3 miles E. of the lake, is a range of 
hills and blufis, where the limestone crops out, 
the land rough and stony, only valuable for tim- 
ber. Mutton Hill, in the north, is rocky and tim- 
bered. The Pinnacle, 2 miles E. of the centre of 
the town, is the liighest elevation, rising probably 
500 feet above the level of the lake. The ^^e■w 
from its top, of Champlain, Ticonderoga, the N. 



Y. and Vt. mountains, is very extensive, and al- 
most unsurpassed in beauty. 

In some of the valleys there is a fine alluvial 
soil, composed in great part of decayed vegeta- 
ble matter. Near the centre of the town com- 
mences the great swamp, 700 acres, covered with 
a dense growth of fine black ash and cedar, par- 
celled out to the formers, in 7-acrc lots. The 
original timber on the clay ground is pine and 
ash, maple, beech, black oak, basswood, &c. ; 
on higher gi-ound, elm, black ash, tamarack, &c. 
Lands adjacent the swamp j-icld from 2 to 4 tons 
of hay to the acre. Along Lemon Falls and 
Prickly Ash Bi-ook, some of the meadows, with- 
out intermission, have yielded an almost undi- 
minished crop for 60 years in succession. The 
streams in this town are Lemon Falls and Prick- 
ly Ash Brooks. 

L:on ore taken from a bed in this town, is said 
to have been worked into good castings, but to 
have contained too much sulphur to be worked 
into good wi-ought iron. Limestone abounds, 
and on the lake shore black marble is found in 
inexhaustible quantities. Considerable quanti- 
' ties were quarried 30 years since. 

Several springs or wells on Cream Hill ai-e so 
impregnated with Epsom salts as to be unfit for 
family use. 

This is a great sheep-growing town, and from 
an early period noted for superior horses. Messrs. 
R. S. Dana, E. D. Bush, Mr. Orwin L. Rowe, 
— one of the owners of the famous "Ethan 
Allen," — have large farms, stocked almost ex- 
clusively with horses, and furnish the market 
with many of the finest animals to be found in 
the country. Several otlier farmers keep from 
10 to 20 on their farms, and atti-act purchasers 
from every State in the Union. The cattle com- 
pare well with the best towns in the State. 

The beautiful village common, gradually rising 
from the E. and W. to a moderate elevation, on 
which the churches and academy stand, embrac- 
ing 23 acres, was given and cleared at the ex- 
pense of the proprietors. 



whose character is chiefly interesting for the con- 
spicuous part he acted in the settlement of this 
town, was bom in Worcester, Mass. At tlic age 
of 12 he ran away from his parents, and spent 
more than 20 years on the ocean. Once the 
vessel in which he sailed had foundered, and all 
on board were in great peril, when Moore jumped 
overboard, and stopped the leak. He first came 
to Vermont with some of the soldiers of the 
French war. He had two brothers in the ser- 
vice. One, lieut. commander of a company 
near Lake George, who was killed in an engage- 
ment with the enemy After the war, he spent 

much time in hunting in the vicinity of the lake, 
probably as early as 1763 or '64. The fall and 
winter of '65 he spent in Sliorcham, in a hut con- 
structed of pine and hemlock boughs, without 
seeing a human being for 6 months, during which 
he caught 70 beavers. Several winters after, he 
spent in hunting for furs, in which he was so suc- 
cessful as to accumulate a small property. He 
heartily sympathized with the settlers in their 
contests with the Yorkers, and his humble home 
was often a refuge for Allen, Warner, Smith, 
and others. Here it was the two former fled on 
their escape from the 6 Yorkers at the house of 
Mi's. Richards, in Bridport. In their excursions 
ho was prevented from talcing an active part, by 
lameness, caused by having cauglit and broken 
his ankle in the saw-block of his mill, which 
having to ride to Vergcnnes or Crown Point to 
find a surgeon was set in such a manner he was a 
cripple ever after. The first winter after the gen- 
eral flight, he and Elijah Kellogg alone remained 
in Shoreham. Early next winter a few soldiers, 
probably a scouting party, turned in to spend the 
night with INIoore, who was now keeping castle in 
his hut of logs alone. Soon they heard the fearful 
warwhoop, and the house was immediately sur- 
rounded by a large party of Indians. Moore 
and his party defended the premises till morning, 
when the exultant enemy broke down the door, 
and rushed in. One of their cliicfs, whom Moore 
had known, sprang fonvard with brandished tom- 
ahawk ; but the brave old settler bared Ids bosom, 
and dared liis savage foe to strike, when another 
chief interfered to " save wliito man to burn." 

The Indians had previously burnt his mill, and 
saddled and bridled liis horse, ready for depart- 
ure ; but after setting fire to the house, a dis- 
pute arose about their plunder. One claimed the 
horse, another the saddle, and 4 third the bridle. 
Finally, one took his horse, and mounted, with a 
strip of bark for a bridle, another the saddle 
upon his own back, and the third the bridle in Iiis 
hand, and started, wliich presented so ludicrous 
an appearance it made the old sailor laugh 
in spite of his misfortunes. At night they en- 
camped at Crown Point, and guards were placed 
over the prisoners. Moore, who had feigned so 
much lameness that they had given him a ride 
upon his own horse most of the way, they did 
not take the precaution to bind. His weaiy 
guard fell asleep. Now was the time. Moore 
took his gun, blanket, and some Canada biscuit, 
and started for the lake in a difi'oren+ direction 
from wliich they came, through a thick grove of 
young saplings. Biinging into practice liis sailor 
habits, he made his way for some distance, by 
swinging along from one sapling to another with- 
out touching the ground, until at length he 
reached the lake. There was snow upon the 
ground, but none upon the ice, and a log upon 
the shore reached out to the ice. He let himself 
down upon th'e log, put on his creepers, and 
jumped off on to the glare ice, leaving no tracks 



behind. At length ho came to one of those 
cracks made by tlic cliange of temperature be- 
tween day and night. He made marks upon the 
ice with his creepers, and then took them off, 
and followed down the crock until he anived 
opposite the mark ; he made other marks as if 
he had crossed there, and putting on liis creep- 
er's again, walked off a gunshot distance, and 
spfv'ad his blanket upon the ice, upon wliich he 
lay down, with his ready-loaded gun. The morn- 
ing brought three Indians, who had started in 
pm'suit as soon as he had been missed, up to the 
crack in the ice, who, seeing him on the opposite 
side, and the tracks where he had apparently 
passed over, one took the fatal leap, going down 
under the treacherous ice, to rise no more, where- 
upon Moore shot the other two, and proceeded 
along the lake shore as far as Bridport, where, 
too fatigued to proceed further, he concealed him- 
self under a stack of straw, for the night. In- 
thc morning, finding a fall of snow had covered 
his track, he returned back to liis former resi- 
dence, dug up'his dried beef from the snow, and 
fled to Brown's camp, in Sudbury. 

The next spring lie returned and built another 
loghouse, and about 1780 was again captm-ed by 
a band of Tories and Indians, who threatened 
" his head would be a button for a halter, because 
he had killed the Indians who were sent after 
him the year before." He was taken to Que- 
bec, and held prisoner about 16 months, where 
he sustained himself by learning to make bas- 
kets, of the sqnaws, and hiring them with his ra- 
tions, to sell them for him, and buy such food as 
he could eat. After suffering much in behalf 
of himself and other prisoners, he wrote to the 
governor for new straw, and more blankets. 
The governor returning a harsh refusal, and 
reprimand for lis impudence, Moore, nothing 
daunted, wrote in a tone still more bold and de- 
cided, — '■ and the straw and blankets came. He 
also wrote an account of their condition to Gov- 
ernor Chittenden, which, with the application of 
their friends, induced the Governor to send a flag, 
with a letter to the commanding officer, request- 
ing their release or exchange. The exchange 
was effected, and Moore and his fellow-prisoners 
released. Many of Moore's letters, written at 
that time, were preserved for years, and are said 
to have been in excellent penmanship, and vig- 
orous style. Others describe him as a close 
observer of men and things, of good practical 
education, and well read. It is said on his re- 
turn from captivity, he revisited his former resi- 
dence. Taking a view of the desolation around, 
he fixed his eye upon an object, which more 
carefully observed, proved to be a poor, lank colt, 
whose shaggy hair laid in every direction, and a 
little distance from the colt, what should he see 
but his old pet mare. He called her by her name, 
— she heard that old familiar voice, ran to her 
master, and laid her head on his shoulder; as if 
ftho would embrace him. This affected him 

even to tears. The old favorite beast he had 
supposed had perished, had not only supported 
herself by pawing through the snow for grass, 
but sustained the life of the strange-looking colt 
by her side. Moore's whole life was one marked 
with dangers and vicissitudes. At sea he made for- 
tunes, and more than once lost all by shipwreck. 
On land, was in perils in the wilderness, amono- 
savage beasts, and more savage men, but sur- 
vived tlicm all. It is said there were among 
the papers which ho left, several letters from a 
lady to whom he had been warmly attached for 
30 years, and though more than once they 
were on the eve of marriage, yet on account of 
his frequent losses, the ceremony was deferred, 
and never consummated, and he lived a bachelor 
till past 50. He was once a large proprietor of 
lands, which if he had retained, would have 
made him wealthy. Some he early gave away 
as an inducement to settlement, and others, sold 
for a mere nominal sum. These sacrifices, with 
a long sickness before his death, left little for 
liis family, consisting of a wife and 4 children. 
He died in 1810, aged 79. 


brother of Paul, spent much of his time before 
tlie Revolution with his brother, hunting beaver. 
He was the first representative of the town, sev- 
eral years selectman, and justice of the peace, 
and maintained the character of peacemaker, 
being confided in as a man of superior discre- 
tion, and consistent Christianity, who took a deep 
interest in the settlement and prosperity of the 
town. At his death he bequeathed the Congre- 
gational Society $150. 

bom in Hebron, Conn., removed to Danby, Vt., 
before 17G9 ; was first town clerk in 1769 ; town 
representative in 1778, '79, '80; and in '83, 
chjlirman of the committee of safety ; hvcd some 
time in Rutland; was first judge of the special 
court for the countj% and associated with Chit- 
tenden, Allen, and Warner, in vindicating the 
rights of the people against New York ; partici- 
pated largely in tlie deliberations of those who 
declared Vermont a free and independent State, 
and aided in forming its first constitution ; while 
a member of the General Assembly, was ap- 
pointed on tlie most important committees, and 
generally made chairman whenever a resolution 
was referred, with instructions to report a bill. 
He came to Shoreliam as early as 1774, settled 
first at Larabee's Point, and with his son Thomas 
belonged to Allen's paily. In 1795, he returned 
to Danby, and remained till near the close of the 
war, wiien he returned to his farm on Larabee's 
Point, built two loghouses, and lived with his 
son Nathan, till 1790, when he removed to the 
place now owned by Lot Sanford. He was 
clerk of the proprietors till 1786 ; town clerk 2 
years, and sui-vcyor to set off the proprietors' 



rio-hts, and surveyor of the town several years 
after its organization. When anived to that age 
when men generally cease to be active in public 
affairs, for several years he led a quiet life in this 
town, till, about 1800, worn out with age and in- 
firmities, he went to reside with his son, Nathan, 
at a place called Cold Spring, in the town of 
Benson, where he died about 1803. His remains 
were interred in a small burying-ground, which 
once constituted a part of his own farm, and was 
given by him to his son, Thomas. There is a 
small stone erected to his memory, which records 
not the day of his bkth or death, or his age 
when he died. 

Rowley was chiefly distinguished in his time 
as a wit and poet. If Ethan Allen roused up 
every Green Mountain Boy, in his log cabin, and 
called him forth, armed to the teeth, in defence 
of his hearth and home, by the vehemence of his 
appeals, in homely prose, Rowley set the moun- 
tains on fire by the inspiration of his muse. 
These poems, once everywhere sung in the State, 
have mostly faded from the memory of men,* 
and specimens have been with difficulty collected 
enough to afford a fair representation of the wit 
and genius of " The Shoreham Bard." And it 
should be considered he was a man without the 
advantages of an early education, — without 
access to books, or time to devote to them ; that 
he made most of his impromptu verses, throwing 
them out as they were framed in the laboratory of 
thought, before they were put upon paper ; and 
that he never polished or corrected a line, 

Now Where's the man that dare attend, 

And view creation over, 
And then reply he doth deny 

The great supreme Jehovah; 

Who sits above, in light and love, 

And views his glorious plan, 
All on a scale that does not fail ; 

Yet never learned by man. 

Ten thousand globes, in shining robes. 

Revolve in their own sphere; 
Nature's great wheel doth turn the reel, 

And bring about the year. 


lis but a jest to have a priest, 
If you pay bim for his labor, 

And lie and cheat in every street, 
And vilify your neighbor. 

Never be willing to expose 
The little failings of your foes; 

•Mr. Goodhue gives one poem, furnished from the 
recollection of Rev. Samuel Rowley, grandson of 
Thomas Rowley, now 75 years of age. 

During a visit to Shoreham, we were privileged to 
look over a curious old pamphlet of 24 pp., entitled, 
"The SELECTiONa and Miscellaneous Works 
OF Thomas Rowley; Printed for the Purchasers: 

But of all the good they ever did, — 
Speak much of that, and leave the bad. 
Attend to this, and strife will cease, 
And all the world will live in peace. 

On a certain occasion a man came to the store- 
house at the old fort in "Ti." — a hunter from the 
lake shore, with one foot booted, and the other 
clothed with bearskin. As he entered the bar- 
room in this ludicrous plight, one present wa- 
gered a gallon of rum that Rowley could make a 
verse applicable, if sent for. Rowley was sum- 
moned over, with the information that he was to 
make a verse on the first object he should see oa 
entering the bar-room. He opened the door, mo- 
mentarily surveyed the man, conspicuously ar- 
ranged in front, with his foot over the back of a 
chair, — took off his hat, and while all kept 
silence, delivered his introductory. 

A cloven foot without a boot; 

A body full of evil ; 
If you'd look back upon his track, 

You'd think it was the devil. 


Full fifty years we've labored here, 

In wedlock's silken bands; 
No deadly strife disturbed our life, 

Since Cupid joined our hands. 
A faithful mate in every state, — 

In affluence, as in need ; 
Freely to lend her helping hand, 

With prudence and with speed. 


A SILVER gray o'erspreads my face ; 

The hoary head appears, 
Which calls me loud to seek for grace, 

With penitential tears. 

A thousand dreams have filled my mind. 

As days came rolling on ; 
As one that's deaf, and one that's blind, 

I know not how they've gone. 

Now the full age of man has come. 

This is the very day ; 
But O my God, what have I done 

To speed my time away ? 

"With all his wit and waggery, Rowley was 
considered a man of sound judgment and ability. 
In stature, he was of medium height, and rather 
thick set ; rapid in his movements ; had light 
eyes, sprightly and piercing, indicating rapidity 
of perception, and sometimes the facetious poetic 
faculty; yet he was generally A sedate and 
thoughtful man, a firm believer in the Christian 
religion, and in sentiment a Wesleyan. ' 


one of the most influential among the early set- 
tlers, was bom in Bradford, Conn., and came to 
Shoreham in 1783. He was of large, robust 
frame, 6 feet in stature, with features indicating 
a noble, generous disposition, and ability to com 
mand. He filled some of the most important 
town oflSces, and was the first militia captain, and 



first colonel of the first regiment of militia, in 
the county ; was at the battle of Bennington, and 
served a few months after in the army of the 
Revolution ; was an efficient deacon in the Con- 
gregational church ; died in this town, Aug. 
8, 1840, aged 83. 


Gen. Chipman, son of Thos. and Bethia Chip- 
man, born in Barnstable, Mass., Feb. 1, 1761 ; 
died in this town. May 17, 1830, aged 69. 

Timothy, when a stripling of 16, took his 
father's place, who was drafted into the army in 
1777, and served on the retreat of the American 
forces before Burgoyne's army, between Ticon- 
dcroga and Fort Scliuyler, on the Hudson ; was 
employed in felling trees into "Wood Creek, to 
obstruct the passage of boats by water, and the 
army by land; being placed sentinel on an 
outer post at Fort Anne, was in the skirmish at 
Battle Hill, where a comrade was shot at his 
side ; and having served the period of his enlist- 
ment, was honorably discharged a few days be- 
fore the battle of Saratoga and surrender of 
Burgoyne, after which he returned home to aid 
his father in providing for the wants of a numer- 
ous household. In 1 783, he came to Shoreham, 
with little else than the pack on his back. With 
Marshal Newton he was engaged to carry the 
chain in the original surveys of the townships of 
Shoreham and Bridport ; in this survey, selected 
the lot on which he afterwards settled, built a 
plank house, and assiduously toiled until his de- 
cease. He was married to Polly, daughter of 
Capt. John Smith, May 24, 1786, and raised a 
family of 11 children. By persevering industry 
and economy he brought his lot in the wilder- 
ness under good cultivation, adding to his origi- 
nal purchase, until he had one of the most valu- 
able forms in town, and commodious buildings, 
where for many years he kept a public house. 
He was honored by his fellow-citizens with sev- 
eral town oflSces ; by the U. S. Government with 
an appointment as an assistant assessor of lands 
and dwellings in district No. 1, in the 4th divi- 
sion of Vermont. From the rank of a private he 
was promoted through various grades to the rank 
of major-general of the 4th division of Vermont 
militia. At the British invasion under Gen. Pre- 
vost, as he crossed the line on our northern 
frontier, Chipman volunteered for his country, 
took a musket from the arsenal at Vergennes, 
crossed Lake Champlain at Burlington into New 
York, (beyond the limits of his Vermont com- 
mission,) where he was chosen, at once, briga- 
dier-general, under Maj. Gen. Sam'l Strong, 
and placed at the head of the Vermont volun- 
teers, there assembled. The enemy commenced 
their retreat the day before he arrived at Platts- 

In his declining years he resigned his public sta- 
tions, and retired to private life ; in 1810, during a 
religious revival, became a hopeful convert ; with 

his wife and several of his children, united with 
the Congregational church, and sustained his 
Chiistian profession unblemished until the day of 
his death, which occurred at his homestead on his 
original purchase, in the 70th year of his age. 
His widow died March 5, 1849, aged 81. 


bom in New Milford, Conn., settled in Shoreham 
in 1786, and lived till 1795, in a loghouse. The 
esquu'e was an enterprising, industrious man; 
made potash for several years, from ashes saved 
in clearing his land and purchased of his neigh- 
bors. Immediately after coming into town, he 
was appointed justice of the peace, and while 
there was no minister in town, frequently per- 
formed the marriage ceremony, and, it is said, 
sometimes took ashes for pay. He was an early 
member of the Congregational church, and was 
fond of reading metaphysical and controversial 
works. He died in 1825, aged 84. 


son of Thomas Rich, born in Warwick, Mass., 
Sept. 13, 1771 ; anived in this town, Aug. 1787, 
having travelled all the way from his native 
place, on foot. Here he labored diligently 4 or 
5 years, assisting his father in erecting his mills, 
and clearing land, until he was manied at tlie age 
of 20, to a daughter of Nicholas Watts, a young 
lady born in his native town, between whom had 
grown up an ardent attachment, from the days 
of their childhood. In a seiies of letters, while 
a member of Congress, to his daughter, then re- 
siding at Montreal, are many interesting facts in 
relation to this early attachment, his family his- 
tory, the labors and privations of himself and 
companion, with whom he lived until her death, 
April 24, 1817, in the reciprocation of the most 
tender affection and confidence. In these letters 
there is an unreserved expression of thought and 
feeling, for it is the wife and mother of whom he 
wiitcs, whose death both the father and daugh- 
ter deeply deplored. 

April 16, 1791. They commenced house- 
keeping, " possessed of no other property than 1 
cow, 1 pair of 2 year old steers, 6 sheep, 1 bed, 
and a few articles of household furniture, which, 
altogether, were valued at $66, and about 45 
acres of land, given by his father." The first 
year he tended gristmill for his uncle, Nathan 
Rich, and cleared and sowed with wheat 6i acres 
of land. He says : " While at the mill I con- 
structed a number of aiiicles of furniture, which 
have been in daily use from that time to the pres- 
ent." It is said, while engaged in his sugar- 
works, he constructed a water-pail, with his jack- 
knife, which was used for many years in the fam- 
ily. While a boy he had had little advantages in 
schooling, and after the age of 15 attended 
school only 3 months. But limited as his oppor- 
tunities were, he was often called upon before the 
age of 30, to deliver Fourth of July orations ; 



was chosen town representative when but 29, 
which office he held twelve times ; was one of the 
judges of the county 6 years ; representative in 
Congress 10 years. A ready debater in all pub- 
lic bodies, he was useful and popular in every 
station which he occupied. 

He had that strong-desire to master whatever 
he undertook to investigate, which is indispensa- 
ble to eminence in any station ; and in early life, 
formed, and kept up to its close, the habit of 
writing down his thoughts ; cultivated his taste 
by reading works of an easy and pure style ; and 
though there were not found in him any uncom- 
mon powers, or overpowering eloquence, there 
was a happy union of those qualities which form 
the man of usefulness and intelligence, — a well- 
balanced mind, retentive memory, honesty of in- 
tention, intuitive knowledge of human nature, 
open and bland personal appearance, and a 
native benevolence of heart, — in all the social 
and domestic relations of life an example worthy 
of imitation. By such qualities as these, he 
held for so long a time a distinguished station 
among his fellow-citizens. 

By industry and economy he acquired a hand- 
some property, and during the vacations of the 
sittings of Congress, was found at home, over- 
seeing his business, and laboring diligently, until 
the autumn of 1824. At this time in conse- 
quence of working in the water for several days, 
he took a violent cold, which, followed by a fever, 
put a speedy end to his life, Qct. 15, in the 53d 
year of his age. 


Deacon Cooper, born in East Hampton, L. I., 
June 22, 1746 ; came to Shoreham with his fam- 
ily, the autumn of 1789, and is especially deserv- 
ing an honorable mention, as being the individual 
who first introduced into this town the ordinances 
of religion, and to whose indefatigable labors the 
people were indebted, as though he had been pas- 
tor, for his visits to the sick, and attendance of 
their funerals, during the 13 years that he led 
the Congi-egational Church as first deacon, and 
moderator. Living an exemplary life, he entered 
into rest, Jan. 29, 1827. 

Dea. Cooper found worthy co-laborers in Dea. 
Eli Smith, of the Baptist, and Dea. Hand, of his 
own society. Faithfully they served their day 
and generation, and are held in grateful remem- 


Hon. Silas H. Jennison, son of Levi and Ruth 
Hemenway Jennison, was born in Shoreham, 
May 17, 1791. When about a year old his 
father died, and left him, an only son, to the 
mother's care. This widowed mother, who is 
now living, at the advanced age of 89, was a 
woman of uncommon energy and industry. 

While very young, he developed a decided 
taste for reading and study; but soon as he be- 

came able to labor, his services were needed at 
home, and after that, only a few weeks in a year 
did he enjoy the benefits of school instruction. 
The companionship of other boys had few at- 
tractions ; he spent his time at home, and rarely 
came into the house to sit down, vnthout taking 
a book. While a youth he was more interested 
in his reading than husbandry, though in after 
life he took much satisfaction in the study of ag- 
riculture as a science, and in making improve- 
ments in its various branches. 

During those seasons of the year in which he 
had most leisure he devoted his evenings to 
study, and recited to Mr. Sisson, a near neigh- 
bor, of whom he doubtless learned to write 
that round and beautiful hand, and became 
expert in arithmetic and surveying. The habit 
of study he kept up through life, and had a 
mind well stored with general information. In 
person he was tall, stoutly built, with a large, 
well-formed head, manners unafiected and pleas- 
ing, easy in conversation ; but through distrust 
of his own powers, or extreme caution, he never 
engaged in public debate. If he possessed little 
of the brilliancy of genius, he had what is no less 
valuable, — great prudence, a correct, though not 
highly cultivated taste, and, what contributed per- 
haps most to his advancement in public life, facil- 
ity and accuracy in the ti-ansaction of business, 
and general knowledge of matters pertaining to 
civil government, and its administration. 

He was town representative from 1829 to 
1835; associate justice of the county 6 years; 
member of the State council 3 years ; lieut. 
governor 2 years, the last of which; no choice of 
chief magistrate being made, he acted as gover- 
nor, and in 1836 was elected governor by the 
popular vote, which office he filled for 6 years. 
The issuing of his proclamation, at the time that 
the sympathies of many were enlisted in favor of 
the insurgents in Canada in 1836, warning the 
citizens against violating the neutrality laws, was 
censured by some, and contributed for a time to 
diminish his popularity ; but when the subject 
came to be better understood, the course he took 
was approved by the people, and the firmness 
and good judgment which he displayed at that 
critical time, rendered him one of the most pop- 
ular governors the State has ever had. In 1840, 
in the most exciting canvass ever witnessed in 
Vermont, Gov. Jennison's majority over the ad- 
ministration candidate was 10,798. In that year 
he declined a re-election, but for 6 years after was 
judge of probate, the duties of which office he 
discharged to general acceptance. 

After protracted sickness and suffering, he 
closed his life in his native town in Sept. 1849. 


bom in Newport, N. H. 1776; came with his 
father, Elias Bascom, to Orwell, and from thence 
to Shoreham, in 1802, and settled on the farm 
now owned by his son, L-a Bascom. In person, 



Judge Bascom was of a larg^ but not corpulent 
frame, erect and tall. His countenance, a true 
index to his mind, wore an expression of benig- 
nity, self-possession, and sound judgment. These 
reliable qualities won him favor with liis fellow- 
citizens. He was representative of the town 9 
times ; judge of tlie county court 2 years, and 
frequently administrator to the estates of the de- 

The Judge was first married to Charlotte 
Howley, Dec. 30, 1802, and second, ,to Laura 
Bush, Oct. 28, 1806. He was a member and 
supporter of the Universalist society. A man 
with limited means, still liberal, who was not 
known to have an enemy, and died in this town, 
Aug. 1, 1850, aged 74. 



. . . I would provoke the minds of the whole 
brotherhood of formers into activity, and a desire 
for a deeper and more thorough knowledge of 
this most ancient and honorable of all arts and 
employments. ... I would fan the ardor 
for investigation and inquiry for truth in opposi- 
tion to idle theorizing. . . . The philosophy 
of agricultm-e I would see extended and adopted 
among us. It is not above the capacity of the 
most unlearned, or beyond the reach of those in 
the most limited circumstances. . . . In no 
occupation within the range of human employ- 
ments, does success depend more on the judgment 
and direction of the operative. ... In view 
of these facts, in all candor and soberness, I ask 
the question, — is the importance of a thorough, 
scientific, and practical knowledge of the business 
of the farmer duly appreciated 1 . . . Hith- 
erto, improvement has been mainly the result of 
accident. The prejudices handed down from our 
fathers were to be overcome. And there are 
those, even in this day, wlio regard the moon's 
age, and other equally fallacious notions, as of 
more importance to many farming operations, 
than the proper condition of the soil. But, thanks 
to the learned, tliis state of things is fast passing 

away All intelligent and thinking 

men now look to science for aid to this im- 
mense and all-important branch of human labor. 
And although the feeling does not pervade 
the whole mass, yet the resalts are most grati- 

. . . A majority of the farmers eagerly en- 
gaged in increasing their flocks of sheep. The 
result has been that Addison county had, in 1840, 
in proportion either to territory or population, a 
greater number of sheep, and produced more 
* wool, than any other county in the United 
States. . . . 

While the growing of wheat, which required 
much labor, continued to be the principal busi- 
ness, the population increased rapidly. . . . 
The war, the cold season of 1816, and the mar- 
vellous tales of the fertile West, had some influ- 
ence ; but to the change in business of the fai-mera 
we must look for the principal cause of reducing 
the increase from 1810 to '20, to less than 2 per 
cent. ... To those who feel an interest in 
the prosperity of our county, this fact afibrds rea- 
sonable cause for alarm. 

K such a thing were cause for boasting, Addi- 
son County might feel a just pride in the many 
enterprising, moral, and talented men she has 
sent abroad to the other States, to exercise health- 
ful influence on the future destinies of our com- 
mon country. But in this matter, what is a gain 
to other communities is a positive loss to us. We 
have not only lost of the young and vigorous 
physical power of our people, but they have 
taken with them much of the wealth amassed by 
their fathers. . . . Our relative political 
power and influence is silently departing from 
us. And unless new industrial pursuits are 
opened to the young and ambitious, new branches 
of business established and sustained among us, 
I see no reason to expect a diminution of this 
drain of the life-blood of our countj. , . . 


bom in Shoreham, in 1828 ; graduated at Mid- 
dlebury College, 1849 ; 15 months principal of 
Newton Academy ; edited the Whitehall Chroni- 
cle one year ; in 1853, established himself as a law- 
yer in St. Louis, Mo., where he has since taken an 
active part in politics. We give a brief extract 
from a letter to his mother as a specimen of liis off' 
hand letter-writing : — 

" I heard of the death of sister Emma, in the 
midst of an exciting political campaign. That 
news transported me, all absorbed in the heated 
excitements of a political election in a great city, 
as I was, to the quiet town, the green common, 
and the silent yard, where now lies, in peaceful 
slumber, my sister Emma. 

" My mother, Emma is one of the jewels of 
memory, and I sometimes think that it is better, 
happier, more to be desired, to die and leave this 
world ere soil or taint has come upon the heart ; 
before h'ftpefal youth learns by bitter experi- 
ences that life, as we meet in daily contact 
with humanity, is hollow, treacherous, and de- 

" I could but mark the change in myself, from 
the time when engaged in schoolboy sports in 
that same town, on that same common, until 
every nook and comer, every stone, had imaged 
itself ineffaceably upon memory. Then how 
little did I imagine what was before me in the 
future, or under what circumstances the problem 
of my life's destiny should be wrought." 




Sung at the Dedication of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Middlebury, Vt. By Byron Sundeblen, 
D. D., a natiee of Shoreham, now resident of the 
District (f Columbia. 

Lo ! from the majesty above, 

How purely shines the light of love, 

To guide bewildered souls. 
And hark! for seraphs sweetly sing 
Celestial anthems to their King, 

While long the echo rolls. 

Yet hark! the tall Archangel's voice . 
Bids us repent, believe, rejoice, 

And join the heavenly choir. 
Blest spirit! let thy trumpet's peal 
Rouse from their sleep our hearts of steel, 

And kindle up their fire. 

Great God! we consecrate to thee 
All that we are or hope to be ; 

This earthly temple, too 
Grant that thy radiance, so divine. 
To light thine altar here may shine, 

As pure as angels' view. 

While time shall fly, while storms may come. 
Its spire, an index of our home. 

Shall point to purer skies ; 
Where, from the dark polluted earth, 
Lost man shall find a nobler birth, 

Where endless raptures rise. 

Great God! and when these walls decay, 
When time hath swept their strength away, 

Their crumbling work shall be, 
To echo back the sweetest song; 
To hold that echo, loud and long, 

And send it up to thee. 

Then swell the note! best note of praise 
That our weak voices e'er shall raise, 

Till o'er life's troubled sea; 
Then, with the spirits round the throne 
Of the Eternal, Three in One, 

We'll shout the jubilee! 



Starksboro' has two post-offices, Starksboro' 
and South Starksboro' ; was granted by Ver- 
mont, Nov. 7, and chartered Xov. 9, 1780, to 
David Bridia and 67 others ; lias 5 public rights, 
73 shares of 272 acres each ; first settlement com- 
menced April, 1783, by George Bidwell and Hor- 
ace Kellogg, with their families. 

The first justice of the peace was Sam'l Dar- 
row, in 1790. The town was organized March, 
1796; first town clerk, Warner Pierce; first 
constable, Solomon Holcomb ; first selectmen, 
Joseph Bostwick, Abram Bushnell, and Liiman 
Brunson. [Some doubt of these being the first 
officers elected, except the town clerk.] 

March 4, 1797, 2,726 acres of the town of 
Monkton was annexed, on which John Ferguson 
and Thomas Vradenburgh commenced a settle- 
ment, about the same time Bidwell and Kellogg 
commenced in Starksboro'. 

Tho town was first represented in 1798, by 

John Ferguson. He had represented Monkton 
3 years prior to the above annexation, and sub- 
sequently represented Starksboro' four years. 

First marriage, David Kellogg and Clmstiana 
Traver, March 3, 1793, by John Ferguson, Esq. 
First male born, Cyrus Bidwell, son of George, 
Dec. 11, 1790. [It is contended by some that 
Hannah Kellogg was boi-h in the town before C. 
Bidwell.] Mrs. Hannah Lane died here in Nov. 
1823, aged 100 years and 3 months. First phy- 
sician, Enos Pearson, 1797. First lawyer, Ansel 
M. Hawkins, 1832. First ministers, Joseph 
Mitchell and Abner Wood, itinerant E. Metho- 
dists, 1798. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was organ- 
ized in this town in 1798. First number of mem- 
bers not known. Present number, 100. They 
occupy the Union, or village meeting-house, 
half the time. They also have a meeting-house 
in the north part of the town. Present minis- 
ters, Z. H. Brown and David Ferguson. The 
Union, or village meeting-house, was built in 

The Congregational Church was organized 
Aug. 7, 1804. May 4, 1825, Rev. Henry Boyn- 
ton was ordained and installed pastor of said 
church, but preached here but few times. There 
are now but few of that denomination in town. 

A Freewill Baptist Church was organized Sept. 
21, 1821. First number of members, 17 ; pres- 
ent number, 103. They occupy the village meet- 
ing-house one fourth of the time. Present min- 
ister, Mark Atwood. 

There was for many years a large Society of 
Friends in this town, who built a meeting-house 
in 1812. In the winter of 1858 and '9, they sold 
the house, and it was taken down and the mate- 
rials carried to Charlotte to be remodelled for a 
Roman Catholic church. A majority of their 
members have emigrated West, though there still 
remains a small society of than in the S. E. part 
of this town, where they have a meeting-house. 

There is also a Christian Church, who occupy 
the village meeting-house one fourth the time. 
Present minister, Mcrritt W. Powers. 

The soil is mostly loam ; the timber principally 
hard wood, with some spruce, hemlock, and ce- 
dar ; the surface yery uneven. 

A mountain lies along the west line, mostly in 
Monkton, and Extends to Bristol Notch, called 
riog's-back. Another range extends through 
the central parts, from near the south line to the 
north, called East Mountain, dividing the waters 
of Lewis Creek from those of Huntington 

Tlie streams abound with excellent mill-seats. 
Baldwin Creek rises in the S. E. part of this 
town. Huntington River waters the east part. 

Running through the village is a stream which 
is formed mostly by the confluent waters of three 
springs that are not more than 20 rods asunder. 
They unite after running a short distance, and 
receive a small stream by ditch, and form a 



stream on which for many years were in opera- 
tion a saw-mill, a fuUing-mill, 2 forges, and 2 
trip-hammer shops, all within little more than 
half a mile of its head. 

But since the great depreciation in the price of 
bar iron, the forges have been neglected, and 
have run down ; also, the trip-hammer shops and 

There are now in town 3 stores, 1 tavern, 2 
grist-mills, 11 saw-mills, 2 clapboard-mills, 2 
shingle-mills, 1 mill for staves and heading, 2 
foundries, 1 carnage sliop, and one tannery. 
Population in 1850 was 1,400. 



[From the Northern Christian Advocate.] 


"I was born in Duchess Co., N. Y., on the 
7th of June, in the year 1780. I was carried by 
my parents to the State of Vermont, in the year 
1791. On the 27th of December, in the year 
1798, I found pardoning mercy at the hand of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and was received as a pro- 
bationer the same day, by the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. In the month of March, in the 
year 1800, 1 was licensed to preach the gospel of 
Christ. On the 15th of Nov. of the same year, 
I was called out by a presiding elder as a travel- 
ling preacher, and placed on Plattsburgh circuit, 
which lay on the west side of Lake Champlain, 
part in the State of New York, and part in 
Canada. After laboring there a few weeks, I was 
removed to Cambridge circuit, which lay N. and 
N. E. of Troy, and part in the State of New 
York and part in Vermont. 

" In June, 1801, 1 went to conference, and was 
admitted on trial as a travelling preacher, by the 
N. Y. Conference, on the 16th of that month, in 
the city of New York, in John Street. 

" The following year, I again travelled Platts- 
burgh circuit. In the year 1 802, 1 was appointed 
to Fletcher circuit, which lay on the S. E. side 
of Lake Champlain, part in Vermont and part 
in Canada. 

" In the year 1803, 1 was ordained deacon, by 
Bishop Whatcoat, at Cambridge, New York, 
and appointed to Bridgewater circuit, in the State 
of New Hampshire. In 1804, 1 labored on Han- 
over circuit, N. H. This year, the east part of 
Vermont and the State of New Hampshire were 
set off by the General Conference, from the New 
York Conference to the New England Confer- 
ence ; consequently I became a member of the 
New England Conference. 

"In the summer of 1805, 1 attended the New 
England Conference for the first time, at Lynn, 
Mass. ; was ordained Eldei by Bishop Asbury, 
and was appointed to Barre circuit, Vermont. 
In 1806, I was appointed to Vershire circuit, 
Vermont. In 1807 and 1808, I travelled New 

Hampshu-e district, which covered nearly all that 
State. In 1809 and 1810, 1 labored on New Lon- 
don district, which embraced parts of Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and a small 
portion of New Hampshire. In 1811, I was 
stationed in Boston; 1812, in Nantucket; 1813 
and 1814, in Lynn ; 1815 and 1816, in Boston, — 
all stations in Massachusetts. 

" In 1817, 1 was appointed to Portland district, 
in the State of Maine, and my name so stands 
in the Minutes ; but on accou"nt of my want of 
health for the district. Bishop McKendi-ee changed 
my ajjpointment a few weeks after Conference, 
and I labored that year in the city of Portland. 

" In 1818 and 1819, 1 was again stationed ia 
Lynn. In 1820, I was appointed to New Lon- 
don, a station in Connecticut. 

"In 1821, I was appointed to Boston district, 
Mass., but for want of health for that kind of 
work, I remained on the district but one year. ^ 
In 1822 and 1823, I was again stationed in Bos- 

"In 1824, I was ordained Superintendent, at 
Baltimore, Md., by Bishops McKendree, George, 
and Roberts. Consequently, it is perceived, I 
am 66 years old, that I have labored G^ years 
on circuits, 5 years on districts, 12 years in sta- 
tions, and 22 years in the supcrintendency. 

" A sinner saved by grace, I live in hope of 
eternal life. 

"Elijah Hedding. 

"Auburn, N. Y., July 31, 1846." 

From the above date. Bishop Hedding lived 
about 6 years, and continued in the discharge of 
the duties of his office till Dec. 1850, when he 
was attacked with acute disease, from which he^ 
but partially recovered. * 

We extract an account of his last days from 
his life, by Dr. Clark. 

" With feeble steps he ascended from the altar 
into the pulpit ; and at the close of the singing, 
fell down upon his knees, and with labored and 
broken utterance, poured out such warm and 
heartfelt expressions of praise to Christ, as indi- 
cated the depth of his own feelings. The theme 
of the sermon had been, Christ precious to the 
believer. His heart seemed to glow with the 
subject. The entire audience were bathed in 
tears. He arose from his knees ; an expression 
of holy joy was upon his countenance; the sup- 
pressed sigh was heaving almost every bosom, 
and tears were falling like drops of rain. The 
minister of half a century, who had so often and 
so usefully occupied the sacred desk, slowly and 
silently descended from the pulpit for the last 

At a later period, addressing his brethren in 
the ministry, he said, " I have served God more 
than 50 years. I have generally had peace ; but 
/ never saw such glory be/are, such light, such clear- 
ness, such beauty ! Oh, I want to tell it to all the 
world ! But I cannot. I never shall preach 
again ; never shall go over the mountains, and 



through the valleys, the woods, and the swamps, 
to tell of Jesus, any more. But oh, what glory 
I feel ! it sliines and burns all through me ; it 
came upon me like the rushing of a mighty wind, 
as on the day of Pentecost." 

Near the close of his life, the Rev. Mr. Ferris 
6aid to him, " Bishop, you are almost over Jor- 

He looked calmly up, and answered, "Yes ; " 
then raising both hands, he said, scarcely above 
a wMsper, "Glory, glory! Glory to God! 
Glory to God ! Glory to God ! Glory ! " . . 
. . Placing hia hands upon his breast, he said, 
"I am happy, — filled." Soon after this, his 
power of spcccli failed ; hii breathing grew trem- 
ulous and short ; life ebbed gradually away, and 
at last its weary wheels stood still. 

He died in Poughkecpsic, N. Y., at his resi- 
dence, on the 9th of Aprfl, 1852, in the 72dyear 
of his age. 


Dear Quarterly : It' may somewhat in- 
terest some of your readers to learn the ground 
of a ti'oublesomo lawsuit that grew out of the 
above-named grant, as every tax-payer in the 
State of Vermont has paid his share towards the 
expense of said suit. In the fall of 1845, there 
were a number of men found running a line 
through Ferrisburgh and Monkton. When they 
got into Monkton, the people told them they 
must stop, or explain their business. One of the 
company — Isaac G. Hatfield, of St. Johns, New 
Brunswick — then said, his uncle, Peter Hatfield, 
had a grant of land lying 12 miles east of the 
mouth of Otter Creek, where it empties into Lake 
Champlain, and that he was surveying to find 
it. He then showed the grant, and the Monkton 
people let him proceed ; but before he reached 
Starksboro', he left his line, and came to get leave 
to finish surveying, — but he never finished. 
This was the fii-st that any person here k^ew of 
the above grant. 

In the spring of the year 1846, Peter Hatfield 
commenced a suit of ejectment in the U. S. Cir- 
cuit Court for the District of Vermont, against 
Ira Bushnell of Starksboro', for the recovery of 
4,620 acres. 

The grants to Jaqueni and Hicht were dated 
1774, 6 years before the legislature of Vermont 
granted the township of Starksboro' ; and the 
landholders in Starksboro' said, if the legislature 
had granted them land that the State did not 
own, the State ought to defend the suit that Hat- 
field had brought to recover the land j and said 
Bushnell and others petitioned the legislature 
upon the subject, and the legislature appointed 
an agent to defend the suit. Hatfield had the suit 
put over every term of the court for 6 years, and 
then discontinued it, and his bail paid the defend- 
ants' cost. Some part of the laud that he at- 

tempted to hold is very valuable. He thought 
his grant would cover Starksboro' village. But 
there were two reasons why he did not hold the 
village : first, his grant did not cover it ; next, 
his title was good for nothing. 

Soon after Hatfield discontinued his suit, he 
gave a mortgage to John Munson, of New 
York, to secure the payment of $10,000, of this 
same land. This mortgage was signed over to 
Samuel Hunt, of Boston, who soon after died. 
His administrator wrote to Starksboro' town 
clerk. Ml-. Worth wrote back, The land is 
claimed by an old Britisli grant, dated 1774, and 
a suit has been brought to recover the land, and 
failed. The administrator did not think best to 
try to hold the land. The above mortgage and 
assignment came to Starksboro' for record. After 
this, Hatfield divided the laud into 47 lots, (I 
mean tliat he divided it on paper,) and it appears 
said Hatfield gave bonds for large sums of money 
and a mortgage on each of these 47 lots for se- 
curity. These 47 mortgages were all brought to 
Starksboro' ij^nd recorded. Our town clerk has 
received a great number of letters making in- 
quiries : Is Hatfield's title to lands in Starksboro' 
good 1 How much does the land rent for ? 
How much is it worth 1 Is it improved 1 &c. 
The public would do well to let Hatfield and hia 
associates keep their bonds and mortgages. 

I. Bushnell. 



[This old gentleman, now upwards of 70 years of 
age, was one of the early settlers, and resided here 
many years, but now lives in Little Sandusky, Ohio.] 

Farewell to the groves where my loved ones rest! 
My wigwam is left; my trail is the West, — 
Our hunting-grounds sold, my heart's full of woe, 
To think I must leave them; alas! must I go? 

Farewell, ye tall oaks, in whose pleasant shade 
I sported in childhood, in innocence played; 
My dog and my hatchet, my arrows and bow, 
Are still in remembrance ; alas ! must I go ? 

Farewell, ye loved scenes, which still bind me like 

Where on my gay pony I pranced o'er the plains! 
The deer and the turkey I tracked in the snow; 
But now I must leave all! alas! must I go? 

Sandusky, Tymoothee, and Broken-sword streams, 
I ne'er more shall see thee, except in my dreams ; 
Adieu to the marshes where the cranberries grow, — 
O'er the great Mississippi, alas! must I go? 

Farewell, my white friends, who first taught me to 

And worship my Maker and Saviour each day. 
Pray for the poor Judian, whose eyes overflow 
With tears at our parting ; — alas ! must I go ? 






The Protestant denominations throughout the 
bounds of Chiistendom are training up and dis- 
ciplining an army, which will go forth supplied 
with the munitions of its warfare, from the inex- 
haustible arsenal of eternal truth. Unlike other 
armies, it will clothe, provision, and support 
itself, for its tactics and scene of operations will 
not prevent it from planting, sowing, and reaping 
the fruits of the earth, or from engaging in other 
industrious pursuits. The warfare of this army 
will not be one in wliich force is brutally arrayedi 
against force, but it will be a conflict of mind 
against the gross elements of sin apd moral cor- 
ruption, — an enga^^i^ment in which heavenly 
truth shall be arrayed against human error, — a 
combat in wliich the bland and soul-suiduing 
precepts of the gospel will meet and vanquish 
by the sword of the Spirit, — forgcfl, polished, and 
burnished in the armory of heaven, — the pas- 
sions and vices incident to poor fallen human 
nature. It will be an army which, while it is 
pursuing its militaiy operations, will continually 
increase the wealth of the world; for it will 
teach men habits of industry, teach them dili- 
gence in business, and properly to husband the 
resources which are thrown around them by our 
common heavenly benefactor. It will be a gen- 
erous, a noble, a magnanimous army, for it will 
bind up wounds, and exalt its fallen foes, and 
unite in one common brotherhood, with its own 
membership, all wlio arc taken captive or who 
shall surrender to its chosen flag. It will be a 
benevolent, a pliilanthropie army, for the motto 
inscribed upon its ample banner will be " Good 
will to men." It will be an army in which, 
thanks be to God, there will be no exclusion on 
account of age, sex, or condition, — an anny in 
which the best recruiting ofiicei'S and disciplina- 
rians shall be found among the devotedly pious 
mothers of the land, whose fair daughters will 
take their places in the ranks, side by side with 
their brothers, and render essential aid in bear- 
ing aloft and keeping spotless their snow-white 
ensigns, and in perfecting and garnishing tl9f 
beautiful temples of civil, moral, and religious 
freedom, and in keeping wide open, and inviting 
all who will come within their spacious portals. 
It will be an anny in which officers and soldiers 
shall alike win imperishable laurels, and the 
chaplets which shall bind their victorious brows 
shall be bright and fadeless as the ever-blooming 
garlands of eternity. 


The early history of this town or city is incor- 
porated in the histories of Panton, PeiTi^burgh, 
and New Haven, the adjacent corners of which 
towns were set off by the legislature of Vermont, 
Oct 23, "1 788,* and incorporated with city privi- 
leges. The town was organized, Mai'ch 12, 1789, 
Sam'l Chipman, Jr., Esq., first town clerk, 
and first representative; Durand Roberts, consta- 
ble ; Eben'r Mann, Alex. Brush, and Richard 
Burling, selectmen. The organization, under the 
city charter, was effected July 1, 1794, and Enoch 
Woodbridge, Esq., afterwards chief judge of the 
Supreme Court, was chosen first mayor and rep- 
resentative, and Josias Smith, first city clerk. 

The territory is 480 by 400 rods. The dis- 
tance fi-om Lake Champlain is 7 miles. Otter 
Creek, which passes through the city, is navig- 
able from the Falls to the lake, for large vessels, 
and there 'is a regular line of boats between this 
place and Buffalo, and New York, and the facili- 
ties for shipbuilding are as good as any in the 
State. Here was fitted up the flotilla which the 
victorious Mc'Donough commanded in Platts- 
burgh Bay, Sept. 11, 1814. The Palis of Ver- 
gennes represent Nature as a handmaid to Indus- 
try, — her strong and beautiful forces tributary to 
the useful. Dm-ing the non-intercourse and war 
with England, the active blast furnace, air fur- 
nace, rolling, grist, saw, and fulling mill, wire 
factor}'', and busy forges, clustered fast around 
this vast reservoir of water-powe^ and not less 
than 177 tons of shot, for the war, were cast 
here. Since the renewal of a friendly intercourse 
with England, and the opening of the Burling- 
ton railroad, business has declined ; still, upon 
the bridge that spans the Otter, the continued 
hum of machinery, modulated by the grand 
water-chorus, from three distinct sets of falls, 
blends pleasantly upon the ear ; momentarily two 
spirits strive with the arrested traveller. Labor and 
Worship. The white, ever-boiling waves, rolling 
and tossing like a brave spirit, with a grandeur, 
swollen by the forced plunge, call out from their 
depths beneath, — " Lay thy offering upon our 
altar." " Tarry and worship at our shrine." 
But anon, the stirring voice of Labor tunes in 
with quickening energy, — 

" Life is real ; life is earnest;" 

and the arrested worshipper passes over and on, 
with a firmer step, andheart reassurred, impressed, 
and saying within liimself, — "0 Nature, thou art 
grand and worshipful ; but labor is noble, im- 
perative, and sanctified." " What thy hand find- 
eth to do, do with thy might." The three distinct 
falls are formed by an island at their head, divid- 
ing the river into three channels. Their height, 

*" The journals of the Legislature, Oct. 28, 1788." 
We give credit to Thompson, Hall, Demming, Swift, 
&c., for facts embraced in this sketch. 



or descent, is 37 feet. The location of Vergennes 
is handsome, and the principal street has quite a 
city look ; though wc think a stranger upon visit- 
ing the place is uniformly disappointed in the 
size, for our " Little City " is outsized by quite a 
number of our larger villages. 

Champlain Arsenal. The buildings of the 
establishment occupy 28 acres, the principal of 
which are the arsenal, oificers' quarters, and 
magazine, built of stone, and slated. The esti- 
mated value of the grounds, buildings, ordnance, 
and stores, Thompson gives to be $107,576.83. 
Lieut. Washington was the first commandant. 
Capt. J. Sherman is the 11th, and present com- 
mandant.- '.' The establishment belongs exclu- 
sively to the United States ; but by special per- 
mit from the Secretary of War, Vermont is priv- 
ileged to store, in one of the apartments, some 
4,300 muskets, and rifles, and 3 six-pounders, 
property of the State, valued at $31,500." 

The other buildings of most note, are the Con- 
gregational, Episcopal, and Methodist churches, 
erected in 1834, 1835, and 1842, the Vergennes 
bank, iron foundries, the handsome Scale Factory 
upon the Falls, and the Home and Agricultural 
Implement Factory, upon the opposite side of the 
river, &c. The Stevens Brothers keep a genteel 
public house, and the stores have the appearance 
of establishments that do a fair trade. But we 
may not, in our survey of present thrift, pass 
unheeded by one architectural relic of revolu- 
tionary fame. Vergennes enshrines the old 
Mcintosh house, within whose slow, but sure- 
decaying walls historic memories brighten, till 
again we almost see brave Colonel Seth, and 
Ethan, and Smith, Eli Roberts, and Torrence, 
and Painter, and others of those hardy and res- 
olute Green Mountain heroes, who met and 
counselled here, " in days that tried men's souls." 
Good old house ! even the lowly roof that shel- 
tered her patriots is endeared to Vermont ! 

The churches are the Congregational, organ- 
ized Sept. 17, 1793, Rev. Dan'l C. Sanders, first 
pastor ; succeeding pastors. Rev. John Hough, 
Rev. Alex. Lovell, and Rev. H. F. Leavitt, 

-settled August 31, 1836; the Episcopal 
society, organized in 1811, Rev. Parker Adams, 
first rector; succeeding rectors, (after a reorgani- 
zation, in January, 1832, by the name of St. 
Paul's Church,) Rev. M(;ssrs. C. Fay, A. T. 
Twing, J. H. Putnam, Z. Thompson, N. W. 

Monroe, Mr. Grecnleaf, Mr. Hickock, and . 

Of the Methodist Society at Vergennes we have 
had no statistics furnished ; we but know they 
have a chapel, regular preaching, and are reported 
"in good condition." The " Vergennes Citi- 
zen" is published weekly by Mr. Carpenter, 
" author of several novels, &c." 

Since writing the above, we have been in- 
fonned that the "regular line of boats" men- 
tioned by Thompson does not exist between 
Vergennes and New York and Buffalo. We would 
also remark, we regret not having been able to 

procure a more complete history of this place ; 
but trust, with the cordial co-operation of the 
citizens, a competent historian may yet be se- 
cured, who shall prepare an acceptable chapter 
before we close the volume. 

Donald McIntosii, the first settler in the 
present limits of Vergennes, was a native of 
Scotland ; was in the battle of CuUodcn, and 
came to America in the army of Gen. Wolfe, dur- 
ing the French war, and settled here about 1 766-7. 
The first child born is supposed to be a daughter of 
his, about 1770. He died July 14, 1803, aged 84. 

George W. Grandy, well known in our 
legislative halls, is the present popular mayor of 
the city. 

" Hon. John Pierpoint, associate Judge of 
the Supreme Court of Vermont, a man of ability 
and integrity, has long resided here." 

Gen. Sam'l P. Strong, whose residence oc- 
cupies an elevated position in the southeni ex- 
tremity of the city, is the son of Gen. Samuel 
Strong, so generally known by his command at 
Plattsburgh, (relative to which we give extracts 
from his letters in Swift), who died in 1833, 
leaving large landed estates, the principal of 
which are still owned by his son. 

:^lattsbcrgh, N. Y., Sept. 10, 1814. 
I have been up the river this morn- 
ing, five or six miles, which was lined with the 
enemy on the north side. They havte"made sev- 
eral attempts to cross, but without success. This 
is the line that is to be defended. I have ascer- 
tained to a certainty the number of militia from 
Vermont, now on the ground, well armed, is 
1,812 ; from New York, 700; regular troops un- 
der General Macomb, he says, 2,000. He 
treated me very friendly. . . . We have 
strong expectations of 2,000 detached militia, or- 
dered out by Gen. Moorcs, arriving soon. . . . 
I hope you and our friends will send four or five 
thousand to our assistance as soon as possible. 

Sept. 11, 1814. 
We are now encamped with 2,500 Vermont 
volunteers, on the south side of the Saranac, op- 
poFitc the enemy's right wing, which is com- 
manded by General Brisbane. We have had the 
satisfaction to see the British fleet strike to our 
brave Commodore McDonough. The fort was 
attacked at the same time, the enemy attempting 
to cross the river at every place fordahlc, for four 
miles up the river. But they were foiled at every 
attempt, except at Pike's encampment, where we 
now are. The New York militia were posted at 
the place under Gens. Moores and Wright. 
They were forced to give back a few miles, until 
they were reinforced by their artillery. The Gen- 
eral informed me of his situation, and wished 
for our assistance, which was readily afforded. 
We met the enemy, and drove him across the 
river, under cover of his artillery. Our loss is 
trifling. We took 20 or 30 prisoners. Their 
number of killed is not known. We have been 
skirmishing all day on the banks of the river. 



This is the only place he crossed, and he has 
paid dear for that. I presume the enemy's force 
exceeds the number I wrote you. What will be 
our fate to-morxow, I know not ; but I am will- 
ing to risk the consequence attending it, being 
convinced of the bravery and skill of my officers 
and men. . . Samuel Strong. 


Makt S. Roberts, born at Vergenncs, Aug. 21, 
1829; married to Benj. F. Young, July 30, 1845; died 
in her native village, Jul}' 31, 1854. 

Hail, beautiful Spring! thou art with us once more; 
And we joy that the reign of stern Winter is o'er; 
And the glance of the sun on valleys ahd hills 
Melts their vestments of snow into glittering rills. 
And soon from the soil thatthey nourish shall spring 
A verdure to drape every beautiful thing; 
Sweet music shall gladden our bleak northern home, 
For "the time of the singing of birds is come." 
Man, too, shall partake of the joy these inspire ; 
Fresh hopes with ambition his bosom shall fire! 
The seed will be sown that in promise shall yield 
Rich, plentiful harvests from each golden field. 
And the wakening earth will bring gladness to me! 
Once more its green fields and fair flowers I shall see ! 
Breathe again the pure air, 'neath the glowing blue 

Though my lot is to suffer, — it may be to die. 
Perhap^, when the soft, fragrant breezes once more 
Float around me, their healing fresh life will restore. 
'Tis a hope, like the many I've clung to in vain ; 
It may fail, — but its failure will bring not a pain. 
Ah, no ! if my spirit its summons must hear. 
Disrobed of this form, before God to appear; 
I will hope that this grace to my prayer may be 

To go wlien earth's flowers strew the pathway to 

Heaven ! 

M. S. R. Young. 
March 7, 1854. 



For 28 years a resident of Vergennes, now of Le Roy, 

Sweet home of my childhood, how dear are thy 

Thy towering " Green Mountains," and cool crystal 

streams ; 
Thy lakes, dotted over with steamers and sails; 
Thy rich, verdant meadows ; thy sweet, flowery vales. 
From the land of my sojourn, my heart turns to 

The land of all lands thou art truly to me; 
Where my sunny bright childhood and youth sped 

As fleet as the dewdrops that shine on the spray. 

Otter, loved Otter! in fancy once more 

1 sit 'neath the willows that stoop to thy shore; 
Where oft I have lingered, in youth's gala-day, 
And listened, enraptured, to love's witching lay. 
How smooth o'er thy waters the tiny boat glides, 
And the brisk little steamer, how swanlike she rides! 
While the stars and the stripes float abroad oaf the air. 
And Freedom's proud eagle stands sentinel there. 
Flew on, gentle river, all gladsome and free; 

The hum of thy waters was music to me— 
Where wave after wave glides so gently along, 
•Twould gladden my heart like some dear olden 



A native of Vergennes, now residing at Rutland. 

Many graves I see rearing then- white monu- 
ments towards heaven. On some are written 
only a name, on others are carved beautiful 
flowers. But here, in this lone co^mer, is one 
that especially draws my attention ; not on ac- 
count of tombstone, or flowers planted around ; 
for it is destitute of earthly adornment. It is 
the grave of a child, — unnoted! Ah, it may 
have been the child of some widowed mother, 
who depended upon her own hands for bread for 
her little ones ; who, when the " death-angel " 
had sealed those ruby lips, even then, was not 
allowed time to mourn ; who, while other little 
mouths were crying, " Mamma, give me food ! " 
quickly as possible, made arrangements to bury 
the little dead boy, silently praying God to give 
her strength to bear her grief meekly, and may- 
hap deeply sighed, when she thought no tomb- 
stone could mark her Willie's grave. 

Sigh not again, mother. This dust shall all 
be gathered up when God shall make up his 
jewels ; then shall rise this, thy darling, clothed 
with all the habiliments of heavenly splendor. 
Yea, he will be among the number who shall sit 
around the Throne. 


Waltham, a snug little farming and stock- 
growing town, embraces the ten'itory annexed 
to Vergennes from New Haven in 1791 ; set off 
from Vergennes, Nov. 1796, as a separate town, 
and a tract upon Otter Creek, ceded from Addi- 
son, Oct. 25, 1804, making an area equal to 9 sq. 
miles. The town was organized March 30, 1797, 
at the house oCAndrew Barton, Jr., Esq., the first 
town clerk and treasurer, and named by Phineas 
Brown, the moderator, after his native town in 
Massachusetts. P. Brown, Moses Pier, and Jos. 
Langworthy, first selectmen ; Dr. Griswold, con- 
stable and collector ; Christopher Denison was 
the first representative. The town has never 
had a post-office, separate from Vergennes. Re- 
ligious denominations, — Baptists and Congre- 
gationalists, but no meeting-house. School dis- 
tricts, 4. Population in 1850, 270. Buck Moun- 
tain, extending through the centre, N. to S., is 
the highest land in the county west of the Green 
Mountains, from whose summit, with the naked 
eye, may be seen Burlington, (24 miles north,) 
and the lake at the Point, thence south, the 
entire range, on the New York side of vision- 
sweep, over the villages of Moriah, Pt. Henry, 
Westport, and Essex, to Ticonderoga, and on 
the Vermont side, east and south, Middlebiuy, 

•Authorities: N. A. Saxton, Esq., of Waltham, 
Thompson, etc. 



New Haven, Monkton, Bristol, Lincoln, and 

First Settlers. 1767. Mr. Barton and 
others made some preparation for a settlement ; 
but soon returned to Connecticut. 

1768. IVIr. Barton and family came on; 
were driven off by the Yorkers and Indians ; Mr. 
B. taken prisoner ; when set at liberty, returned, 
and found his home in ruins, but, nothing dis- 
couraged, commenced again on the same farm. 
About this time, Messrs. Griswold, Cook, and 
others probably settled, who were captured by the 
British in 1778. Mr. Barton and family were 
imprisoned at Crown Point, the others at Quebec. 
Mr. Barton and family were released before the 
close of the war, and returned to their old farm, 
where he lived till his death, in 1813, aged 77. 
He was one of the original proprietors. He and 
Phineas Brown were the most prominent men in 
town. Those imprisoned at Quebec are supposed 
to have been released in 1782. First settlers after 
the war, Messrs. Griswolds, Brown, Cook, Lang- 
worthy, Pier, Eld. J. Howard, (Baptist,) etc. 
Phineas Brown lived in town until his death, in 
1818, aged 70. He was the first representative 
in New Haven. 


There are memories sad, that come 

Like some unbidden guest, 
And cause some half-healed wound to smart 

Far down within the breast. 

The power is not ourself within, 

To bid them all depart; 
The lurking memories that hide 

Within the human heart. 

Mart Hawley. 



Weybridge was chartered in the 2d year of 
the reign of George III., by Governor Went- 
worth, of N. H., Nov. 3, 1761, to Joseph Gil- 
bert and 63 others, — 70 equal shares. Said tract 
is something more than 6 miles square. Snake 
Mountain, near the centre of the town, runs 
nonh and south ; Lemon Fair runs through it, 
near the east side of the mountain, and unites 
with Otter Creek. 

When the towns were surveyed, Weybridge 
lost 7 miles in length from the west end of the 
chartered tract, which the charters of Bridport 
and Addison, bearing earlier dates, covered, and 
held. Oct. 28, 1791, about 700 acres of the S. 
W. corner of New Haven were annexed. Oct. 
22, 1804, about 2,000 acres of the S. E. comer 
of Addison, lying east of the summit of Snake 
Mountain. Oct. 28, 180£, about 100 acres of 
the S. E. corner of Panton were annexed; and 
in 1857, the line between Weybridge and Addi- 
son was surveyed and established by commission- 

ers, appointed and authorized by an act pjt«sed 
by the legislature, a. d. 1856. In November, 
1859, about 500 acres of the N. W. corner of 
Weybridge were annexed to Addison, in opposi- 
tion to the expectations and wishes of the inhab- 
itants of the town, leaving only a tract at the 
present time, of about 10,000 acres. 

The map of Addison county, from actual sur- 
vey, under the direction of H. F. Walling, does 
not show the addition of 2,000 acres to Wey- 
bridge, from Addison, although having been part 
of the town for 53 years, with 13 dwelling- 
houses thereon, and as many families. One 
street, 3 miles in length, on which these families 
Uve, is laid down on the map, as being in Addi- 
son, quite too much of an oversight for being 

The N. W. part of the town lies on Snake 
Mountain. There is a great variety of soils be- 
tween the base of the mountain and the broken, 
ledgy lands around the waterfalls on Otter Creek ; 
a large amount of water-power, contiguous to 
the railroad, a large, inviting, and desirable part 
unoccupied, to wit : Belding's and Painter's falls. 

Thomas Sanford and Claudius Brittell, with 
their families, came into the unbroken forests of 
Weybridge, and commenced a settlement in 1775. 
David Stow and Justus Sturdevant, with their 
families, settled about the same time, in that part 
of New Haven now Weybridge, the former on 
the south side of the creek and the latter on the 
north. They came in boats up the creek, and 
located upon its banks, where they sustained 
themselves until the 8th of Nov. 1778, when 
they were taken prisoners by Indians and Tories, 
who burnt their houses, destroyed most of their 
property, and selected Mr. T. Sanford and son 
Robert, Mr. C. Brittell and son Claudius, Jr., 
Mr. D. Stow and son Clark, and Mi-. Justus 
Sturdevant, and took them to Quebec. Mrs. T. 
Sanford, Mrs. C. Brittell, and Mrs D. Stow, and 
their younger children, and Mrs. Justus Sturde- 
vant and children, were left almost destitute. 
The only shelter they had was a cellar, made in 
the ground, and covered with earth,* where 
they remained 8 or 10 days, until the Amer- 
ican troops came from Pittsford, and rescued 
them. David Stow died in prison, Dec. 31, 
1778. Thomas Sanford escaped from prison, 
and travelling through Maine and New Hamp- 
shire, reached his family. The other prisoners, 
after extreme suffering, were discharged in 1782. 
In 1783, those families began to return to their 
farms in Weybridge, and other families soon 
came, and commenced permanent settlements. 
Eben'r AVright, and Sam'l Child, and others, 
settled in that part of Addison now in Wey- 
bridge. David Belding, Eben'r Scott, Aaron 

* "A handsome marble monument has recently been 
erected on the site of the out-door cellar, in which 
the women and children found shelter, in memory 
of the captivity of these men. The pedestal, vase, 
die, and cap make the height about 8 feet." 



Parmalee, Solomon Bell, Sam'l Clark, Sara'l 
Jewett, Dan'l James, Roger Wales, Asa Dodge, 
Silas AVright, Asaph Drake, and Joseph Kellogg, 
the descendants of whom, with other valuable 
additional families, form the present inhabitants 
of the town, who are an intelligent, industrious, 
and energetic community, ready to contribute 
their property to promote religion, education, and 
sustain good order. 

The first child born was Ira Sanford, time un- 
known. The town was organized in 1789. Sam'l 
Jewett, town clerk; Z. Stakney, constable; 
Abel Wright, Joseph Plumb, and Joseph McKee, 
selectmen ; Aaron Parmalee, justice of the peace. 
The population was, in 1791, by census, 175; in 
1800, 502 ; and in 1850, 804. 

The lands are well watered, and well adapted 
for grain and grazing. Fruit does well on the hills. 

The first sawmill was built on Bclding's Falls, 
in 1791, by Joseph and Eleazer McKee ; a grist- 
mill in 1794, by David Belding, Eben'r Scott, 
and Asaph Drake ; and a furnace, in 1795. 

Solomon Bell, and sons, built a sawmill on the 
Falls, about 1 mile below Middlebury Falls, in the 
town of Weybridge, in 1793 or '94 ; and a paper 
mill was also built on the same Falls, by Dan'l 
Henshaw ; and there are now on these Falls in 
Weybridge, an oil mill, a paper mill, a trip-ham- 
mer shop, and a sawmill. 

At Lower Falls Village there are 2 sawmills, 
1 gristmill, and other machinery carried by water- 
power, built and in progress of building. Wey- 
bridge has 4 large falls of water on Otter Creek, in 
the distance of about 5 miles. At the pleasant 
village at Lower Falls, formerly a few of the de- 
nomination of Friends resided ; but all have died 
or moved away. This village is situated 7 miles 
above Vergennes Falls, and surrounded by a large 
tract of as good land as can be found in the val- 
ley of Otter Creek, and there is no reason why it 
should not become a thriving business place. 
Want of capital is the only thing which has re- 
tarded its progress. 

Rev. Joseph Gilbert preached in Weybridge 
soon after its organination. Rev. Mr. Johnson 
preached and kept school in 1793. Rev. Mi-. 
Frost succeeded him, and preached a year. 

The first Congregational CnuRCH was 
fonned June 20, 1794, with 15 members. 

The first meeting-house was built by the first 
ecclesiastical society, and other citizens, in 1802. 
Rev. Jona. Hovey was settled over the Congre- 
gational Church, from Feb. 10,. 1806, to Dec. 9, 
1816; Rev. Eli Moody, from Aug. 12, 1818, to 
Dec. 9, 1823 ; Rev. Harvey Smith, from March 
8, 1825, to April 22, 1828, and Rev. Jona. Lee, 
fix)m July 2, 1834, to May 24, 1837 ; other stated 
supplies, Rev. Prof. John Hough, Rev. Prof. 
Wm. C. Fowler, Rev. Prof. Albert Smith, Rev. 
Benj. Labaree, Rev. L. L. Tilden, Rev. Jed. 
Bushnell, Rev. T. A. Menill, D. D., about 10 
years. Rev. E. H. Lyme, Rev. Prof. Boardman, 
and at the present time. Rev. Sam'l W. Cozzens. 

The society erected a new meeting-house in 
1847-8. They have a new parsonage house and 
lot, of 9 acres, also a burying-ground, all in good 
repair, and handsomely situated. 

Episcopal Methodist, Rev, Sam'l Cock- 
ren, fonned a class of 30 members, in May, 1805. 
From this class grew the prosperous and efiicient 
church, which erected a house of worship in 1835, 
and have almost always, from the first, been sup- 
plied with preachers. 

This society has a parsonage house and lot, in 
good repair, near the meeting-house. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Church, formed 
August 20, 1843, with 66 members, erected a 
chapel in 1847, in the Lower Falls Aillage. 

Emigration to the West has kept this church 
from increasing its number of members much 
above the original number ; but the church and 
society have had a stated supply of preachers. 
A few of the members own a parsonage house 
and lot, in good repair. 

Paper Mill Village is only 3-4 of a mile 
from the several churches in the village of Mid- 
dlebury, where many of the inhabitants, with 
those in the S. E. of Weybridge, generally attend 

A few Baptists have a parsonage house and 
lot, in good repair, and a Baptist clergyman in 

There was one school established at an early 
day. There are, at the present time, 6 school 
districts. The town has a very Small school 

The proprietors lost so large a proportion of 
their chartered lands that there remained only 
about 180 acres to each share, adding aU the sev- 
eral divisions together. Two shares were appro- 
priated for the benefit of schools, leased accord- 
ing to the value of wild lands and perpetual 

Haevey Bell, born in Weybridge, April, 
1791, graduated at Middlebury College in 1809; 
read law at the Litchfield Law School, Conn.; 
in 1813, commenced practice in Middlebury, 
where he resided until his death, July 11, 1848 ; 
was member of the Governor's Council, 1835; 
member of the Vermont Senate, 1835-6 ; Secre- 
tary of the corporation of Middlebury College, 
1826-43, and was editor of the Northern Galaxy, 

Charles W. Jewett, bom in Weybridge, 
June 13, 1810 ; graduated at Middlebury College 
in 1834. In 1836 he became a lawyer in Niles, 
Mich., and is still there. He has been prosecute 
ing attorney for his county 4 years ; became 
judge of the county court, 1847. 

Stephen Pearl Lathrop, from Weybridge, 
graduated at Middlebury College in 1839 ; was 
preceptor of Black River Academy, Ludlow, 
1339-40; read medicine in Middlebury and 
Woodstock, 1840-43; gi-aduated at the Vermont 
Medical College, Woodstock, 1843 ; practised 
medicine in Middlebury, 1843-46 ; was principal 



of Middlebury Female Seminary, 1846-49 ; since 
he has been Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
History, in Beloit College, Wis., where he died. 

The other college graduates, from Weybridge, 
are, Constant Southworth, Silas Wright, Edwin 
James, Azel Hayward, Pliny Romeo Wright, 
Cyrus Bryant Drake, Gad Lyman, Emerson 
Ransom Wright, Silas Goodyear Randall, Henry 
James, and Gilbert Cook Lane. 



Silas Wright, clarum et venerahile nomen, was 
born in Amherst, Mass., May 24, 1795. In 1797, 
his father, Silas Wright, Sen., removed, with his 
family, to 'Vermont, and settled on a farm, in 
the town of Weybridge, on the bank of Otter 
Creek. Mr. Wright, Sen., being a working-man, 
his children were bred to labor. Young Silas was 
early put to work on the farm, and kept steadily 
at it, with the exception of going to the district 
school in the winter, till in his 14th year, when 
he was sent to Middlebury, to fit for college. 
He soon tired of Latin, and being too bashful to 
declaim, played truant, to shirk his lessons, and 
get rid of " speaking a piece." His father found 
it out, and called him to an account. Silas ac- 
knowledged, and plead in palliation, his un- 
willingness to attend the academy, and begged 
that he might return home, and work on the 
farm. But his father kept him at his studies, and 
he graduated in 1815. As a scholar, particularly 
in mathematical and philosophical branches, he 
stood high. 

The four years immediately succeeding his col- 
legiate course, he was engaged in teaching and 
the study of law. The latter he pursued at 
Sandy Hill and Albany, N. Y. In 1819, he made 
a journey into western New York, with the view 
to a location ; but finally settled at Canton, 
where he soon rose to distinction, excelling in 
the examination of witnesses, and being uncom- 
monly successful in the management of intricate 
suits, in bringing out the strong points, and laying 
open to a jury the more difficult matters involved. 

In 1820, he was appointed surrogate of his 
county, and soon became justice of the peace. 
He held the office of postmaster 7 years, and was 
inspector of common schools. The last two 
offices were, according to his biographer, the only 
ones he ever expressed a wish to obtain. Two 
considerations, perhaps, led him to desire to be- 
come inspector of schools, — one, the real useful- 
ness and honor of the office ; the other, the fact 
that most persons did not covet it. 

Soon after settling in Canton, he raised an in- 
dependent rifle company, and was chosen cap- 
tain, and rose, through successive grades, to the 
office of brigadier-general. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that he never bore a military title, and 
<vas known only as Mr. Wright. 

In 1823, he became a member of the State 

Senate. He was named for this office, contrary 
to his expectations, and remonstrated against 
being placed in that position, saying there were 
others older and more deserving of the office than 
himself. But he was elected, and in the discharge 
of his duties as senator; exhibited fidelity and 
singular ability, that commended him to higher 
office, and he was elected a representative in Con- 
gress, after serving 4 years in the State Senate. 
He filled the place of representative in Congress 
2 years, with honor, and performed effective 
labor, as one of the committee on manufactures ; 
but nothing occurred, while holding this office, 
to call out his latent talent. In 1829, ho was ap- 
pointed comptroller of the State of New York, 
a place of much labor and responsibility. His 
reports, while id this office, denoted labor and 
ability, and are among the most distinguished 
State papers ever emanating from any department 
of the government of that State. 

Mr. Wright was elected a member of the 
United States Senate in 1833, at the age of 37 
years. This place he held, uninterruptedly, 11 
years, being elected first to serve out an unex- 
pired term, and being called to other service 
after occupying some two years of a second full 
term. In this body, he was surrounded with the 
gi-eatest lights, as some affirm, that ever graced 
the Senate. He served there, too, when great 
and exciting questions were before the country, 
and when, from determined and relentless oppo- 
sition, talent was taxed to the utmost. Mr. 
Wiight, aware of the importance of his post, 
applied himself assiduously to preparation for 
duty, and when he came to participate in debate, 
his influence was felt. His cool judgment, his 
slu-cwd discernment, his wide grasp of mind, his 
imperturbable temperament, the ease with which 
he spoke, and the pertinency and directness of 
his language, all combined to make him a tower 
of strength ; and the unequivocal fact that he 
stood at the head of his party, when that party 
was high in the ascendant, and when great meas- 
ures were pending, proves clearly his decided 
superiority. The questions before the country, 
during his senatorial career, were mostly those 
of currency, which, besides their inherent impor- 
tance, the state of the country and condition of 
parties rendered still more important, and very 
difficult of management. Mr. Wright was chair- 
man of the committee on finance, and brought 
forward and led the measures settled upon by 
that committee, and after years of opposition and 
conflict, and temporary defeat, the policy advo- 
cated by him has become the settled policy of 
the country. 

In 1844, Mr. Wright was nominated for the 
office of governor, very much in opposition to 
his wishes, and was elected. He failed of a sec- 
ond election to that office, owing, probably, in the 
main, to his fidelity and rigor in executing the 
laws against the anti-renters, who prevailed ex- 
tensively in the counties on the Hudson River. 



At the close of his executive labors, he re- 
paired to his farm in Canton, and expressed great 
satisfaction at his " relief from public cares and 
perplexities, and responsibilities, which he called 
an ever-pressing load." Well he might thus 
feel, for this was his first respite from the bur- 
dens of responsible office, after having become 
a public servant, a quarter of a century before. 
At his home he spent his time in manual labor, 
during the day, and attended to his correspond- 
ence and other literary labor at night. He had 
not enjoyed this calm repose a year, when he was 
an-estcd by death. His decease occurred sud- 
denly, -Aug. 27, 1847, and was a stunning blow 
to the country, producing extended grief. 

Mr. Wright refused several high nominations ; 
one by President Tyler, to a seat on the bench of 
the Supreme Court of the United States ; another 
by President Polk, to a seat in his Cabinet, that 
of Secretary of the Treasury ; and another, that 
of Vice-President, by the Baltimore Convention, 
in 1844. The latter, he declined, peremptorily, 
yet courteousJy. But it is believed he rejected 
this nomination with internal scorn, in view of 
the summary rejection of Mr. Van Buren by the 
two thirds rule, and of the fact, — of which he 
could not have been unconscious, — that such 
were the relative qualities of 'himself and the man 
nominated for the higlyjr office, that the nomina- 
tion should have been the reverse. 

One prevalent opinion respecting this distin- 
guished man must be erroneous ; that is, that he 
rose by his own merits, without the aid of 
friends. He rose by his own merits, but not with- 
out the aid of fiiends. In this pai-ticular he was 
fortunate in no small degree. His early and im- 
mediate connections were respectable and influ- 
ential ; both his parents highly worthy ; his 
father a man of rare talents. His foresight may 
be seen in the selection of Canton for a location. 
If he wished to rise, it was the very place to start 
favorably, (the county being settled, to a great 
extent, by people from the same section from 
which he came, ) and being once started, his mer- 
its, and the friends he could not fail to acquire, 
were sure to move him on. 

Amenity of manners, and unvai-ying equanim- 
ity were pre-eminent in his character ; and he 
never failed to practise an active benevolence. 
Jle sympathized with the afflicted, often going 
miles to watch with the sick. 

His habits of plainness and labor deserve to be 
mentioned. He labored much with his hands, 
when at his home in Canton. He kept no team, 
save a yoke of oxen, and no carriage, except an 
ox-cart and a wheelbaiTOW, and the latter he 
usually trundled himself. 

The relation of d few incidents, illustrating some 
of his marked traits, may not be amiss. There 
was once an encampment of his brigade, of sev- 
eral days' continuance. On a certain day, as 
they were preparing for the standing review, dark, 
heavy clouds were rising above the horizon. 

When ready, the General and his staff moved off 
gracefully on their chargers, and just as they had 
reached the line, and the General had doffed his 
hat, a violent storm of wind and rain beat upou 
them, and the soldiers fled precipitately to their 
tents, save the rifle company that he had raised. 
Passing aloqg with no troops to review, till he 
came to this company, he cried out, as he reached 
it, — " That's right, boys ; I knew I should have 
one company to review, if it rained forks, tines 
downwards." The storm soon passed by, and 
the men returned to their places, expecting a 
scathing reprimand from the commander ; but 
he only spoke of the storm as one of the sad in- 
cidents of war ; was glad they had passed through 
it so well, and congratulated them in being so 
successful in preserving their uniform. 

A traveller once drove up to the public house 
at Canton, and called for the hostler. The land- 
lord being out, and no one responding, a man 
near by, loading manure into a cart, came and 
took care of the traveller's horse, and returned 
to his work. Presently the landlord came in, to 
whom the traveller said, "You have a splen- 
did looking hostler." " Hostler ! " said the land- 
lord, in an inquiring tone. " Yes, sir ; the man 
that took my horse ; that man shovelling dung 
there." The traveller's surprise may be imag- 
ined, when the landlord, casting his eyes upon 
the man at work, replied, " That, sir, is Senator 
Wright." Mr. Wright had bought some manure 
of the landlord, and»was drawing it away. 

Mr. Wxight was once assailed in Congress with 
insulting abuse, which he bore with his wonted 
composure. On adjournment, some of his 
friends gathered around liim in hot temper, ready 
to take summary measures in his behalf. Mr. 
Wright good-naturedly remarked, " Let us de- 
fer the matter till after dinner," and there the 
tempest ended. 

As to his morals, — " His candor, his integiity 
of purpose, his unaffected modesty, his disinter- 
estedness, and patriotism, were apparent in his 
public and private life." 

In reference to liis personal appearance, he was 
large, and firmly built ; his head massive ; his 
features full, well marked, and symmetrical ; his 
complexion florid, and an indefinable charm per- 
petually hung around his looks, air, and manner. 

His remains repose in Canton. A beautiful 
marble monument has been reared to his memory 
in Weybridge, by his friends throughout the 
country ; but he reared for himself a monument 
far higher, and more enduring. 


LiNDENWALD, Feb. 24, 1860. 

Mt Dear Madam: It affords me much 
pleasure to do what I can to comply with the re- 
quest you have made of me. 

The inclosed letter, from our departed friend, 



the greatly lamented Silas Wright, presents, 
within a short space, as just a view of the truth- 
fulness and integrity of his character, as any I 
have been able to lay my hands upon. 

I have never know^n a man for whom I felt 
more respect, or for whom I cherished a warmer 
esteem than I did for him, and nothing in my 
power that would do honor to his memory should 
ever be withheld. 

I remain, madam, 
Very respectfully, 

Yonr ob't servant, 

M. Van Buken. 
Mrs. Hemenwat. 


Washington, 17 April, 1844. 

Mt Dear Sir : I take a moment to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of your letter of the 13th, 
which came to me this morning, all safe. I can- 
not give you any reply to the matters contained 
in it, because I am under great press to get ready 
to make a tariiF speech, which I have concluded 
it is best for me to make. I am strongly pressed 
to be prepared by to-morrow, and must, if I can. 
You know exactly how difficult it is for me to 
Bpeak upon that subject ; and how liable I shall 
be to say things which you and I, and all our 
friends, will have cause long to regret. I doubt 
whether any man has had tlie pleasure of mak- 
ing a greater number of such speeches than have 
fallen to my lot ; where you stand like a man 
walking the ridge-pole of a barn, when the 
slightest inclination upon either side will give 
him -nn equally certain fall. If, like such a man, 
no one was to be hurt but myself, I should make 
these attempts with very little comparative care. 
However, the thing must be done, and it will 
quite certainly have been done, well or ill, before 
you can see this, and the intention will be good. 
I shall try more to say what I think is sacred, 
and true, and right, than what I think is politic. 
I shall look for the Majoi-* with interest, but if 
the Whigs, or anything else, should keep me 
from this speech, until after he amves, I shall 
pity him, as he will be very likely to find me im- 
patient and cross. 

I return the letter you inclose, and am in great 

Most respectfully and truly yours, 

Silas Wright. 
His Excellency, Martin Van Buren. 


MR. Wright's speech at watektown, n. y. 

What is this system of benefits which our op- 
ponents so urge upon us, and to oppose which, 

•On the back of the letter is penciled by Mr. Van 
Buren,— "Expecting the Major with the Texas 

they say, is anti-patriotic and anti- American f — 
Strip it of its imaginary qualities, and of the 
beauties of rhetoric in which they diess it up, and 
it is a system of taxation on the people. And 
did our revolutionary fathers ever dream, when 
they were conferring on the federal government 
this tremendous power of taxation, that the peo- 
ple wci-e to stand up in mass and instruct their 
representatives, — "tax us on, — tax us on, because 
by taxation you can drive us into unexampled 
prosperity 1 " [Laughter.] Fellow citizens, it is 
a fallacy. Divest the human mind of prejudice, 
and it will detect the fallacy at once. It is not a 
system of blessings at all ; and if your govern- 
ment required no revenue, no congress would be 
permitted to lay taxes to tax you into prosperi- 
ty. This is all the benefit, — all the honest part 
of the invention, — that by a just regard to the 
different interests of the country, by an honest 
exertion of the taxing power, you may relieve 
burthens on the community. Tax lightly the 
necessaries of life, and you relieve taxation on 
tlie poor and laboring classes. Tax heavily the 
luxuries, and you reach property that should 
bear the heaviest portion of taxation. Where 
your interests conflict with foreign interests, bear 
taxation on the foreign article as hard as it will 
bear, consistently with revenue. You fill the 
treasury and relieve taxation from another source. 
What I pay more for my coat or cotton wear I do 
not pay on anything else, — whilst I aid an im- 
portant interest. But the moment you depart 
from that principle, and consider any system of 
taxation a blessing, I have shown you by the 
history of the old governments of this world, 
where the mistake must lead. 


bom in Weybridge, August 29, 1797; gradu- 
ated at Middlebury College in 1816 ; studied 
medicine in Albany, N. Y., 3 years, — botany 
with Prof. Ton-cy ; geology with Prof. Eaton ; — 
was attached to Major Long's exploring expedi- 
tion to the Rocky Mountains 3 years, — 2 years 
compiling and publishing the journal of said ex- 
pedition ; — 6 years surgeon and Indian agent at 
the extreme outpost of the U. S. Government ; 
2 years editor of the Temperance Herald and 
Journal, Albany, N. Y. From 1834 to '40 re- 
turned to the Indian agency, since which he has 
been a farmer in Burlington, I„wa, acting also 
as an Indian agent and surveyor. He has pub- 
lished 9 different works, 5 of them in the Ojibewa 
language, among which is a translation of the 
wiiole Bible. — Middlebury Triennial Catalogue. 


Burlington, Iowa, Nov. 19, 1859. 
. . . Yours of 8th inst., coming from Wey- 
bridge, is thankfully acknowledged as an authen- 
tic invitation from that town to one of her sons 



half a century absent, to send back friendly 
greetings, and recall some memories of the past. 
My native State has always had a large share of 
my regards, and as fears and forebodings for the 
South and West, at times came over me, I have 
looked back to her peaceful hills for a home, 
should a just retribution overtake us. The Ver- 
monters are in all countries. South and "West, 
and are mostly men one is glad to see, and 
proud to take by the hand, as fellow-countrymen. 
Martin Scott, of Bennington, found, in the wilds 
of the West, many sons of his boasted native 
State, worthy the grasp of his strong, friendly 
hand, — few nobler than himself All are not 
like him. Here and there a " pious Jones is deal- 
ing faro at Chicago." 

Weybridge may remember, — 

■ " E. T. J., that pious man 

Who built his house with brick, 
Who got his cash, and all his trash 
By selling Otter Creek." 

At least the muse of Weybridge said so. Then, 
if dear old Vermont, who is the mother of us all, 
sends her inquiring glance beyond that dubious 
cluster of her little ones in Chicago, she will see 
more, but not such, handling iron, managing rail- 
roads, building towns, and doing other needful 
work ; least, but not last, one raising cattle and 
clover, and wiiting autobiography on this sheet, 
enough of it, at least, to tell his Weybridge 
friends of his vigor, and almost life-long virtue, 
as he deems it, of total abstinence from all intox- 
icating drink, — tea, coffee, tobacco, and bolted 
wheat flour, and who here turns aside to ask 
them in all these things to do likewise. 

Weybridge gave me birth, too, and of her, I am 
now, by your indulgence, to speak. Some of her 
people may remember the cold Friday, when 
George III. was king. Would they like to know 
how Silas Wright, Jr., riibbed your correspond- 
ent's frozen ftice with snow, on the evening of 
that memorable day 1 how that face felt to its 
owner's hands something like a basket of chips, 
when Silas, turning suddenly in the straight path 
he loved to make through the snow, called atten- 
tion to it, by exclaiming, — " Why, Ed., your 
face is freezing ! " They will not remember, for 
they did not see, unless Josh, or Horace Dick- 
inson is there, those mathematical straight lines 
he used to make for the " Weybridgeoons," as tlie 
autocrats in town used to call the idle squad, of 
whom Silas was file leader. They did not see them 
skulking across fields, swamps, and on the ice of 
the creek, — straight as a new sill, straight as 
the Czar'a railroad, or a line across the page of 
Virgil. The capital letter at the head of the 
line, at least, after every new snow or high wind, 
was always the same, Silas, The places of the 
Glaucon, and Medon, and Thersilochon, were 
filled by the two D.s, and John Brow', No. — . 

John Brown, they say, was bom at Litchfield, or 
some obscure place in Connecticut. I think 
difi^erently. The Browns of Tow Head and 
Cobble Hill got all their learning at the district 
school kept for so many years, and with so much 
success, by the true-hearted Jacob Lindslcy, their 
catechism from their parents at home, their hom- 
ilies and theology from Rev. Samuel Haines and 
Jedediah Bushnell ; and they too were makers of 
straight paths. Didn't' Mr. Higgginson find 
Mrs. Brown and the children that are left, in the 
Schroon Mountains, just back of Weybridge, or 
in just such another place f We may not con- 
sent to have it said he was born elsewhere, because 
Weybridge, though she has the statue of one 
upright man and true Democrat, is not rich 
in historic names. We know that John Brown 
was both fool and crazy, for all the newspapers 
tell us so. The " Old Fool," as they are fond 
of calling him, no doubt said in his lieart. 
There is a God. Will he be crazy enough to 
mount a Virginia scaffold a few days hence in 
testimony of his belief of some such glittering 
generality as that all men have by natm-e cer- 
tain inalienable rights, &c. 7 Still, if he is oUrs, 
let us acknowledge him. Vu-ginia keeps, they 
say, some of his blood and nuggets of his flesh 
upon the walls of her armory. Let them keep 
that stained wall untouched, undefiled ; such 
blood is not too plenty tliere. The blood of her 
presidents and her F. F. V's, must receive many 
a dilution, many a washing from " Afric's sunny 
fountains " before it can sliine like that. Let 
them keep it, and when their terror is a little 
abated, — when the bloody shroud of Brown shall 
lie beneath their soil, germinating a harvest rich- 
er than that of Mt. Vernon, let them send some 
youthful prophet into that room to read the 
" mene mene tekel," there written in letters out- 
shining the sun, but which then- mightiest and 
wisecst cannot see now. But if John Brown 
was born in Weybridge, let us all remember it. 
I would Uke to speak of a few of the truths 
revealed in our time, a few of the lessons of prac- 
tical wisdom inferred from contrasting the condi- 
tion of barbarous and savage tribes with that of 
civilized men, — the obligations of stronger races 
when placed in contact with weaker, — and many 
other things, would time and space permit. 
Yours very respectfully, 

Edwin James. 

P. S. I mail a chapter of gossip too long by 
half, I fear, for the use you indicate. Use the 
pruning knife without feajr, favor, or affection, to 
the exclusion of old Brown, if you must, whose 
historical status I know is not yet in the popular 
mind delineated. Be my Magnus Apollo, Jutor, 
reporter, — anything to make me acceptable in the 
Addison Quarterly, and send me the number. 

E. J. 





a citizen ofWeybridge, who died some years since. 
He published, in 1820, a 12mo. vol. of 303 pp. entitled, 
" Poems on Religious and Historical Subjects." He 
was a native of Oyster Bay, L. I. 

Should famine grimly stare thee in the face, 
Lo! there is granted all-sufiicient grace; 
Though thou the terrors of the grave might see, 
Just as the day is, so thy strength will be. 
Although the trees no more to bloom incline. 
Nor fruit appear, long adorned the vine, — 
The olive fail her labor sweet to yield, 
And herbage cease from garden and from field, — 
The fleecy flocks all vanish from the fold, 
^or field nor stall a living creature hold, — 
Yet those who in Messiah trust alone, 
Who build on Truth, the sure foundation-stone. 
Shall raise with joy a sweet triumphant voice. 
And in their great salvation's God rejoice. 



who was born at Weybridge, May 18, 1828, but resided 
most of his life at Cornwall, where he died of cou- 
Bumption, Nov. 10, 1858. He was a graduate of Mid- 
dlebury College, and afterwards tutor of his Alma 
Mater. Till within four days of his death, he was 
engaged on "A Commentary upon the Greek His- 
tory of Herodotus," for a text-book for the college. 
His brief life was practical, earnest, and richly 
adorned with consistent piety. 

When he, who, wandering from his native glade, 
In distant climes, o'er seas and realms has strayed ; 
Enriched his mind with images that rise "" 
'Neath tropic suns, or Oriental skies; 
Traced her lone way 'mid Alpine heights sublime, 
And mused with monuments of ancient time; 
Perceived new beauties on each winding shore, 
And filled his soul with ocean's awful roar, — 
Returns once more, to spend life's evening gray. 
Where first had dawned the morning of his day, — 
Then rise what new emotions in his heart, 
And raptures which no foreign scene could start! 
Then, as he mounts the last green hillock's side, 
That overlooks the hamlet of his pride. 
And first, since long, long years, that scene he views, 
Soft tinged in recollection's fondest hues, — 
How pleased he lingers,while his eye doth roam 
O'er the fair spot he calls his boyhood's home! 
Yon cottage, sleeping in the quiet shade, 
By arching elms in autumn foliage made; — 
There erst his pilgrimage of life begun, 
There, smoothly childhood's crystal current run. 
The grassy lawn, the woodbine o'er the door. 
Where oft he watched the hum-bird's flight of yore, 
Scarce changed, he fancies, since when last he heard, 
Beneath that vine, his mother's parting word, 
And felt the farewell kisa-of those most loved, — 
These wake a chord, that scarce since then had 

Ton hillside turned the noontide ray to meet. 
Where he had learned Spring's earliest steps to greet ; 
Where, basking in the warmest beams of May, 
He loved to trace the mimic flock at play; — 
The wooded glen, beneath whose tangled shade 
He culled wild flowers, and watched the rude cas- 
Where many a winding pathway knew his tread, 
And thick inwoven boughs waved o'er Lis head; — 

Yon sacred house of prayer, where early trained, 
From noisy mirth and idle word restrained. 
His I'ootsteps learned each Sabbath morn to stray, 
And his young heart to find the heavenly way. 
Such scenes he views, and as declining Day 
Sheds his last beams o'er all, then sinks away; 
He teels that here, beneath his native sky, 
'Twere sweet to live, and 'twould be sweet to die. 
And in yon churchyard, where his fathers sleep, 
There he would rest, that friends might o'er him 

Oh ! never may be mine the heart that feels 
No thrill of joy at memory's fond appeals! 
Nor mine the ej-e that views unmoved those dyes 
That tinge the dawning of life's eastern skies! 
For I do love to linger round each place. 
Where childhood's fleeting footsteps I may trace; 
There cherish fond remembrance of the past, 
Of sunny days that were too bright to last. 
These scenes the mind's Iiistoric leaves unroll, 
And wake the finer chords that thrill the soul. 



(native of Weybridge, resident at Stansteed, C. E.) 

Don't tell me of to-morrow, while memories of the 

Arrayed in all their loveliness, are gathering round 

me fast ; 
Are thronging till the heart is full of thankfulness 

and love. 
To think of all the countless gifts showered by the 

band above. 

Oh, speak not of the morrow, when the present mo- 
ments yield 

For duty, and for blessing, such a broad, extended 

When each passing hour is teeming with its wealth 
of peace and joy. 

Shall we dare to paint the coming day with less of 
earth's alloy? 

Don't tell me of to-morrow, — its brilliant hues may 

The brightest, dearest, loftiest hopes are oft the low- 
est laid; 

But let us live and labor, the list of good to swell, 

That each successive morrow may crown our efibrts 



The town of Whiting was duly chartered Au 
gust 6, 17G3, to 48 proprietors, mostly of Mas 
saehusetts, among whom were Capt. Nash, and 
Eliplialct, Asa, and John Whiting, from which 
circumstance the town received its name, — 
" Whiting." The charter, to be available to the 
grantcQS, must be improved and possessioned in 
10 years from the date, to a certain extent. We 
accordingly find them holding a proprietors' 
meeting in Wrcntham, Mass., October 6, 1772. 
More than 9 years having expired, they deemed 



it imperative foi- them to act at once. That 
meeting resulted in an agreement with one John 
Wilson, then of Upton, Mass., to obtain, includ- 
ing himself, 15 persons to make possession 
within 1 y^r, — i.e. within 10 years from date 
of charter. Wilson effected a survey of the 
tract before the close of that year, and before 
the next August took actual possession with sev- 
eral other families, among them a man by the 
name of Marshal. It is presumed there were 
less than 15 families in W. before the war, but 
immediately upon its close we find several per- 
sons, John Wilson, John Smith, and others, on 
the soil, contending for their rights against the 
grantees or a part of them, who, in March, 1783, 
held a meeting in Pittsford, the object of which 
was to oust those in possession, because they had 
not fulfilled the conditions imposed upon them, 
and accepted at the first meeting held in Wren- 
tham. October 16, 1783, measures were taken 
for a settlement of all difficulties between the 
Wilson settlers and the 20 proprietors. This 
difficulty settled, the way was soon opened for 
increased settlement. In the spring of '84 a 
considerable accession was made. Gideon 
Walker, the grandfiither of the writer, Maj. 
Samuel Beach and father and brothers from Rut- 
land, Ichabod Foster and a large family of sons 
from Clarendon, Jona. Conick, Luther Drury, a 
Mr. Hall, and others. The population was soon 
over 500. Maj. Samuel Beach, who had been 
a lieutenant in the revolutionary war, and who 
was with Ethan Allen when he surprised Ticon- 
deroga, was the first representative. John Smith 
and Maj. Samuel Beach were the first justices of 
the peace, the former the first proprietor and 
town clerk. Gideon Walker was the first mod- 
erator of the proprietors' meeting, held in Whit- 
ing. From the best information that can now 
be obtained, which is doubtless correct, Rachel 
Walker, a daughter of Gideon, was married at 
the age of 16 years to Aaron Beach, a brother 
of Samuel, in '84 or '85. Her first child, Noah 
Beach, was the first child bom in W., and was 
scalded to death in infancy. The first man that 
died was Elihu Smith, buried on an island, near 
the west bank of Otter Creek. I i-ecollect well 
to have seen his grave when a lad. There have 
been a number of persons that have lived to a 
great age in W. The oldest man was Gershom 
Justin, Sen, aged 100 or 101, — his son Gershom 
was about or over 90 years. Jenisha Washburn 
was an Inhabitant of W. till sb.e was 84 or 85 
years of age, then i-cmoved to Middlebury to live 
with a daughter, and died after outliving all her 
children and husband, at the age of 99 years. 
Elihu Kitcham was nearly 100 years of age when 
he died. The writer's mother lived till 90 years, 
less 5 months. Numbers extending 80 years are too 
numerous to mention. These facts furnish un- 
questionable evidence of the healthiness of the 

The first settled minister was a Baptist, by the 

name of David Rathbone, a lame man, who, 
from a child, could not walk without crutches, 
and when preaching always sat. He was settled 
in the spring of 1799, by the Baptist and Con- 
gregational churches in unisori. In 1788, I find 
the Congregationalists declared themselves a 
church, but that church was not, so far as the 
records ^ow, formally recognized as such, until 
February 13, 1799, and that was done by Rev. 
B. Wooster, then of Cornwall, and afterwards 
until his death, of Fairfield. The two churches 
united in settling Rev. David Rathbone, March 
28, following. The Baptist church was organ- 
ized 6 days later than the other, — the former 
had 10 and the latter 12 members. y 

In 1828 the Methodists commenced having cir- 
cuit preaching, which was continued up to 1 858 
with some slight intemiptions, but they now are 
too feeble to have any. Oct. 25, 1821, the 
Universalists organized a church, under the pas- 
torage of Rev. James Babbit, who ministered to 
them i of the time for several years. One 
of the members ultimately became a preacher 
and editor in Montrose, Penn. We have two 
meeting-houses, — one a union house, erected iu 
1811, but not entirely finished until 1823, the 
Universalists owning }. The other was erect- 
ed in 1843, dedicated in '44, and is owned 
exclusively by the Baptists. The Baptists have 
furnished one preacher, Rev. Levi Walker. 
The Congregationalists have quite lost their or- 
ganization. The names of the liberally educated 
men are as follows, and graduated in the order 
named, — to wit: Aaron Clark, Schenectady, 
N. Y., studied the profession of law, two 
years since mayor of the city of New York. 
Alvah, his brother, graduated at the same insti- 
tution. Willard L. Parker studied the profession 
of law, and died in early life. He was a good 
scholar. The latter were graduates of Mid- 
dlebury college. Ebenezer Wheelock, Esq., 
one of the early settlers, some under the 
first Constitution of Vermont, a member of 
the Council, and a man of good native talents. 
Whiting has had her share of enterprising busi- 
ness men, who have emigrated West. Among 
these are the Walkers of Chicago, 111., who 
have become wealthy. The Hon. Horatio Need- 
ham, of Bristol, was a native of Whiting; 
in 1849, was a candidate for Governor of the 
State, put in nomination by the free democrats. 
He is a man of good talents, who has done 
honor to himself. His, brother Joseph was a 
respectable physician, who, at his death, was a 
resident of the same place. Dr. John Branch, 
of St. Albans, a celebrated physician, was a na- 
tive of Whiting. Azariah Flagg, of Albany, N.Y., 
long a controller in that State, who was a son 
of Dr. Flagg, one, if not the first physician set. 
tied in Whiting. Suffer me to say that Whiting, 
although a small town, has ever had a set of in- 
dustiious, worthy inhabitants, and does not suffer 
in comparison with her neighbors, but it would 



be invidious to make further distinctions to no 
good purpose. Industry, frugality, and almost 
habitual temperance have ever characterized her 
inhabitants. The consequence has been thrift, 
and that nearly equally distributed. Kindness, 
charity, and good will, has characterized their 
bearing to each other in discharging the relative 
duties of life. She has manifested a warm devo- 
tion to the interests of common schools, and has 
furnished a large numBer of teachers. Her en- 
terprising daughters have found their way to the 
Southern States where they have been employed 
as teachers in the families of planters, some hav- 
ing planted themselves in the city of Rochester 
and adjacent villages, and some have even planted 
themselves in the capital of California, and are 
gaining golden honors, if not golden opinions. 
The first settlers of "Whiting were emigrarUs, 
mostly from Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 
and would not willingly acknowledge any man 
their master or concede to them one inalienable 
right, so dear to the Pilgrim Fathers and their 
descendants. They therefore hate oppression of 
every kind, and abhor slavery both of body and 
mind, and regard all slavish bondage as hin- 
drances to that just progress which alone can 
elevate the race to the true standard of human 
dignity, marked out for them by him who crea- 
ted them as the ultimatum of his beneficent de- 
sign, the only acme of true greatness and genu- 
ine worth. 



Father of all! — with grateful, loving hearts, 
We would return to thee our unfeigned thanks 
For all thy providential kindness shown, — 
By us so undeserved. 'Twas thou that life 
Bestowed, unasked, and health and strength pre- 
The sunshine and the rain, and gentle dews, 
Have all been scattered in our path, broad-cast, 
With liberal hand, alike on all bestowed. 
The Earth 's been made to yield her rich increase 
For beast as well as man. The teeming Earth 
Is full of thee, and utt'rance gives to thanks 
For what is now enjoyed, in radiant smiles 
That in delighted faces beam. Glories 
Supreme thy works reveal, as does thy word, 
All loving hearts to captivate, that trust 
In thee, come weal or woe, or frowns or smiles, 
Or pains or ease. These are but means to ends, 
Designed to better, moral aims subserve. 
No living thing that crawls, or walks, or runs 
Upon thine earth, or flits on buoyant wings 
The ambient air, or cuts the liquid wave 
With well-adjusted fins, but what does well 
Exemplify thy providential care, — 
The matchless wisdom of thy grand design 
To further universal good throughout 
Thy realm ; for every single pain we feel, 
The cup of ease is full : — for every pang 
Eemorse shall bring, our joys are manifold; — 
For ev'ry grating sound, a thousand strains 
Of music sweet shall thrill delighted ears. 
For every sight of haggard, homely form 
That meets the eye, does twice ten thousand meet 
That eye, that in unsullied beauty shine 

And freshly bloom to comfort and to cheer, — 
Impart new life to sorrow-stricken hearts 
That bleed, along the chequered path of life, 
Beset with good and ill. The balance shut 
Between man's weal and woe, his pain and ease,— 
His joys and griefs will ever vindicate 
The rich beneficence of God supreme 
For his paternal, kind, and loving care 
O'er all his wayward and degen'rate sbns. 
And that for their best good. His open arms 
Are ready to receive, — to smiling greet 
The prodigal's return : — the hungry feed, 
The naked clothe with spotless, fadeless robes, 
The light and life of love, that changes not. 
Impart through countless years, those loving smiles 
That only beam from his unclouded face, — 
Changeless, divinest face ; that only good 



Rev. Joseph W. Sawyer was bom in Monk- 
ton, May 6, 1794, the eldest of a family of 9 sons 
and a daughter. At. the age of 5 years he was 
hopefully converted, and joined the Baptist 
church, of which his father was pastor, when less 
than 15 years of age. His mind appears to have 
been soon directed to the ministiy, for at the age 
of 19 he commenced preaching in Fairfield. 
Soon after he united in marriage with Miss Sally 
Whitman of that place, who for more than 20 
years proved an effectual helpmeet for him in his 

Leaving Fairfield he removed to Hubbardton, 
and was there ordained, November 7, 1816. la 
1822 he removed to Whiting, was afterwards the 
pastor of churches in Brandon and Shaftsbury, 
Vt. ; Gonvemeur, Ogdensburg, Chautauque, 
Jay, and Saratoga, N. Y. and Augusta, Me.; and 
after an absence of 34 years he returned to 
Whiting, and labored 4i years, when death 
claimed him. 

Mr. Sawyer was a man of uncommon mental 
powers. In his youth he was very popular as a 
preacher, and few men have surpassed him as a 
public speaker. His style was terse and vigor- 
ous, his mode of reasoning logical and direct, 
and he fearlessly uttered the great truths of the 
gospel, always regarding himself accountable as 
one who must discharge his duty, but never for 
the use others make of the truth. 

Possessed of a vigorous constitution and an 
iron will, he never found himself destitute of 
something to do, — never had time to suffer of 
ennui. During the 46 years of his ministry he 
preached 9,870 sermons, of which some 500 were 
funeral sermons, and though not a city pastor, 
solemnized 314 marriages. 

In all his ministry he never failed to reach his 
appointments in all kinds of weather, and seldom 
during his ministiy neglected to preach on the 
Sabbath from sickness, and never was destitute 
of a place to preach. Mr. Sawyer lived to wit- 



ness some 20 revivals of religion where he la- 
bored, baptized 1,140 persons, of v^hom 9 became 
ordained ministers ; and yet, but a short time be- 
fore his decease, he said, " It does not tire me to 
preach, I can preach as well as ever I could." 

After the death of his first wife he married 
Miss Abigail Finch, at Saratoga, N. Y., who 
still survives. 

In 1 822 the corporation of Middlebury College 
conferred on him tlio honorary degree of Master 
of Arts, and in 1823 he was elected chaplain to 
the legislature of Vermont, and preached the an- 
nual sermon. He published several sennons of 
marked ability, but never was fond enough of 
show to mnkc himself conspicuous. The degree 
of D.D. liavingbcen tendered him by one of our 
colleges, he declined accepting it afterwards, giv- 
ing to some of his friends wlio interrogated him 
•in relation to his reasons for so doing, the char- 
acteristic answer, "il/y theology is not sick." 

Elder Sawyer preached with his usual vigor on 
the Sabbath, and died after a few hours' illness, 
June 26, 1859, aged 65 years. Shortly before his 
death he spoke of the fact that there had been no 
minister buried in the town since its settlement. 
Little did ho realize that he should be the first. 

Thus there.passed away one of the most gifted 
men in the ministiy or the State. 


Judge Walkee was born in Whiting in 
1810 ; graduated at Middlcbuiy College in 
1833; commenced the study of law the same 
year, and removed to Buffalo in 1835, where, in 
1836, he entci-ed upon the practice of his pi-ofes- 
sion. During the first years of his professional 
life, the greater number of his published poems 
were written. He died of (;holera in 1 850. At a 
meeting of the members of the Buffalo bar in com- 
memoration of his death, from among many res- 
olutions passed, we quote : " In the maturity of 
ripened powers, cultured and enriched by much 
nice and varied learning, just entered upon the du- 
ties of an honorable and responsible official station, 
in which studious habits, patience of examination, 
solidity of judgment, integrity, Pomtesy, and 
modesty gave assured promise of excellence, 
and walking before men blameless in the purity 
of his private life and domestic relations, our 
friend has been cut down and removed. We 
mourn his loss, and will cherish his memory." 

A volume of his poems, 12mo. 196 pp. were 
pi-inted. The book has a cluster of good tlyngs, 
but we have only space for two brief paragraphs. 


Life is a book of many pages, writ 
In characters that shall endure: and they 
Who trace upon its leaves of purest white, 
Signs visible to human eyes, should keep 
The record free from stain or blot, nor let 
A passage there be found, that is not well 

Approved of conscience and the laws of truth. 

• •**•■•• 

If in that volume there are pages more 
Than others bright, go read their contents through, 
And of the social feelings speak the praise. 
The air they breathe with sympathy is sweet; 
They go with charity to light the hearth 
Where rises, night and morn, the widow's prayer; 
The child of want they never can forget, — 
The homeless daughter, or the orphan boy. 

Where burn these feelings brightest? She thai 

The depth of woman's love can answer this; 
And when does she of those deep feelings show 
The loveliest, purest, best ? ' Jis when she gives 
Iler heart to be another's, trusting all 
To him that finds in her his highest joy. 
As when, with her baptismal vow, she gave 
Her soul to Heaven, she gives her love to him, 
With high and holy trust that shall not fail. 
Help him, angels of love, the precious boon 
To keep, and make him worthy of the gift. 
Their mutual faith, may virtue's power protect. 
And Hope to happiness shall lead the way: 
And Truth shall write the story of their joys, 
And it shall be the Book of Human Life. 


" Sweet Home! "—the scene of earthly joys,— 
Perchance of unremembered sorrow, 
How dear the hope my heart employs, 
Of viewing on some happy morrow! 

The bliss of earth that's born above, 
More dear to me than every other. 

Is nature's pure and pious love 
Of father, mother, sister, brother. 


And if among those names so dear, 
One may be fonder than another, 

Who gives for me a prayer, or tear, 
That one would be the name of mother. 


Our country! when shall kindling hope essay 

To cheer the dreamer's visionary hour, 

With words prophetic of the future day, 

That waits thy rising empire's boundless power! 

How grandly beautiful thy mighty floods; 

Uow terribly sublime thy darkened woods. 

Where climb to dizzy heights the mountain tower, 

And Solitude, in dusky robes arrayed, 

Holds full dominion o'er the melancholy shade. 


Who that hath seen, where stood the forest's pride, 
Uow cities rise where enterprise awakes. 
And o'er the wildly heaving billows ride 
With sweep sublime, the navies of the lakes, 
Shall see, throughout our wide extended land, 
The flame of Freedom brighten and expand, 
And feel the rapttfre on the soul that breaks. 
When o'er the works of art shall stand sublime, 
The Patriot's triumph, bright above the wreck of 


Gleeful, vivacious, bnght-eyed childi-en! like 
beautiful sunbeams whose genial rays are wel- 
comed by the inmates of the stately mansion or 
lowly cot ; sweet flowers ! scattered o'er earth's 
■wide domain, fragrant with wealth of innocence. 



pleasing to the grave and gay, and cheering to 
the hearts of the desponding, gambol on, little 
ones, skip and play, though the welkin ring 
with your meny sports. It gives elasticity to 
the spirits, and is necessary for physical develop- 
ment. Fulfil your child-mission, for all too soon 
earth's cares and toil^ will claim your powers of 
body and mind. And right eager are ye to reacli 
the point ; to assume its responsibilities ; but re- 
tain all possible of your innocent child-heart to 
assist in eartli's conflict. And we who have 
passed the bounds of childhood, will look on yc, 
and be learners still, taught, by your filial confi- 
dence, an unwavering trust in the heavenly 
Father, and reliance on him, who, while on 
earth, took httle children in his arms, and blessed 


Mrs. J. B. Barlow. 


My mountain home! I'd speak thee well, 
Each grassy nook, each shady dell, 
Where purling brooks and gushing rills 
With gentle music-murmur trills, — ' 

Each tow'ring peak 

Whence lightnings speak, 
Or leaping torrents wild and free, 
Have all a charm, — a charm for me. 

I love not thus the plain-land West, 
Where glowing sunbeams constant rest,— 
No hills are there to catch the gleam, 
And cast it back in golden sheen, — 

Yon mountain crest > 

In rainbows drest, 
Our landscape gives a changing dye 
With which the West can never vie. 

Let others talk of flower-lands fair, 
Of spicy groves and gem-bowers rare, 
Where buds of beauty ever blow, 
Unnipped by Winter's wind or snow, — 

A richer dower, 

Our rock-hung flower, 
Whose petals bright 'neath snow-pearls peep, 
To whisper hope,— and faith fresh keep. 

My mountain home ! so fair and free. 
Brave hearts are cradled here in thee: 
High thoughts both rock and hill inspire; 
For noble deeds the soul they fire! 

The tyrant's yoke 

Thy strong arm broke ; — 
Oppression from its seat was hurled. 
And Freedom's banner bright, unfurled. 

My mountain home! I'll love thee still; 
No other land my eye can fill ; 
As roots the pine to rock-bed strand, 
So clings my heart to this dear land ; 

Each towering peak, 

Whence lightnings speak. 
Or leaping torrents wild and free, 
Have all a charm, — a charm for me. 

Clara L. Smith. 


Addison Coxjntt was incorporated Oct. 18, 
•1785, and included Chittenden, Franklin, Grand 
Isle, and Lamoille coimties, 9 towns in Orleans, 

and 8 in Wasliington counties. Oct. 19, 1789, 
Granville was annexed, and on the 22d, Chit- 
tenden county incorporated, and Addison re- 
duced to 21 towns. Starksboro', Orwell, and 
a part of Goshen have been since added. Its 
geological properties will be described in a sub- 
sequent No.* 

Tlie farmers for the last 30 years have given 
special attention tp sheep husbandry ; and in 
the West it is generally admitted the sheep of 
Addison are superior to any other county. 
The most successful dealers extensively known 
East and West, are the Bingham brothers, 
Ilollin J. Jones, S. S. and S. B. Rockwell, 
of Cornwall, Wm. R. Sanford of Orwell, 
Messrs. Wm. S. and E. Hammond, cf Middle- 
buiy, and S. W. Jcwett, of Weybridgc. Mr. 
A. L. Bingham's sales alone, in 1850, amounted 
to between 30 and $40,000. The population in 
1850 was 26,579, of which only 25 native Amer- 
icans were reported who could not read, and no 
person has ever been convicted of a capital 
offence in the county. By the last census 
the improved land was 243,312 acres, unim- 
proved, 115,287, cash value of farms, farming im- 
plements, and live stock, $9,345,103. The first 
Agricultural Society commenced at an early 
day, soon declined for lack of legislative encour- 

The Addison County Agricultural So- 
ciety was organized at Middlebury, Jan. 22, 
1844. The first fair was held at Middlebuiy, 
Oct. 1, 1844; the fairs of 1845 and .47 at Vcr- 
genncs, and in 1849 at Shoreham; the others 
have all been held in IMiddlcbury, which place, 
since Jan. 1852, has been established as the per- 
manent location for the annual exhibition. Silas 
H. Jenison was the first president of the Society. 
Wm. R. Sanford is the present president. The 
FIRST Addison County Medical Society 
was organized Dec. 15, 1813, at Middlebiuy, 
Ebenezcr Huntington of Vergennes first presi- 
dent, and continued in full vigor until about 
1824, when a ruptui-o with the State Society 
ensued, which ended in the library being sold at 
auction to members of the Society, a withdrawal 
of several members by general consent, and 
finally, the last recorded meeting in October, 
1826. June 30, 1842, the society " was reorgan- 
ized by a convention held at Vergennes. Meet- 
ings are held semi-annually at Middlebury, 
" on Thursday of the first week of the County 
Court." Since the last organization the So- 

* When we promised a geological chapter for 
each county, it was with the encouragement of some 
of our first geologists, and the Addison chapter 
especially promised, but our legislature unexpected- 
ly deferring the publishment of our State geolog- 
ical surveys, shuts the door at present. It being 
deemed advisable to wait till the published "reports" 
may be rendered available, and a succinct digest of 
the same given, which it is now our intention to pub- 
lish in connectron wjth the smaller counties. 



cicty has been iu efficient and successful oper- 
ation ; first officers, Dr. J. A. Allen of Middle- 
bury, president ; Dr. D. C. Stone of Vergennes, 
vice-president ; and Dr. D. C. Goodale of Addi- 
son, secretary. The present president is Dr. E. 
D. Warner. 

" The Middlebury Histoeical Society 
was instituted in 1843. Hon. Samuel Swift 
has been president of the Society from the 
beginning, except 3 years. The Society has 
held at times monthly, at other times quarterly 
meetings, at which papers on historical subjects 
are read." Measures for the encouragement and 
procurement of town histories throughout the 
county were "commenced in 1847, and has 
been a leading object of the Society." Only two 
histories have yet been published, viz : Middle- 
bury and Salisbuiy. And in a tour through the 
county last fall, (1859,) we found only about 
one third of the towns with their material for this 
purpose gathered. Several towns had made no 
'movement in the matter, — and yet some of these 
towns sent in their historical chapters the most 

promptly. Wc state this fact as an encourage- 
ment to those counties and towns in which no 
movement of the kind has yet been made. 

The Historical Society has many Indian rel- 
ies, such as aiTOW-hcads, gouges, chisels, fire- 
hearths, &c. Indeed, upon historic research, it 
appears evident that the lands on the Champlain 
were owned by the Iroquis or Five Nations, 
(see Addison and Ferrisburgh chapters.) But 
it docs not appear that they had any permanent 
residence here after their retreat upon or about 
the time of the discovciy of the lake. The 
Mohegans also sold to Col. John Lydius a tract 
of land embracing most of the counties of Addi- 
son and Rutland, a map of which is in posses- 
sion of Henry Stevens, Esq., of BurUngton. 

For these items indebtedness is acknowledged 
to Mr. Battcll, History of Mr. Swift, and others. 
For a catalogue of county officers, for which we 
have not space here, see Demming's " Principal 
Officers of Vermont." Mistakes in the work, of 
any consequence, will be corrected at the end of 
the volume. 





The County of Bennington comprises seven- 
teen townships, and is divided into two shires, 
each shire constituting a Probate District. The 
towns in the North or Manchester Shire are 
Arlington, Dorset, Landgrove, Manchester, Pe- 
ru, Rupert, Sandgate, Sunderland and Winhall 
— those in the South Shire are Bennii gton, 
Glasteubury, Pownel, Readsborough, Sears- 
burgh, Shaftsbury, Stamford and Woodford. 

"When the government of New York first 
claimed to exercise jurisdiction over the terri- 
tory of Yermont, the lands in the present Coun- 
ty of Bennington were claimed as part of the 
County of Albany. In 17 72 that County was 
divided by Act of the New York Assembly, 
and the County of Charlotte constituted, which 
embraced nearly the whole of the present North 
Shire, being bounded southerlyby the South line 
of the New York grant of Princetown, extended 
easterly across the mountain and North to Can- 
ada. The County Seat of Charlotte County was 
established at Skenesborough, now Whitehall. 

Under the government of Vermont, which 
went into operation in March 1778, the State 
was divided into two counties by the ridge of 
the Green Mountains, the Western part consti- 
tuting the County of Bennington ; and the 
County was divided into two Shires, the South- 
ern embracing the whole of the present Coun- 
ty — being denominated the Bennington Shire. 

By act of Assembly, passed Feb. 13, 1781, 
the County of Rutland was formed out of that 
of Bennington, the South line of the new Coun- 
ty being identical with its present Southern 
boundary. At the same session an act was pass- 
ed declaring the towns of Bennington and Man- 
chester to be " half shires for holding courts in 
the County of Bennington, provided the (own 
of Bennington complete a jail by the first day 
of June next, and a Court House by the first 
of October next;" the courts to be held alter- 
nately in the two shires, and each constituting 
a separate Probate District. The court houses 
and j ils were subs; quently built in each of the 
shire towns, and tiie legislative arrangement 
then made lias continued to the present time. 
The C( unty Court sits at Bennington on the 

first Tuesday in December, and at Manchestsr 
on the first Tuesday of June in each year. The 
Supreme Court sits at Bennington every even 
jear, and at Mauchester every cdd year — at 
each on the Second Tuesday after the Fourth 
Tuesday in January. 



Arlington, lying not far from the middle of 
Bennington County, is so rough and uneven, 
that but a small portion of the town is fitted for 
arable purposes. A narrow strip of fertile land 
lies on the banks of the Battenkill,* which 
passes through the town by a south-westerly 
and westerly course. There is a somewhat wider 
strip on the east, between the Green Mountains, 
and what may be called the Equinox range. 

The Red Mountain and the West Mountain 
occupy by far the greater part of the town. 
These present a rugged barrier, almost impass- 
able except by a gap through which the river 
passes, apparently made by the rupture of the 
rocky strata caused by the primitive upheaval 
of the mountains. The passage made the 
mountains slope more gently, and the valley 
widens until, near the line of the state of N. York, 
it gets beyond the mountain system altogether. 

The broken fragments of slate and limestone, 
which lie on all sides of these two mountains 
have given origin to many sink-holes, or natural 
wells; the greater part of which have now be- 
come choked ; but several remain open. 

Thus, two-thirds of the distance from the riv- 
er to the top of the Red Mountain, a natural 
well is now found, which has been explored by 
a lead and line for a distance of 1 70 or 180 feet 
without finding a bottom. There is another, 
not as well known, at a much higher elevation, 
on the West Mountain, opposite. The cave 
mentioned by Thompson, in the N. E. corner 
of the town, is of a similar character ; its en- 
trance being at its side, near the bottom. It 
has been explored with torches, by climbing to 
the height of 75 or 80 feet without finding its 
top, and found to be a narrow well. 

* BattenkiTl is said to be a Dutch word, signifying 




There is also a tide spring, the ebb and flow 
of wliicli are distinctly marked; and several 
bloW'ing springs, one of ■which, it is said, will 
extinguish a candle at a considerable disance. 

The disintegrated slate and subjacent lime- 
stone, mingling with the drift and loam at the 
base of the mountains, have formed a rich soil, 
originally covered with maples, beech, butter- 
nut and oim. The mountain sides arc covered 
with chestnut, hickory, black and white birch, 
and several species of oak. A sandy tract at 
their base on the east was formerly covered 
with white pine. 

The limestone of this town is, for the most 
part, too silioious to be in demand. There are, 
however, several valuable marble quarries. 

In the fauna and flora of so small a district, 
very little may*be expected that is peculiar. — 
Deer were ydenty forty or fifty years ago, and 
in their track, wolves invariably followed. The 
remains of beaverdams prove that their curious 
builders once belonged to this part of the State. 
Bears are even now troublesome. The rattle- 
snake has always found a congenial homo 
among the rocks of the Red Mountain. 

The Tulip tree belongs, perhaps, to this town. 
A fine specimen, more than 60 feet high, on the 
farm of Zadock Hard, was blown down in the 
Spring of 1860. The cottonwood, after a long ab 
sence, is re-appearing on the line of the Railroad. 

The town of Arlington was chartered in the 
usual form by Gov. Wentworth, July 28, 1761 : 
of the Grantees* very few ever resided in the 
town. Their rights were for the most part in 
the hands of some half a dozen persons, who 
sold to settlers an 1 speculaters for the benefit 
of those concerned. 

A request having been made to Samuel Rob- 
inson, Esq., one of his majesty's justices of the 

* Dr. Samuel Marther, Nathaniel Searl, Daniel Cole, 
Noah Parsons, Caleb Strong, Daniel Ilorsford. jr.,Elieue- 
zer Clark, Ebenezer Strong, Theodore Atkinson, Esq., 
James Lyman, Joseph Allen, Mark II. Wentworth, Esq, 
Medad Edwards, Israel Burt, Maj. John Wentworth, 
EphraiBi Parsons, .Tona. Strong, Samuel Wentworth of 
Boston, Elisha Searl, David Beebe, Benning Wentwortli, 
John Parsons, John Landen, Wiseman Clagget, Samuel 
Janes, Ilezekiah Jones, John George Griggor, Nathan 
Lyman, John Dean, Samuel Roberts, Jona. Bascomb, 
Jona. Kilborn, Henry Barns, Eben'rPomroy, Jona. Kil- 
born, jr., Ober Lampson & Henry Young, Hcz'r AVrii,'ht, 
Benjamin Culver, John Ilorsford, jr., John Horsford, 
jr., Daniel Horsfo d, Josiah Ilorsford, Jedediah Smed- 
Icy, Increase Clark, Abraham Dibble, John Smedloy 
William Horsford, Timothy Wright, Jeremiah Ilorsford, 
William Warner, Abraham Hollcnbeck, Isaac Searl 
He/.ekiah Jones, Samuel Curtis, Asahel Beebe, James 
Searl, Nehcmiah Smedley, John Beebe, Esq., James 
Boebe, John Searl, Ebenezer Hunt, Moses Kingsley. 

peace for the province of New Hampshire, by 
the owners of more than one-sixteenth part of 
the rights and shares of land in the township 
of Arlington, a proprietor's meeting was called 
by him, Sept.' 10, 1762, to be holden in Pownal, 
at the house of Isaac ^Vernernum, Oct. 22, 
1762. At the mee'ing held on that and the 
following days, John Searl was appointed mod- 
erator, and Isaac Searl, John S.-arl, William 
Searl, Stephen Divis and Simon Burton, a com- 
mittee "'to lay out the township of Arlington, 
and part thereof into lots, that is, two lots to 
each proprietor's rigiit, one of one acre, and one 
of one hundred acres." Gideon Searl and Eb- 
enezer "Wallis were appointed " to attend the 
said committee to make camps, take care of 
horses, and cook." Chose Isaac Searl proprie- 
tor's collector and treasurer — " Voted to raise 
four dollars on each proprietor's right to defray 
the charges of laying out the town, and the 
first two divisions, on the first and second divis- 
ion, and to clear roads." Richard Stratton, Eb- 
enezer Wallis and'John Searl, chosen assessors. 

At a meeting held Dec. 21, of the same year, 
at the same pl;ice. "William Searl, Simon Bur- 
ton and Stephen Davis, were appointed " to lay 
out and clear -roads in the town." 

At this meeting "the committee and survey- 
or, Samuel Robinson, jr-, who were employed 
in laying out the town, and first and second di- 
vision, made their report and returns to the 
meeting; which were accepted. Draft was 
made for the second division of 100 acres."* 

The next meeting of the proprietors was held , 
by adjournment in Arlington, June 1, 1763, at 
the house of William Searl, a log dwelling, sit- 
uated a little to. the north of the present beau- 
tiful mansion of Sylvester Doming, Esq. At 
this meeting — " Voted to give a bounty to the 
first ten settlers that settle iu this town in one 
year; that is, six pounds to the first, five 
pounds ten shillings to the second, and decreas- 
ing ten shillings to each of the ten, which will 
be one pound ten shillings to the tenth settler." 

The two subsequent adjourned meetings, on 
the 19lh of Oct. and the 2d ef Nov. were de- 
voted to settling the expense hitherto incurred. 
It was then provided, that warnings for future 
meetings be put up by the clerk, one in Arlington, 
one in Bennington, and one in West Hoosick. 

Inasmuch as the settlement now for the first 

* There is no record of the first division of one acre 
to each Proprietor. There was a first division of 100 
acres, a seond of 50 acres, a third of 10 acres, and a 
fifth of 50 acres. 



appears to have acquired an iiidcpenUc-iit awd 
permanent existence, let us pause and consider 
its general appearance. 

A few l.ardy pioneers liad overcome the ob- 
stacles presented by an unbroken wilderness. 
A rude road, Nortii and South, had been con- 
structed, passable for an ox-team. The town 
was covered with a dense forest. In a small 
clearing north of the present Arlington villnge, 
where, perhaps, the trees were not originally 
quite so thick, were a 'few log houses inhabited 
by the Searls and tlieir families. Dr. Simon 
Burton's house was on the road to Shaftsbury, 
near the present dwelling of Jonas Holden. — 
Ebcnezer Wallace lived on the place now oc- 
cupied by Mrs. Bosworth and her daughters. 
A brother or brothers of Ebenezcr Walli-s lived 
near the north line of Shaftsbury, A family 
by the name of Peck had a house a liltle north 
of the place f'ormerl}'- occupied by Nathaniel 
Canfield. Of the first company who came into 
the town, these appear to have been tlie only 
permanent settlers. The others were either 
discouraged by the prospect of hardsliip and 
privations, or they were merely land specula- 
tors, who, after locating their claims, went else- 

In the Spring of the next year, IT 64, the in- 
fant settlement was re-inforced by a number of 
valuable families, viz: Capt. Jehiel Ilawley, 
from Newtown, Ct., who located on the spot 
afterwards occupied by Gov. Chittenden, now by 
S. M. West; his brothers : Abel, from Newtown, 
Ct., who located in the place now occupied by 
F. S. Canfield ; Jonah, who located near the 
place now occupied by Orau Hard; and Gide- 
eon — Phineas Hurd, of Newtown, Ct., who lo- 
cated in the place now occupied by A. Hanna- 
man ; Isaac Bisco, from do., located in East Ar- 
lington ; Samuel Adams, from do., located in W. 
Arlington; Ebenezer Leonard, from do., locat- 
ed in the place now occupied by Anson Can- 
field ; Zacheus Mallory, Thomas Peck — James 
Fume, from Newtown. Ct., located N. E. of A. 
S. Canfield; Prindle and otiiers, from the same 
pi^ioe : Remember Baker, from Roxbury, Or., 
joiuerl thani with the hope of making Iiis trade, 
Hhat of a millwright, mutually advantageous.* 

At a Proprietors' meeting. May IG, 17G4, 
(the first after the arrival of Capt. Hawley,) we 
find the following record : 

" 1. Chose Capt Jehiel Ilawley Moderator. 

* Baker's Mother wag Tamar Warner, an Aunt of 
Col. Seth Warner. Remember Baker and Hthan Al 
len were also first Cousins. Jo-iab Hawlej''s wiTe was 
a Sister of Col. Seth WArnee. 

" 2. Voted tiiat the Proprietors will give fif- 
ty acres of land to any ni.nn who wi'l set up a 
Grist-Mill on a stream about East from Simon 
Burton's dwelling-house, and about one hun- 
dred rods distant, if said Mill be up and fit to 
grind by the first day of November, IT 05. — 
The Proprietors vote to let the fifty acres for 
encouragement, be the land lying cast of Si- 
mon Burton's, No. 55 ; said land containing 
the said stream, and running to Sunderland 
line; and the remainder of tlie fifty acres to 
be laid on undivided land adjoining divided 
land, and further voted to give tiie Mill-place 
and all tlie appurtenances and profit tliat may 
arise, or thereto belonging." 

Tliis offer of the Proprietors was accepted 
by Remember Baker, who built, after some de- 
lay, a grist- iji ill and saw-mill very near the 
placo where the Grist-mill at East Arlington 
now stands. At the same meeting it was " v( t- 
ed, tliat Jehiel Hawley have the care of the 
public rights." 

From iTGa to 1780 the following persons, 
with their families, moved into town : 

— Seely, from , and located on Maple Hill. 

Capt. David Watkins, " 

George and ) ^ . 
Daniel [O^^man, 

Caleb Baton, f 'm N. Milford, Ct. 

Jonah Dayton, " 

Lemtiel Buck, " 

David Buck, " 

Daniel Burritt, " 


Apdrew Burritt, " 

South part of 

" "W. Arlington. 

" E. Ailington. 

" McKec-place^ 
W. Arlington^ 

" near Abel) 
Benedicts. ) 


N. of M.C.Hall s. 

N of Branch Bridge. 

" W. Arlington. 

Israel Burritt, 

Mitch ill. 

Pitman Benedict, 

Nathan Canfield, 

Israel Canfield, 

James Hard, 

David Crofut, " " 

Capt. John Gray,from England, " S.E.ofS.IIard 

Zadock Hard, " Newtown, Ct. " Cyrus S. Hard 

Eliakim Stoddard, "Woodbury, Ct., E. Arlington. 

The inhabitants of this town purchased their 
land in good faith, as under New Hampshire, 
with the intention of providing permanent 
hom( s for themselves and their families. They 
found themselves straitened in Connecticut. — 
In the new state they would have room for tfie 
exercise of whatever agricultural skill the^ 
possessed, and for expa,nsion. 

There were, indeed, some who came into the 



lown for the purpose of taking up land on spec- 
ulation. Their names are found on tiie record 
of many of our towns; but inasmuch as tiieir 
stay was short, and when they removed they 
left no permanent impress behind them, it 
seems scarcely proper to encumber this sketch 
with an}^ particular account of them. Some of 
theso persons, indeed, were men of high mor- 
al and public worth — men who have acquired 
a distinction which the people of the State and 
of the country will not allow to be forgot- 
ten. An account of them and of their deeds 
will undoubtedly be found in the history of the 
towns which have a better right to share their 
high renown. 

Desiring to make a permanent settlement for 
their families, we have seen that the first busi- 
ness of tlie settlers, in the Spring of 1764, was 
to provide for the erection of a Grist and Saw- 
Mill. Their crops were then got in. In the 
Summer the Proprietors got together and voted 
that the roads, which were scarcely passable 
for teams, should be cleared and made, the N. 
and S. road, four rods, and all others three rods 
wide. The next Summer, the mills not having 
been built as was expected, to quiet dissatis- 
faction, Capt. Hawley gave bond that a Grist 
Mill should be set up by a given time. 

Certain proprietors named in the charter, re- 
sidmg in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 
being dissatisfied with the taxes laid for the 
purpose of defraying the expenses of surveying 
tha town and making public improvements, 
Capt. Samuel Adams went to Boston, for the 
purpose of explaining matters, and satisfying 
the complainants. Not succeeding in his mis- 
sion as well as was anticipated, Capt. Hawley 
was, in the Autumn of 1765, appointed "agent 
to go to Boston and elsewhere, if he think prop- 
er, on the Proprietors' business." Capt. Haw- 
ley fulfilled his mission satisfactorily — purchas- 
ing the rights of the disaffected, when neces- 

The same disposition to remove every source 
of future trouble may be seen in the appoint- 
ment Dec. 3, 1767, of Capt. Hawley " Propri 
etors' Agent to go to Stockbr-idge to treat with 
the Indians concerning our land." 

Of the nature of this Indian claim we have 
no knowledge : tradition only relates that 
tliere were Indians residing near the N. W. cor- 
ner of the town, who may have bc-en connect- 
ed with those at Stockbridge. 

The settlers were actively engaged in secur- 
ing the necessaries of life — iu laying out and 

improvmg the lands tliay had purchased. Some 
of them were sending for their wives and 
younger children, prudently left in Connecticut 
for a season. Some were sending for their 
brothers and sisters, their friends and nciglibors. 
Not a doubt appears to have passed over the 
minds of any of them as to the validity of their 
land title. When, by a decision of the crown, 
July 20, 1764, the territory was adjudged to 
be undor the jurisdiction of XewTork, the set- 
tlers were apparenll}- content; supposing that 
the "great seal" of a royal Governor was a 
suflQcient guaranty that their titles would not 
be disturbed. If their estates were secure, and 
tliey had been comnelled to choose between the 
two jurisdictions, it is probable that nearlj' ev- 
ery one, who had material interests "at stake, 
would have proferred to reman under New 
York. The more influential of the early in- 
habitants of Arlington were men who appre- 
ciatei the advantages of living nnder law. — 
They from the first disliked tlio attempt to gov- 
ern a people by means of armed bands, author- 
ized by "committees of safety." Baker, in- 
deed, was their own townsman, and had the 
full confldenco of the settlers ; and the two 
Warners of Bennington were connected by mar- 
riage with the Hawleys of this town. These 
were Allen's captains, and were regarded in no 
other li;iht than as friends. Yet the powers 
entrusted to theso mcH were so great, that pru- 
dent men might well doubt whereunto they 
would grow. Wliile, however, tliey were em- 
ployed in the removal of New York intruders, 
there were no complaints. When Remember 
Baker was arrested at his hou^e in East Arling- 
ton, on the 22d March, 1772, by Justice Mun- 
roe, (who lived in what is now called West 
Shaftsbury, ) several of the inhabitants of Ar- 
lington turned out and assisted in his rescue. 
The account taken fiom the Connecticut Cour- 
ant by DePuy, written by Ethan Allen, is so 
characteristic, that it will bear a repetition in 
this place. 

"This wicked, inhuman, most barbarous, in- 
famous, cruel, villainous and thicvi-:h act was 
perpetrated, committed and can ied into execu- 
tion by one Jol.n Munro. a reputed Justice of 
t!.o Peace living near tnat place, witli a number 
of ruffians, his neighbors — who, after a Lord's 
day conuT 'tulatian in pUjtting this wicked and 
horrid de-sign, surprised the said Baker in !)is 
said dwelling house, about the lirst appearance 
of mornin.i; iiu'hi, on the said 22d dayof March, 
and, after making an attempt to disch irge their 
fire-arms tlirough the said Baker's house, and 
finding ilieir fire-arms missing fire, said Munro, 



with his attendants, did with axes forcibly break 
and enter the said Bilker's house, and -with 
weapons of death, spread destruction round 
the room, cutting with sword and bruising with 
fire-arms and clubs men, women and childrtn, 
swearing by — * he would have Baker dead or 
alive, and that he would burn the house, Baker, 
wife and children, and all the effects ; and, to 
compass and bring this villainous scheme into 
execution, did, wi h his own wicked and rebel- 
lious hand, convey fire from the hearth in siiid 
house to a cupboard in the room ; it being the 
most convenient place to answer his intentions ; 
when all on a sudden, as quick as a flash, a Ju- 
das spirit, that of gain and plunder, ovebalanc- 
ed his wicked noddle. This being agreid on, 
he instantly thrust his sword at Mrs. Baker, 
with an intention to have ended, at that instant, 
her life, (as he has since confessed,) when her 
right arm, near her elbow joint, for that time, 
happily preserved her from the intended mur- 
der. Others in the mean time, his attendants, 
were mauling, beating, and bruising his child- 
ren. Mr. Baker having at that time posted 
himself in his chamber for the better security 
of himself, family and effects, finding their mal- 
ice, oaths and imprecations principally levelled 
at his person, thought most proper to leave liis 
chamber, thinking tlierebyto draw the murder- 
ers after him, and so give his family, in their 
wounded circumsiances, a better opportunity 
to save themselves f om impending ruin and ut- 
ter destruction, accordingly burst a board from 
the gable end of the house, and leaped out ot 
the window he had by that means made, when 
part of the ruffians, by the said justice's com- 
mand, were ordered (after firing on said Baker, 

and saying three times successively him, 

he is dead) to set on him a large, spiteful, wil- 
ful, and very malicious dog, educated and 
brought up agreeably to their own forms and 
customs ; who, being like these other servants 
of the devil at that time all obedience, seized 
the said Baker, and being instantly joined by 
these his cruel partners, bound and pinioned 
him so fast that he was unable to use or make 
even the least resistance in defence of himself, 
his unhappy wounded wife, or his poor helpless 
distressed children. 

" And not being as yet satisfied with their 
own unlawful proceedings, and their thirst for 
blood not being quenched, the better to enhance 
and increase their horrid crime, and procure 
a full charge of hiUTian blood, to quench their 
unnatural thirst, did convey tiie said Baker to 
the carriage in which he rode ; where, in his 
confined state, tiie i-aid John did, with his at- 
tendants, Tomahawk, cut and slash in spots, 
that their eyes might see a life languish out by 
degrees in drawing of blood, while they did 

with a at almost every breath, laugh 

him in the face, to express their satisfaction in 
his agonizing groans. 

" In this awful and lamentable situation, al- 
most on the verge of eternity, by means of the 
bruises, cuts and great effusion of blood, said 
Baker, with a voice according to his strength, 
called for his clothes, as he was yet naked from 

* The oaths are omitted. 

his bed, who was denied them by the said Jus- 
tice, which, aft*r several strokes with his naked 
sword over said Baker's naked face and eyes, 
and breaking the same in three pieces, and 

gave him thi.s reflection, that him, he ■ 

would cioath liim as a traitor, which 

aggravating threat gave them a n-wlife to their 
beloved revenge. Thus they continued him in 
his naked journey for the space of four miles 
and a half, with many cruel words and hard 
blows, stopping his breath with handkerchiefs 
till almost .^uffoeated, lest he should apply to 
some person for relief 

'•The said Justice and attendants had taken 
what of the effects belotiged to the house, he 
and they thought worthy their present affright- 
ed notice; although they would in probability 
have been more faithful in the pros cution of 
self and worldly gain, had they nut have feared 
a surprise in .so unchristian an act. They pur- 
sued their journey with sevei e words and cruel 
tbrei'ts as though resolved to take a full swing 
and make an ample feast of human cruelty un- 
til pursued by three pei sons loyal and faithful 
subjects to the Crown of Great Britain, whose 
banner they mean ever more to live and die 
under, and after inquiring for the preservation 
of the life of said Baker, were immediately fired 
on by several of Munro's party and robbed of 
wh.'it interest he had with him, to tlie value of 
forty dollars, as a fresh sip and recruit to their 
hellish demand. These distressing tidings be- 
ing soon spread on the premises, incensed the 
innocent inhabitants, and for the preservation 
of Baker, his fatnily, and their own pcrsonsfam- 
ilies and effects, some of them did pursue the 
said carraige about tiiirty miles, and when said 
John with his attendants, being savage like, 
conscience struck and condemned, run and hid 
themselves so private that it is not known by 
his or their acquaintances wliere they have been 
ever since i leaving the said Baker with very 
little remains of life, unable to fight for himself, 
who willingly in his capacity accepted of mer- 
cy which he had been so long a tianger to. 

" The foregoing contains but a very short, 
though true account of the barbarous conduct 
of the said John towards the said Baker ana 
fimily, and such conduct exercised by a pre- 
tended civil magistrate rather must be dishon- 
orable a reproach, shame, disgrace, &c., on the 
laws, restrictions, regulations, peace, manners, 
good order and economy, both of the Laws of 
God and Man. The above and much more can 
be attested with good authority as man\^ worthy 
persons were eye witnesses of the said tragedy. 
The robbery has since been confessed by the 
said Justice and he has promised to make 

In the account communicated by this savage 
Justice Munro, to the Governor of New York 
tlie names of those who rescued Baker are a3 
follows. (See Doe. Hist. N. Y. Vol. 4.) 

Joseph Bradley, Lemuel Bradley, Jesse Saw- 
yer, Isaac Vernernum, Abel Castle, Jr., Curtis 
Eawley* Elisha Sherman, Fhilo JIurlbut, Abi- 

* The names of those from Arlingtou are in italics. 



jah llurd, Ebeniszer W'aUis, John Whistoii, Aus- 
tin Seda, Justice Sherwood, Caleb Henderson. 
To those, tradition adds several others. 

From the folio-wing letter (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
Vol. 4, p. 800,) it appears that the people of 
Arlin;:;t!)n, jealous, perhaps of the growing in- 
fluence of Bennington, had united with- those 
who wished to have the County Court held at 
fckeuesborough, ( Whitehall.) , 

mr. iiawley to col. skene. 

Manchester, Oct. 21, 1772. 

Sii-: — The dillorent inhabitants from the 
Township under New Hampshire had a meet- 
ing hf re by their Proprietors, and have come to 
a resolution of sending me as th'ir ag:nt to so- 
ciety matters relative to tlie old Grants, &c. 
By tlie general sonse and wishes of the people, 
I "find them dosimus that the County Court 
should be held at Skenosborough ; it being be- 
yond dispute the best sii nation for trade, &c., 
some desigiing people of Bennington that at- 
tempt to lead, have over awed many that would 
be glad to present, a petition ; but as this meth- 
od of a letter may have the same wci;4ht with 
his Excellency Governor Tryon, I therefore as 
their agent sign this. 

Jeiiiel Hawley. 
To Col. Philip Skene, 

Fob His Excellency Gov. Tryon. 

From a letter of Esq. Munro, to Gov. Tryon, 
dated Nov. 2-1, 1772, it appears that John Searl 
of Arlington, and Co:iifort Carpenter of Shafts- 
bury, were convicted as counterfeiters, both by 
the possession of coining apparatus, and by 
their own confession. Tliey had been arrested 
by Munro, but in consequence of the unpopu- 
larity of the Justice, were suffered by, his aids 
to escape. 

On the 25th day of Nov. 1773, Jacob Marsh 
on his return from New Tork, to his place of 
abode at Socialboro, (Clarendon) was stopped 
by Capt. Seth Warner and Remember Baker, 
and tried at the public l-.ouso ke]>t by Abel 
Hawley, iu that | ait of Arlingtoa now called 
Water St. The following affidavit from the 4th 
Vol. of the Doc. liist. of N. Y. needs no ex- 
planati m. 

"Charlotte County, ss., Jacob Marsh of 
Charlotte County, Esq., one of hi-5 Majesty's 
Justices to keep' the peace in said county as- 
signed, being duly sworn on the Holy Evangel- 
ists deposeth and saith that on Thursday the 
twcnty-fi.t'.i day of November last past as he 
tlie deponent was on a j mrney returning from 
the City of New York to his place of abode in 
Socialboiough in the said County of Charlotte, 
he was m t by one Philip Perry, near the house 
of Abel Hawley, in Arlington. That said 
Philip Perry liad a gun whicii he held up and 
c eked and ordered the deponent to stand, 
a-.:d not '_ o further and threatened to shoot the 
deponent if he went further. That the said 

I'hilip Perry then called to his associates who 
were in the house of the said Abel Hawley and 
told them that he had taken a prisoner. That 
a number of men came out of the said house 
and ordered the deponent 'Into the said house. 
That the deponent believes that the number of 
men there assembled were upwards of thirty. 
That many of the persons there iissemb'ed al- 
ledged that they had lieavy crimen to alledge 
against the defendant aud that Seth Warner 
and Remember Baker (who are Captains of the 
Mob) appointed tliree pcr^^ons to sit as Judges 
and try the deponent. That they appointed 
Samuel Tubbs, Nath'l Spencer, and the said 
Philip Perry to be the deponent's Judges. 
That when the said Judges were appointed tliey 
went into a room by themselves and being 
jilaced on a bench the deponent was brought 
before them under a guard of armed men. 
That Geth Warner then accused the deponent 
with having purchased lands undei' the title de- 
rived by and unxler his Majesty's grant under 
the great seal and jurisdiction of the colony of 
New York and of discouraging settlers from 
settling iu the said Colony or Province under 
titles derived by the New Hampshire Grants, 
and further accused tlie deponent with having 
accepted the commission of a Justice of the 
peace in the said County of Charlotte and of 
having qualified and acted as a Justice of the 
peace in pursuance thereof T'nat Remember 
Baker then charged the deponent with the same 
offenses as he called them, and f;irther charged 
other deponents with having reproved him for 
damning the Governor of the Province of New 
York its Government and Laws and threatening 
to proceed as a Magistrate against him the said 
Baker for swearing and blasphemy.' Tliat the 
said Baker farther alledged that the deponent 
should be adjudged by the said Judges to be 
wliipped for having acted in his office as a Mag- 
istrate after he had been forewarned and forbid- 
den so to do by him the said Remember Baker. 
That lie the deponent was then ordered to make 
his defence which, when he litid done he was 
removed from before tiie said appointed Jud^'cs 
and kept under a guard until he was called to 
hear judgment. Tiiat the deponent was then 
charged and directed by the judgment of said 
Judges which was in writing and read to him by 
the said Seth Warner, in their presence and by 
their order, tithe following eflfeet, "Not to, en- 
courage anj' Settlemjimt by persons settling un- 
der the Titles derived under the Government of 
New Yoik but to discourage such settlement; 
not to discourage any persons settling under 
Titles derived from grants made by the Govern- 
ment of New Hampshire, and not to act as a 
Justice of the peace by virtue of any commis- 
sion under the Government of New York upon 
the pain of having his house b'lrneu an 1 reduced 
to ashes and his person punished at their pleas- 
ure." That the said Judges and the Mob as- 
sociUes tlien con-ented to dismiss the depo- 
nent and gave bim a certificate a due copy 
whereof is in the word aud figuring following, 

Arlington, Nov. 26, A. D. 1773. These may 
Sertify that Jacob Maish hath been Examined, 



had on fair trial. So that our mob sha!l not 
meddle fartlier with him as long as he behaves. 
Sartified by us his Judges, to wit: 
Teste, Samuel Tu^a 

Ct. Seth Warned Nathaniel Spencer. 
Philip Perry. 

That the said Remember Bnk°r who Iiad fre- 
quently insisted to have the deponent adjudged 
to be whipped when the deponent was dismiss- 
ed, threatened liiui, cursed him, and promised 
to punisli him tiie deponent if he should ever 
meet liim and have an opportunity. That 
when the deponent arrived at his own house 
he found tliat tlie same Mob or company liad 
been to his house in his absence and had taken 
off the roof of his liouse. and that he the depon- 
ent was informed and verily believes that only 
the inter|iosition of some of his friends prevent- 
ed them from burning the roof of the house after 
it was taken off; That they destroyed several 
buslicls of corn, spl t a number of boards and 
did him some other damages. Tliat he the de- 
ponent has been informed tliat John Smith and 
Peleg Sunderland (both of Soeialborough) were 
Captains or Leaders of tlie Mob, who had been 
at his house, and Benjamin Cooley and one Sil- 
vanus Brown, their Lieutenants, or next in 
command and mischief and that the company 
then with them amounted to forty or fifty arm- 
ed men. And the deponent fartiier saith that 
he verily believes that if he should act in his 
office of a Justice of the peace in the said coun- 
ty of Charlotte, that his effects and property 
wonhl be destroyed by the said Mob or some 
of them as far as would be in their power; and 
that his life would be in danger, and furtlier the 
deponent saith not. JACOB MAR'^IT. 

Sworn this sixtli day of Decembrr, 1773, be- 
fore me John McKesson, Not. Pub." 

In 1774, Dr. Samuel Adams of this town, a 
man who held his lands under a title from New 
Hampshire and had acted ofScially under "the 
authority of "Rew Hampshire as late as Nov. 
25, 1773, exasperated his neighbors by advis- 
ing them to re-purchase their lands from New 
York. Tie was arrested and carried to the 
Green Mountain Tavern at Bennington, where 
the committee heard his defence and then order- 
ed liim to be tied in an arm chair and hoisted 
wp to tlie sign {a catamount akin dvffed sitting 
upcii iJie sign post, twenty -Jiuc feet from the ground 
with la7-ge teeth grinning towards Nevj ror/i;,)and 
there to hang two hours, in sight of the people, 
as 'a punishment merited by his enmity to the 
rights and liberties of the inhabitants of the 
New Hampshire grants. The judgment was 
executed to the no small merriment of a large 
concourse of people. Tlie Doctor was let down 
and dismissed by the committee, with an ad- 
monition to go and sin no more."* 

Jan. 26, 1775, Benjamin Hough of Durham, 
(Clarendon) a Baptist minister who had just 

* Allen's History, from State Papers. 

obtained a justice commission from New York 
was arrested, and four days afterwards, tied by 
Ethan Allen, to an apple tree in front of his 
house in Sunderland, and whipped, in pursuance 
of a sentence of the "committee of safety," then 
in session at Sunderland. The act was wit- 
nes.sed by many of the inhabitants of Arlington 
with approbation ; two, at least of the execu- 
tioners of the sentence, viz: — Abel Benedict 
and Jesse Sawyer, being inhabitants of this 

Enough has been given to show both the 
temper of the times and the fact that up to this 
period no division of sentiment in regard to 
matters of public policy had taken place. 

It was high time that something should be 
done to appease the growing storm. As early 
as October 21, 1772, at a meeting of deputies 
of Bennington and the adjacent towns, held at 
Manchester, Jehiel Hawley and James Breck- 
enridge, were appointed their agent to repair 
at once to London fur the purpose of soliciting 
a confirmation of the New Hampshire Grants. 

Hawley was chosen on account of his being 
a large proprietor, a prudent man, and one who 
was favorable to remaining under the jurisdic- 
tion of New York. The fact moreover that he 
and the people represented by him were for 
the most part decidedly attached to the Church 
of England may have had its weight. 

The New Hampshire charters contained a 
alause, reserving "One whole share for the In- 
corporated society for propagating the Gospel in 
foreign parts ; one whole share for a Glebe for 
the Church of England as by law establiohed ; 
one share for the first settled minister of the 
Gospel, and one share for the benefit of a 

When therefore it was proposed to annul the 
New Hampshire charters it was represented, 
among other dissuasives, that the Church of 
England would thereby suffer serious detri- 
ment. Samuel Robinson of Bennington, for him- 
self and others, and the " society for the propa- 
gation of the Gospel in foreign parts," presented 
together their respective petitions relating to 
this matter to " the Lords of the committee of 
council for Plantation affairs" which resulted in 
the fol'owing important order. 

order op the king in council. 
Forbidding the Governor of New York to 
make grants of any lands already patented by 
New Hampshire, at the court at St. James, the 
24ih day of July, 1767. Present, 

* Charter. 



The Kings' most Excellent Majesty. 

Archbishop of Canterbu- 
Lord Chancellor, [ry, 
Duke of Queensbury, 
Duke of Anoarter, 
Lord Chamberlain, 
Earl of Litchfield, 
Earl of Bristol, 

Earl of Slielburne, 
Viscount Talmoutli' 
Viscount Barrington, 
Viscount Clare, 
Bishop of Lendor, 
Secretary Conway, 
I Hans Stanley, Esq. 

Whereas there was this day read at ihe Board, 
a Report from the Rt. Hon. the Lord of the com- 
committee of Council f )r plantation affairs, dated 
the 30th of last month in the words following, viz : 
" Your Majesty hiving been pleasod to refer 
unto this committee the humble Petition of the 
Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign parts, setting forth among 
other things, ihat BcnningWentworth, Esquire, 
Governor of New Hampshire, in New England 
made several grauts of large tracts of laud lying 
on the west side of Connecticut River whicli 
were incorporated into above one hundred 
Townships, and several shares were reserved in 
each of the said grants to the petitioners for a 
Glebe for the Church of England, and for the 
benefit of a Scliool. That the Government of 
New York, having claimed the said land and 
the jurisdiction thereof, granted great part of 
those lands without reserving auy share for the 
above mentioned Public uses; and therefore 
the Petitioners pray that the grants made by 
the Government of New Hampshire may be 
ratified and conformed a rud3 order made there 
upon as to your Majesty should seem meet — 
and your M ajesty having been otherwise pleasod 
to refer unto this committee the humble peti- 
tion of Samuel Robinson of Bennington, in North 
Ameiica, on behalf of himself and more ihau one 
tliousand other Grantees of Lands on the west 
side of Connecticut River, under certain grants 
issued by the said Governor of New Hampshire. 
Setting forth among other things that the said 
Governor made grants to the petitioners of sev- 
eral tracts of land lying as aforesaid on the 
western side of the Connecticut River, whicli 
were incorporated into above one hundred 
Townships and supposed to lie within the Gov- 
erumeni of New Hampshire, whereupon the 
petitioners expended large sums of money in 
settling and cultivating the same. That on 
the 20th of July 1764, the said lands having 
been declared byyour Majesty to lie within the 
Government of New York, the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of that Province, made grauts of part of 
tlio said Lands included within tlie petitioners 
grauts, which being of infinite predjudice to 
them, they tlierofore most humbly pray (amongst 
other things) that their said several grants made 
by Governor Wentwortli may be ratified and 
confirmed under your M:ijesty's Royal Order. 
The Lords of the committee iu obedieace to 
your Majesty's said Order of Reference, have 
taken the s aid petitions into their consideration 
tpgether wit<li a Report made by Lords Commis- 
sioners tor Trade and Plantations upon the for- 
mer of tlie said petitions, and f^o thereupon agree 
humbly to report as their opinion to your Ma- 
jesty, tliat the most positive orders should be 
imriediatclysent to tiie Governor of New York 
to des St from making any grants whatsoever 

of any part of these lauds until your Majesty's 
further pleasure shall be known." 

His Majesty taking the said report into con- 
sideration was pleased with tlie advice of his 
Privy Council to approve thereof, and doth 
hereby strictly charge, require and command 
that the Governor or Commander-in Cliief of 
His Majesty's Province of New York lor the 
time being do not (upon pain of liis Majesty's 
highest displeasure) presume to make any 
grants whatever of any part of tho lands de- 
scribed in the said Report, until his Majesty's 
further pleasure shall be known concerning the 
same. W. SIIARPE.* 

Hawley, who as lay reader, had from the 
first sustained the services of the Church of 
England, in his own house, was popularly be- 
lieved to be desirous of obtaining for himself 
holy orders, or of bringing back with him an 
ordained minister. 

It was natural therefore to hope that he 
would aid in gaining a powerful interest in be- 
half of the settlers. What success attended 
this mission of himself and brethren it does not 
appear. The order of the King was little re- 
garded. The Gen. assembly of New York of- 
fered a bounty of 50 pounds for the apprehen- 
sion of either of the leaders in resistance. This 
was answered by a series of resolutions of a 
"general meeting of the committees for the 
several townships on the west side of the Green 
Mountains," held by adjournment at the house 
of Jehiel Hawley ou the third Wednesday of 
March 1774. These resolutioas counseling re- 
sistence with the entire proceedings of the 
meeting, may be found in Slades State Papers, 
pp. 38 — '12. Up to this date the people of this 
town were substantially one, a common danger 
compelled all classes to unite in repelling it. 

This union was soon to be succeeJed by the 
most bitter discord. The people began to talk 
of Independence. On the 4th day of July 1776, 
Congress published to the world the memorable 
declaration of American Independence. 

On the 24th a convention of delegates from 
the diSerent towns of Vermont, west of the 
Green Mountains met at Dorset to confer upon 
this and other subjects. No report of the pro- 
ceedings has been published. From the record 
of an adjourned meeting at the same place, 
held Sept. 25, it appears that the difUculty with 
New York was the principal subject of interest. 
On the 15th of Jan. 1777, the convention met 
again at Westminster, eig'.teen towns were 
represented. The New Hampshire grants were 
declared to be •• a free and independent juris- 
diction or state." It may be significant that 

* History New York, vol. iv. p. 609. 



Arlingtoa was not represented in either of these 
conventions. Her leading men were not pre- 
pared for measjiresso decisive. They were not 
politicians, not one of them seems'^ven to have 
been smitten with a desire for political distinc- 
tion. They sought not a State in which they 
and their sons might be Governors or Military 
Commanders. They sought good farms and 
the " increase which is by the strength of the 
ox." They had suffered much from New York, 
but it would have been difficult for them to spe- 
cify ■wherein the King had harmed them. The had given them their farms for a nominal 
price, had provided reasonably for their relig- 
ious and secular instruction. In the words of 
one of them who suffered the loss of all things 
for his loyalty, " They did not think it right to 
rebel against a King who had done them no 
harm." They were ready enough to express it 
as their opinion that colonies, so far from the 
Mother Country, ought sometime, and would 
be independent. But was this the time? If 
the present government wore shaken off, where 
was the power oT reorganization ? " Commit- 
tees of safety" had been accepted as an ugly 
necessity. If the only forms of law known by 
them were rejected, the prospect was that these 
committees would be continued for an indefinite 
period Is it strange that men with property 
and families sliould hesitate? Yet there were, 
in number perhaps, one-half of the inhabitants 
to whom a revolution would be grateful. 
There were those who, in th^ troubles of the 
times, had neglected their own~private affairs 
and were now in embarrassed circumstances. 
Habits in a measure forced upon them had un- 
fitted some for quiet occupation. These, of 
course, were ready for any change by which 
something favorable might turn up. There 
were a few who took a comprehensive view of 
the v/hole subject, and from truly patriotic mo- 
tives, were ready to risk every thing for the 
great principles of political freedom. Unfortu- 
nately these were not the mea of property and 

The leading men of the new State were in- 
digniint, and there was reason for indignation. 
A British Army, of more than seven thousand 
men, was on the way from the north. Its pro- 
gress was slow, but so much the belter calcula- 
ted to spread alarm. Tories began to declare 
themselves in proportion to the nearness of it.s 
approach. Names of men known or suspected 
of Toryism, were spoken, who lived in all parts 
of the State. The " council of safety" met fre- 

quently, and the town of Arlington received 
special attention. 

Isaac Bisco,* a son-in-law of Jehiel Ilawley, 
was an avowed loyalist, who boldly counselled 
submission to the invader. To avoid arrest, he 
took Burgoyne's protection and fled to Canada. 
Being Town Clerk, he mado a bundle of the 
town records and buried them, covered with a 
brass kettle, in the hill N. E. of his house in 
East Arlington. Tradition asserts that he 
buried also gold and silver coin, and plato 
within the precincts of the East Village, His 
other effects were immediately taken by the 
authority of the committee of safety. After the 
peace his son came to reclaim the buried treas-_ 
ure, but from that day to this neither guineas 
nor records have been seen. 

As Burgoyne's army approached the excite- 
ment increased. Companies of men in arms on 
both sides, were scouring the country in search 
of recruits and provisions. The houses and 
fields of suspected tones were mercilessly plun- 
dered. Even clothes lines were stripped and 
the most necessary articles of furniture carried 
off. Every contrivance was resorted to for 
concealment. Cattle were driven to the moun- 
tains. Family tubs of beef and pork were 
buried in the earth. Even the less perishable 
articles of furniture v^ere disposed of in a sim- 
ilar manner. 

It is related that the wife of Andrew Hawley 
well known in these parts as ^^ Aunt Ann" was 
surprised by a party under Capt. Gideon Orras- 
by, while filling her oven for baking. Two 
soldiers were left to wait until the bread was 
baked and then to bring it away. As soon as 
the coast was clear, Aunt Ann ordered the 
strangers to go about their business, and arm- 
ing herself with a broomstick, actually drove 
them from the premises. In the ignoble re- 
treat one of the soldiers, stung to the quick, 
with shame and resentment, turned and dis- 
charged his musket at the brave woman. She 
was just entering the door with her infant in 
her arms, afterwards the Wife of Samuel Baker, 
when the bullet passed over her head and 
lodged over the door. Tlie bullet was careful- 
ly cut out by one of her sons and kept for a 
long time by the family as a memento, — Those 
who knew ^'' Aunt J.««" will be certain that 
she did not soon forget Capt. Ormsby. 

Samuel Adams, about this time or a little 

* The order of the following narrative may not be 
correct, owing to the difficulty of fixing dates to ac- 
counts in a measure traditional. 



earlier, formed a cainpany of tories, gathered 
from Arlington, Wanehester, Saudgate, and 
perhaps, some other places for the purpose of 
co-oper;iting with Burgoyne, and for re.-enting 
what most of the settlers rogaried as nothing 
better ih.ui robbery. Their place of rendez- 
vous w;is at Abel Ilawlcy's t.ivern, which, 
strange as it may appear, was used by the OtU- 
er party for a similar purpose. It is probable 
thai Adams' company were guilty of sometimes 
making reprisals upon the opponents, although 
the writer has not been able to obtain inteiU- 
geuceofany. Hewasuider the direction of 
Burgoyne but precisely what he was doing is 
difficult of ascertaining. 

The settlers wore soon s-tartled by the abduc- 
tion ef PniNE.vs HuKD, another son-in-law of 
Jehiel Haw ley. Ilurd owned one of the best 
firms in town and was reputed to be one of 
the m' St wealthy. He was, however, a loyal- 
ist at d had .some difiQculty with one of his 
neiglibois, a Captain under the order of the 
Committee of Safety. On a certain occasion in 
company vvitii Bcnj. Eastman of this town, he 
went to Sandgate and persuaded its inl:abitants 
to deliver nptlieir arms, that they might be in 
no condition either to fight or to make resist- 
ance. The tradition is that the arras were do- 
posited in some convenient place and that peo- 
ple from "down river" Avcnt and got them. 
For thi< Ilurd and Eastman were arrested and 
report d to Geu. Lincoln. Eastman took thj 
oath of allegiance to tlie United Srates, was re- 
leased, Kurd got away, it is not known how. 
One night, some time aftei', be was called up 
by some one at his door who wished to see 
him. As soon as Hurd appeared, he was ar- 
rested and carried off without even permission 
to speak with his family. He was, however, 
pecmitted to call up I.^rael Burritt, who lived 
not far off, and ask him to go over in the morn- 
ing and tell Mrs. Hurd that he was suddenly 
called away and that it was uncertain when he 
would return. 

Phineas Ilurd was never heard of afier. 
Some supiDose that he never left Arlington. 
The general opinion was tiiat he was imprison- 
ed in a vessel near the mouth of the North 
River, which was burnt wiih its prisoners, not 
long after. Melancholy as was this perhaps jus 
tifiable act, Mdiat followed certainly was not 
justifiable. Mrs. Hurd with a family of twelve 
children, the eldest of whom was only eighteen 
years, was not long left to mourn unmolested 
the loss of her husband. In a few days her 

house was eniered by those claiming to act by 
authority aud snipped of every thing. Even 
the tin cup containing medicine for her child- 
ren sick with the measels was emptied and car- 
ried off. Their linen was taken from the line, 
and provision from the cupboard. Three times 
was this poor widow subjected to such a visita- 
tion. On one occasion the comijany, disap- 
pointed and maddened at not finding anything" 
to carry away, beat her with their muskets 
frcm room to room and so abased her that she 
carried the marks of their cruel treatment to 
her grave. 

The estate of Phineas Hurd was declared to 
be confiscated and advertised for sale, but to 
the honor of humanity it found no purchaser. 
His oldest son, indeed, threatened death to any 
p« rson who should venture to take possession, 
but his threats could not have been formidable. 
Oct. 12, n^S, the General Ass mbly of Ver- 
mont, on petition, granted to the wixlow Aima 
Hurd, the use of her late husband's farm, dur- 
ing their pleasure. This put an end to further 

After the battle of Hubbardton, Col. Warner 
and his men came south, to Manchfvster where 
they stopped for a time. It was probably dur- 
ing this progress that anoihe' tragedy occurred 
worthy of record. Men were sent out as usual 
for provisions QoL Lyon with a company, of 
whom David Mallory was one, started for the 
purpose of taking cattle from the Tories. Sam- 
uel Adama collected a company for resistance. 
As Mallory had been a member of his family, 
(having studied medicine with him,) he warned 
lim of the probable c ^sequences. Hard words 
passed and they sejjarated to execute their re- 
spective intentioi:s. Col. Lyon's company col- 
lected quite a drove of cattle and were driving 
them up from " down river," or W. Arlington. 
Opposite the present residence ef Solomon Gow- 
cy is an Island on which Adams and his men 
were concealed. As soon as Mallory appeared 
Adams showing hhnself ordered him to slop. 
A threat was tlie onlj' reply. Ad.ims coolly- 
said that in case himself was shot, there were 
men ready who would instantly riddle hira. 
Upon this Mallory laiseu his piece but, not be- 
ing quick enough, was instantly shot down by 
Adams. Just then a horn was heard calling 
laborers to dinner. This was taken as a signal 
for the gathering of tlie Tories. Lyon's men 
fled, the cattle returi.ed to their owners, and 
the wounded man abandoned by Iriends and 
foes, with difficulty got to the road side. He 



was taken up by oue passing by and carried to 
the liouse of Ebenezer Leonard where after a 
few liours lie died. Adams fled to Canad^i 
wliere his descendants sliil hve. 

Jeliiel llawley was known from the first to 
be a loyalist. His high moral worth, p aceful 
niauneis, and eliaraci eristic prudence long se- 
cured Iiiui from molestation. His age \7as such 
that there was little danger of his going to the 
enemy, moreover he was_ not and could not 
well be a fighting man at alL Almost any 
pleasant Sunday morning during the post ten 
years, the inhabitants, which be had for the 
most part gathered around him, miglit have 
been seen codectmg at his house for th : pur- 
pose of joining with him in the Prayera of tiie 
(. hurch, and listening to a discourse written by 
some of her divines. Not a few of them had 
been baptized in Connecticut, and all hoped to 
see a c urcii by the side of their church-yard, 
and a c'lurch minister in occupancy of the glebe 
alieady given and surveyed for the purpose. 
"When they prayed for the ^'King's Majesty,^' all 
were compelled to feel that Hawley at least 
was thoroughly in earnest. When therefore he 
was corapelled to speak, he spoke for the crown 
and justified those that were contending fur it. 
liis children and the children of his brothers 
were tirst deprived of their all, and several of 
them were obliged to flee to Canada. He him- 
self, from time to time, rec.-ived anonymous let- 
ters, tlireateniug midnight assassination, and 
there were circumstances which satisfied him 
that the v^'riters would i;ot shrink from making 
their words good. Yielding to necessity he 
abandoned his entire wo; Idly wealth, took Bur- 
goyne's prolectioti, started for Canada and died 
on Lake Champlain of dysentery, Nov. 2, 1777, 
aged GO. He was buried on the siiore cf t'lc 
Lake in Shelburne. Thus died one of whom it 
may be said that bis enemies could find no fault 
in him, save that while he -'fearid" and served 
" God" he also "honored the King." 

The town was now in a critical position. At 
the battle of Bennington, Arlington men were 
arrayed against eacli ether. One at least was 
killed in the ranks of the enemy, Abel Bene- 
dict, very much regretted by the Americans, 
for tliey remembered that he had been with 
them under Montgomery. Among those sur- 
rendered by ];urgoyne at Saratoga, were some 
five or si.\: from Arlington. The men of the 
town were and liad boon from the very first in 
correspondence with tlie enemy. To make the 
matter worse. Congress had refused to admit 

the new state to the Union. The hopes of the 
K)yalists were risitig. It was necessaiy that 
tlie rown should be subdued. At this juncture 
Thomas Cliitteuden, Matthew Lyon and John 
Fassett, Jr., moved into the town and took pos- 
session of confiscated property. Capt. Fassett 
took Bisco's house; Thomas Chittenden, Capt. 
llawley's; (Jol. Lyon, the one opposite, now 
west of tlie Rail Road Depot. Betv ef r Chit- 
tenden's and Lyon's a vault was dug and wall- 
I d up with plank and timber, to be used as a 
jail. Etliau Allen was the neighbor of Fassett, 
and Ira Allen was at Sunderland, about three 
miles dhstant. Every thing being ready the 
council erected its judgment seat, and woe was 
to the Tory who was summoned to its presence. 
Upon the adoption of a State Constitution and 
the election of Chittenden as Governor, the 
Council of Safety was merged in the Governor 
and Council, and acquired a legal form. 

It was a sad day to the people of Arlington 
wiien Jehiel Hawley left the Settlement, main- 
ly of his own planting to seek safety in Canada. 
It moved the indignation of those who dared 
not express their feelings when they saw Thom- 
as Chittenden housed in the mansion which 
Hawley had with so much labor prepared for 
his own family. For some time a guard was 
kept over the house, a precaution probably al- 
together unnecessary. 

It were to little purpose to enter into a de- 
tail of the proceedings of the Governor and 
Council while at Arlington. It is enough to 
say that the Commissioners of Sequestration 
were not idle. There was little, if any resis- 
tance. Their foes were completely dishearteued 
by the turn which events had taken. lu fact, 
nearly every active loyalist was already in Can- 
ada, or on his way thither. Those who remain- 
ed were and had been pre-eminently men of 
peac'e, willing to be satisfied with any saciifice 
which promised a return to the reign of law 
and order. Soon circumstances arose which 
really gave Governor Chittenden a place in the 
affections of the people. So great had baen thb 
di.sorders of the times and so many men haa 
left the country that fields were unharvested, 
and there was imminent danger of famine. 
The Governor took upon himself the task ot 
visiting, from time to time, every family and 
tnking at! account of the provisions on hand. 
Under his oversight and by his impartial and 
disinterested counsel, distribution was so made 
that, although all were pinched, none perished. 

Governor Chittenden and his associates after 



a short time, sold their property acquired here 
and removed. Families which have proved 
truly invaluable took their place. 

The declaratiou of peace and the recognition 
of the State by Congress was hailed with a sat- 
isfaction absolutely universal. Since that time, 
it is not too much to say, the inhabitants of this 
town have not been excelled in patriotism. 
They love yet, however, submission to the laws 
rather than their contentions. Who will say 
that it should not be recorded to their praise ? 



The religious sentiments of the men who first 
settled in Arlington are not known. Of the 
immigrants from Newtown and New Milford, 
Ct., nearly all were eiilier of no religion or 
members of the Church of England. Those 
from Newtown had belonged to the congrega- 
tion of the Rev. John Beach, who from a Con- 
gregationalist had become a Churchman in 1732, 
carrying a large proportion of his former con- 
gregation with him. From a letter of his dated 
October, 1743, he says that his people were 
fined both for using the book of Common Pray- 
er and for not attending Independent worship. 
Under this persecution it was natural that men 
of no religion always disposed to rebel against 
the ' standing order,' lent the Church of Eng- 
land the aid of their sympathy. Mr. Beacli's 
congregation grow strong, so tliat in 1762, he 
reported no less than 300 communicants out of 
1000 church people. Yet it was not pleasant 
to live under laws which made their form of 
worship unlawful. With the twofold object, 
therefore, of improving their fortunes and se- 
curing the privilege of worshipping God in 
peace, a considerable number in 1764 left their 
native State for the " Grants." 

Jeliial IJawley built the first framed house in 
the settlement at Arlington, and in that house 
fiom Sunday to Sunday the people from all 
parts of the town assembled for public worship. 
Capt. Ilawley read the service for the Church 
of England and a sermon. . 

The immigration from New Milford originated 
under similar circumstances. Under the minis- 
trations of a converted Congrcgatioualist a con- 
gregation was gathered of those who preferred 
the Church of England, about the time of Mr. 
Beach's conversion. 

The ministers of Newtown and New Milford 
felt a very deep interest in the little church at 
Ai'lingtou, which was regarded as in some sense * 

a branch of their own. Ministers from these 
churches and from those of Great Barrington 
and Lanesboro, Mass., which were also offshoots 
from the church in New Milford, were employed 
from time to time, to visit Arlington, for the 
purpose of administeriug the sacraments and 
affording counsel. The writer has met with 
persons baptized here by the Rev. Gideon Bost- 
wick of Great Barrington and by the Rev. Dan- 
iel Burhans, of Lanesboro. 

The difficulties of the times delayed the 
building of a Church, and the settlement of a 
minister. The public rights set apart by the 
charter of the town were believed to be suffi- 
cient to constitute an ample endowment for the 
church, provided that anything like fairness 
were used in selecting the lots. To Capt. Haw- 
ley, therefore, the care of selecting and protect- 
ing thpse rights was entrusted. 

In 1765 the proprietors of the town, by vote, 
set apart a centnil lot of about 14 acres, three 
of which should be for a church-yard and pub- 
lic green, the remainder as a portion of the 
glebe, evidently intending it as a place for a 
church and minister's residence. This it is said 
was confiscated and sold with the exception of 
a single acre reserved for the burial of the 

In 3 784, the inhabitants resolved to settle a 
minister and buQd a church. Having been ex- 
cluded from the public ground set apart for that 
purpose, the timber cut from a glebe lot was 
drawn to a place about half way between East 
and West Arlington. A conference with Gov. 
Chittenden, however, and the counsel of Lem- 
uel Buck, Esq., who lived as far distant as any 
person, led to the reconsideration of their inten- 
tion, and it was voted to build the church by a 
stake, set up by the Governor, south of the 
Church yard. The Rev. James Nichols, a 
clergyman from Ct. of more than ordinary parts 
was employed, and the services of the chuich, 
which for some time had been very irregular, 
were resumed at private houses. Although 
two shillings on the pound were levied for 
building the church such was the poverty of the 
inhabitants at the time, that the building was 
not completed. It was used however, after one 

In 1787, the church was represented in the 
Convention of the Prot. Ep. Church at Straf- 
ford, Ct., by Nathan Canfield, Esq., who was 
appointed as their delegate. 

June 4, 1788. The Rev. Mr. Nichols, having 
bj' his intemperate habits lost the _ respect of 
his people, was dismissed. He was succeeded 



in 1792 by the Rev. Russell Catlin, who was 
also dismissed after a few years. 

Dec, 31, 1 802, at a meeting of the Episcopal 
Society of the town of Arlington duly called 
David Matteson, Sylvester Deming and Zadock 
Hard were appointed a committee to finish the 
church ; and the means provided by subscrip- 
tion. At the same time the people of "West 
Arlington associati-d themselves together for 
the purpose of building a church, four miles 
distant "down river." The two churches were 
speedily completed and set apart for public 
worship. The East Church was a free Church, 
and was called Bethel ; the pews of the West 
Cimrch were sold to individual proprietors. 
This was called BetheSHa, The building of 
the two churches was the occasion of no divis- 
ion. Both remained under the care of the 
same religious society, half the officers of which 
wera chosen from these living " down river." 

The Rev. Abraham Brownson was then set- 
tled over the parish and ministered at Bethel 
and Bethesda alternately. This arrangement 
continued until about 1827, when, for want of 
support, stated Sunday services at Bethesda 
church were suspended. 

The Rev. Mr. Brownson continued to be the 
minister of this Church for 23 years, until March, 
J 826. He performed a vast amount of labor, not 
only in Arlington, but in Sandgate and Man- 
cliester, where he labored as he had opportuni- 
ty. His successors have been as follows : the 
Rev. Joseph H. Coit, from 1826 to 1828; Rev. 
James Tappan, from 1828 to 1829; Rev. "Wm. S. 
Perkins, from 1829 to 1833 ; Rev. Luman Foot, 
from 1833 to — ; Rev. Johs Grigg, from 1837 to 
1838 ; Rev. Anson B. Hard, from 1838 to 1844; 
Rev. Frederick A. "Wadleigh, from 1844. 

In 1829, Bethel Cimrch was taken down in 
pursuance of a vote of the society, and the 
present stone church built immediately after at 
an expense of $10,000, of which Sylvester 
Demiug, Esq., generously contributed at least 
one-third. It was consecrated in 183], and is 
called St. James' Church. 

In 1838., the old "Chittenden House'' was 
purchased for a parsonage. This was taken 
down in the Spring of 1845, -and a more conven. 
ient one built by the parish. 

The number of communicants belonging to 
this church has not greatly varied. In 1820, 
when the population of the town was 1,354, 
there were 92 communicants. In 1860, with a 
population of 1,148, there are 130, of whom 18 
are non-resident. 

In addition to the Protestant Episcopal Church 
there are in this town two congregations con- 
nected with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
with an aggregate membership of 80 or 100 ; a 
Congregational Church with about 30 members; 
a small congregation of "Disciples," and twen- 
ty-five or thirty families of Roman Catholics, 
numbering about 130 persons. In 1813, a 
Baptist Church was organized here, which in 
1820 numbered more than 80 members. It 
was disbanded in 1843.* 

I have nothing of value touching the biogra- 
phy of our clergy. The Rev. Eli H. Canfield, 
D. D., rector of Christ Church, Brooklyn, and 
the Rev. Fletcher J. Hawley, D. D., rector of 
Trinity Church, New Orleans, Anson B. Hard, 
rector of St. Paul's Church, Chester, Pa., are na- 
tives of this town. The Rev. Jared Sparks, 
LL. D., labored as carpenter in this town dur- 
ing the years 1803-4, but was no more than a 
transient person. 


Samuel Hawley, Sen. came from England in 
1066, and settled in Stratford, Ct. He had two 
sons, (datighters unknown,) Samuel and Eph- 
raim. Ephraim left ten sons and two daugh- 
ters. Of these, Abel, Gideon, Jehiel, Josiah 
and perhaps others came to Arlington in 1764, 
taking their parents with them. 

Abel married first a person whose name is 
unknown. Their children were Peter, Mary, 
(who married Eliakim Stoddard,) James, A- 
gur, and Abel, who married Mary Folsom. 
He was a loyalist, and died in Canada. His 
farm in Sunderland, 300 acres, was confiscat- 
ed, and his wife and children forcibly turn- 
ed into the street. Abel Senr's second wife 
was Betliiah Curtis. Their children were Sa- 
rah, Esther, Prudence and Clara. Abel Haw- 

* B.^PTisT Chdrch.— " The Baptist Church in Arling- 
ton was constituted Aug. 27, 1812, and consisted at first 
of about 50 members. For the first 12 years they seem 
to have had no pastor, but to have been supplied with 
preaching by licentiates ; among whom Elon Galusha 
and Isaac Bucklin only are named in the minutes from 
which this account is extracted. In 1825 Cyrenus iVl. 
Fuller became pastor, and was succeeded in 1827, by 
«-"yrus W. Hodges, for 3 years. In part of the years '30 
and '31, Charles Randall was pastor. After whith, in 
1833, Thomas Marshal became pastor, and remained 
with them some 3 years ; since which the Church has 
hadno pastor. The highest number reported as mem- 
bers is in 1834, viz : 98 members, after which it declin- 
ed, till, in '41 it consisted of oniy 48, and these were 
mostly females. The Church was finally disbanded in 
1843. At present (1861) there are but few of the denom- 
ation residing in the town. — G. B. Cone." — Ed. 



ley Sen. and his wife lethiali were held in high 
regard for their devoted piety. It was remark- 
ed that ho was the only person who could safe- 
ly rep; eve Col. Ethan Allen's impiety. Once 
when .Allen had been thus reproved, he replied. 
" whetiier I am right or not, uncle Abel, one 
thing is certain, that you are exactly." 

Josiah married Ilaiinah, eldest sister of Col. 
Seth "Warner. Their children were Amos, Gid- 
eon, Lemuel, Rhoda and Silence. 

Amos, who married Elizabeth Spinche, and 
removed to Ohio; Gideon, v/ho married and di- 
ed in Canada ; Lemuel, who married Philo 
Hard; Rhoda, who married Martin Deming; 
and Silence, who married Stephen "Wood, of 
Knowlesville, N. Y. 

Jehiel Hawley, who may bo regarded as the 
founder of the town, married first — Dunning, 
second, Abra Ilubbel. /rheir children were, An- 
drew, who married Ann, daughter of Capt. James 
Hard, of Newtown, Ct. ; Curtis, who married 
Hannah French, the father of thu Ilawleys now 

in Arlington; Abijah, who married Burritt, 

and removed to Fairflix-, Vt. ; Jeptha, who mar- 
ried : he was a loyalist, and went to 

Canada: Mary, who married David Casile; 

Phebe, who married Treat ; Ruth, wlio 

married Isaac Bisco. a loyalist, who fled to Can- 
ada; Anna, who married Phicas Hard, and Sa- 
rah.- Jehiel Hawley was a man of great con- 
scientiousness and fervent piety. Had he not 
been tainted with devotion to his king, he 
would have been ranked among the honored in 
our history'. 

Andrew Hawley and Ann Hard left children, 
viz : Eli, who married widow McLear : next 
Mary Jeffers. He was a loyalist. He and Da- 
vid Crofut of this town were employed b}- the 
British as spies from the beginning of the war 
until peace was concluded. After Congress 
refused the application of Vermont to be ad- 
mitted to the Union as a State, it is said that 
they were employed by Governor Chittenden 
also.* Philo, who married Hannah Leonard ; 

* David Crofut reiurned to Arlington soon after the 
peace, and I'.li Hawley soraewhat later. They were ac- 
customed to relate many a tale of hardship endured on 
the raoun'ains, and hairbreadth escapes from pursuers_ 
Crofut Wjis once saved by a woman who openad a trap- 
door in ihe room where she was for his de- 
scent Then carelessly covering it with a rug, she plac- 
ed her wheel upou it, and continued her work. Ilis 
pursuers soon arrived ; l)ut deceived by her answers 
and the general appearance of things, went away with- 
out a search. H^' was afterwards captured hy a party 
of soldiers, who delivered him over to their commacd- 

Zadoek, who mai-ried Rlioda I'^vart' ; Ado no- 
riam, and Jehiel, who died in Canada, leaving 
10 children; Sarah Ami, who married., 
Samuel Stene — second, Goold Buck, of Fairfax; 
Polly, who married Giles, son of Gov. Cliitten- 
den ; Andrew, who married TJrania Leonard, 
and went tOyCanada; Elijah, who married — , 
first, Martha McLeer — second, Eunice B. Perry; 
and Lucy, who married Samuel Baker. 


John Baker, born Dec. 24, 1681, came to 
"Woodbury, Ct., from New London, and died in 
nsO. His children were John, Ephraim, Mary, 
Remember, Sarah, Elijah and Elisha. Mary 
married Jo,?eph .\llen, ifareh 11, 11.3G-7, father 
of Col. Ethan Allen. Remember n arried Ta- 
mar "Warner, aunt of Col Seth "Warner. Ho 
was killed by accident and left two or tliree 
children. Miiidwell, who married Pele^ Stone 
of Lenox, Mass. a' id afterwards removed to 
Arlington ; ai.d Remember. There was, it is 
believed, another sister, Desire, of whom wo 
have no certain information. 

The second Remember married April 3, 1760, 
Desire Hurlbert, daughter of Consider Hurlbert 
and Patience Hawley. At the age of ei^rhteen 
he served in an expedition against Canada. He 
came to Arhngton in 1 7G4, was much rcspoeted 
and very serviceable to the settlement. His 
arrest by John Munro, Esq., of Shaftsbury, and 
subsequent rescue, are well known. In the 
commencement of the Revolution ho entered 
the army again. In Montgomery's operations 
against St. John's, Canada, he was sent forward 
to reconnoitre the position of the enemy. "UHien 
within a few miles of St. John's, he secreted 
his boat with the intention of marching through 
the woods. He had scarcely left the boat when 

er at Bennington, who in the night released him, to 
the great disgust of his captors. 

Eli Hawley. on his way from New York to Canada, 
with important disptches, once mot Col. Brownson in 
the vicinity of Laneshoro, Mass. His life did not rtem 
very secure, just then , but the friendly greeting, 
" How do you do, Zadook '!'' dispelled his alarm. Za- 
dock was the na;ne of a brother who much resembled 

He often pointed out the " Haven Bock," as the 
place where he had an interview, by night, with Gov. 
Chittenden. Hawley firmly believed, to the day of 
his death, that the leaders of the Green Mountain Boys 
were determined that Vermont should be a British 
Province, rather than a part of New York, in case . 
Congress should comi)el the alternative. His belief 
probably shows how completely all the agents of the 
British were deceived. 



a party of ludiaiis took possession of it. He 
called upon them to return it. Hard words 
passed, when one of the Indians fired and shot 
him through the head. The Indians, who ap- 
pear to have an old grudge against him, then 
cut off his head and put it on a pole. The 
Americans gave them a guinea to take it down, 
that they might bury it. Thus died Capt. Re- 
member Baker, at the early age of thirty-five. 

He left one son, Ozi, who married Lucy, 
daughter of Capt. James Hard, and left Electa, 
who died single, at White Creek. N. T., very 
much respected; Nancy, who married Yates, 
a successful teacher at the South ; Lorane, who 

married Barnes; Remember, a lawyer in 

the State of New York, aud Luther. By a 
second wife, Hetty Darling,* he left a daughter 
Rhoda. Ozi Baker was town clerk, for some 
years. He was a man of promising abilities, 
and very useful as a surveyor of lands. Unfor- 
tunately, however, falling into irregular habits, 
he soon dissipated an ample inheritance, went 
into the army, served in the last war, and died 
in the service, in circumstance of extreme des- 

The other Baker families of Arlington are 
descendants of the second John Baker men- 


According to a tradition carefully transmit- 
ted, there was in Loudon, at the time of the. 
great plague, a family of the name Hard. — 
All perished but James, a lad of fourteen years, 
who was by the public authorities apprentic- 
ed to the celebrated Captain Kidd ; whom he 
served, in various capacities, for seven j-ears. 
• (^Thlswas before Kidd became a pirate.) Being- 
free, James Hard came to Stratford, Ct.; thence 
to Newtown, where he married a woman by the 
name of Tomlinson, and died at the age of 107 

From the above circumstance, the Hards 
wdre, for several generations, called "Kidds." 

James Hard left two sons and several daugh- 
ters. Joseph, the eldest, left no children. — 
James married Hannah Kimberly, and was an 
opulent farmer of Newtown. His children 
weie James, Jonathan, John, \unintelligible\ 

* His marriage was In this wise : Ozi was under cer- 
tain legal restraint for the non-fulfilment of certain 
legaWjliligations, when he dispatched the following la- 
conic letter : 

" Hetty come to Ozi." Ozi could not go to Hetty, so 
Hetty went to Ozi, and became at once Hetty Baker. 

Aniof!, Ann, Prudence, Hannah, Elizabotu and 
Zadoek. Of these, Zadock came to -Arlington 
in 17G8. Ann, wlio married Andrew Hawley, 
came, perhaps, a year or two earlier. Capt. 
James, the oldest, married Hester Booth, and 
came to Arlmgton a few later.. Their 
children were, Lois, who married Nathan Can- 
field, I^sq.; Elisha, who married Lucy Bene- 
dict; Philo, who married Cuuenee Hawley; 
James, who married widow Webster, and died at 
Whitehall ; Hester, who married Ezra Sher- 
man, from Connecticut, but moved to Arling- 
ton.; Parlhena, who married Jacob Galusha, 
of Shaftsbury; Naomi, who married — -Orton, 
of Fairlax — second, James Cressy, of Fairfax ; 
Lucy, who married Ozi Baker, sou ot Capt. Re- 
member Baker; Parmelia, who mairied Amos 
Huntington ; Anna, who married Ebenezer Wil- 
loughby, who went to England. 

Capt. James Hard was a devoted and active 
loyalist. He held a commission in the British 

Lois married James Sherwood, who lived in 
Ballstown, N. Y, ; Abram married , liv- 
ed at Neshobe ; Abner married Hannah Beers, 
and lived in Newtown ; Amos married Eunice 
Curtis, and remained in Newtown; Ann mar- 
ried Audrew Hawley, son of Capt. Jehiel Haw- 
,ley, ^nd removed to Arlington, Vt. ; Prudence 

married Morse, of Derby, Ct. ; Hannah 

married Joiui Foot ; Elizabeth married Elna- 
than Nichols, of Stratford, Ct. ; Zadock Hard 
married Chloe Nobles, of Brookfiold, Ct. : their 
children were, Hannah, who married Joseph 
Buck, of Canada; Leraira, who married Joel 
Leonard, of Plattsburgh, N. Y. ; Belus, who mar- 
ried Ruth Aylesworth ; Chloe, who married 
Sylvester Deming, Esq. ; Lucy, who married 
George Buck, of Fairfax, brother of Joseph; 
Noble, who married Sally Wales ; Mary, who 
married Ruben Bainey; Zadock, who married 
Betsey Williams; Jtsse, who married Ruth 
Nichols, daughter of Elnathan Nichols, of Strat- 
ford, Ct. ; Sylvanus, who married Lucy Penn, 
and Sarah. 

Zadock Hard, Esq., brother of Capt. James, 
was a loyahst in principle, but actively employ- 
ed on his farm, gave very little occasion for 
complaint. It ;s said that he secreted and fed 
the loyalists who fled to him for shelter. For 
this, and perhaps other kindred oCfeuces, he 
was several times arrested and heavily fine 1. 
He seems to have had a habit of assisting the' 
needy, as many well-authenticated anecdotes 



On a certain occasion, a negro who had run 
away from bis master, fled to the house of Za- 
dock Hard for protection, and was not betrayed. 
On another occasion twenty-five famished 
American soldiers were fed at Esq. Hard's house 
on Mrs. Hard's express invitation. It is cer- 
tain that no needy person ever left the house 


Eliakim Stoddard, born Dec. 11, 1749, was 
the sou of Eliakim Stoddard and Mary Curtis, 
and the grandson of the Rev. Anthony Stod- 
dard, setiled minister in "Woodbury, Ct. Hav- 
ing become attached to the Church of England, 
he loft Connecticut at the early age of 16, and 
accompanied the Hawleys to their new home 
in the wilderness. He was, perhaps, the best 
educated of the early settlers, and a great share 
of the Justices' business in town was done by 
him. In the building of tlie first church edi- 
ifice, ;ind the settlement of a minister, his la- 
bors were indefatigable. He married Mary, 
daughter of Abel Hawley. They left no child- 
ren. For some reason Esq. Stoddard became 
dissatisfied and went to Canada. Some years 
after he re.nrned to Arlington, broken down 
by a paralytic afi"eotion, aged 52 years. 


Thomas Cam^field, Sen. settled at Milford, 
Ct., as early as 164G; died in 1G89. His son, 
Thomas Cajnfield, left, among other children, a 
son Jeremiah Carafield, who died at Milford, in 
1712, leavmg, among other children, a son Jer- 
emiai), who removed to New Milford with four 
sons : Azariah, Samuel, Zerubbabel and Joseph. 

Zeru'obabel married Bostwick. His son, 

Nathan Canfield, Esq. married, first, Lois, 
eldest daughter of Capt. James Hard, and mov- 
ed to Arlington with his family about 1768. — 
Their children were, Enos, Parthena, Orilla and 
Anna. By a second wife, Betsey Burton, his 
children were, Albert, Nathan, Cyrus, Samuel, 
Anson, Orlando, Galen and Betsey. 

In the troubles of the limes, Esq. Canfield, a 
man of great sagacity and prudence, retained 
in a great degree the confidence of both par- 
ties. His connections and his sympathies were 
probably in favor of the loyalists. Yet to the 
end he enjoyed the fiiendship of Allen, Warn- 
er, Baker and the other leaders. On one occa- 
sion a man from Sunderland raised his gun to 
shoot him, when Col Allen ruslied between 

them for his protection. He was sometimes 
arrested and fined, but succeeded in preserving 
himself from material barm. He represented 
the town in 1786. He died April 16, 1809, in 
his 70th year. 

Israel Canfield, who is supposed to have been 
a cousin of Nathan, married Mary Sacket, and 
came to Arlington from Connecticut about the 
same time. Tlieir children were, Sacket, John 
Isaac, Nathaniel and Anson Bassett. 

Israel Canfield was in the American service, 
but his wife was a most active loyalist. It is 
said that important messages between the Brit- 
ish in Canada, and their friends in this region, 
passed through her hands. " Aunt Ann" [law- 
ley, the bolder of the two, usually carried food 
to her son Eli, while to "Molly Sacket," as she 
was called, a more quiet woman, was entrusted 
the duty of transmitting his messages. She di- 
ed June 18,1817, in her 75th year. Her husband 
followed March 20, 1827, aged 97. Professing 
religion at the advanced age of 82, he was nev- 
ertheles regarded as an exemplary christian. 
His sta-ictness in observing the Sabbath and 
other religious duty was specially marked. 


John Gray was a captain in the English na- 
val service. He came to Kent, Ct., not far 
from 17 GO, and followed the Hawleys, with 
whom he had becomeacquainted, to Arlington, 
about 1708. He married, first, a woman of 
whom we have no certain knowledge, who left 
one son, John ; second, Mary Morgan : their 
children were Mary, Caleb, Dominicus, Jordan, 
David, Thomas and Sarah. Capt. Gray was a 
Churchman — his politics not known He died . 
Nov. 28, 1806, in his 80th year. Two of the 
sons of Dominicus became ministers of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church. The Rev. Jordan 
Gray was minister of St. Matthew Church, Sand- 
gate, and afterward had charge of one or two 
parishes in the north part of the state. The 
Rev. Nelson Gray was eight years Rector of 
Christ Church, Georgetown, D- C. 

Col. Eihan Allen Hved in Arlington the great- 
er part of three or four successive years. The 
town was represented by him in 1778, in con- 
neciiou with Thomas Chittenden and John Fas- 
sett, jr. Noiices of his life will undoubtedly 
be found in the sketches f om other towns ; yet 
inasmuch as his first wife, Mary Browns^i, ia 
less k-own, and her remaiis and those of her 
two children lie in the church-yaid of this 



town, it may be proper to add a notice of her 


Richard Brownson, an original settler of Far- 
mington, Coun., had sons among whom was 
Cornelius, born 1618, and died in 1732. Ilis 
children were Cornelius, Elizabeth, Abraham, 
Stephen, Timothy, John and Amos. Cornelius 
Jr., who lives in Southbury, married Abigail 
Jackson of Lebanon They left ten children, 
eight of whom early made a profession of relig- 
ion and united with the Congregational church. 
Mary Brownson, their other child was married 
to Col. Ethan Allen, June 23, 1762, by the Rev. 
Daniel Brinsmade of Judea Parish, "Woodbury, 
for which service Allen paid tlie fee of four 
shillings, from which we may infer that the 
future hero of Vermont was not in very opu- 
lent circumstances. Their children were Jo- 
seph E., Lorraine, Lucy, Mary Ann and Par- 
melia. — Joseph E. died when 11 years old, and 
was buried in the Arlington churcli yard. WhHe 
Col. Allen was a captive in England, with a 
spirit chafed by the insults of his country's en- 
emies, his desolate wife was enabled to recall 
the instructions of her youth, made a profession 
of religion and had her children baptized. She 
died in Sunderland, about 1784, of consumption, 
and was buried in Arlington. No stone was 
ever erected to lier memory, and the fact of her 
burial here rests upon the remembered state- 
ment of Dr. Ebenezer Hitchcock of Sunderland, 
who assisted in carrying the body to the church- 
yard, a distance of three miles.* 

It was of Loraine that the following anecdote 
appeared in the public papers. Being sick and 
likely to die, her mother being gone before her, 
she anxiously inquired of her father "Whose 
faith shall I embrace, yours or that of my 
mother's." The trembling man walked the 
room in great agitation, and then replied, " That 
of your mother." The story has been denied 
by some of the Allen family, but the Brownson 
family, some of whom were with the dyi.ig girl 
affirm that it is substantially true. There is 
nothing at all improbable in the story, and yet 
perhaps more has been made of the anecdote 
than the facts would warrant. 

Lorraine had much of her father's disposition 
and shared in his skepticism. She sometimes 
even made sport of dying. One day she asked 
Col. JIattliew Lyon who was very fond of her, 

* On this point see Sunderland chapter. — Ed. 

if he had any messages to send to his friends in 
the old country, for she expected to go by the 
way of Cork. She said many strange things 
during her last sickness, and the question put 
to her father and his answer probably indicate 
a somewhat similar state of mind in both. 

Lucy, who married Hitchcock, was a 

pious woman. Of Parmelia the writer has no 
information. The Brownsons of Sunderland 
and Arlington, are descended from Timothy, a 
brother of Cornelius, Jr., and came from Salis- 
bury. Conn. 

[The State Seal. — Henry Stevens, Esq., 
the State Antequarian, gives the following ac- 
count of the origin of the sea! of Vermont. "I 
had heard that the Vermont coat of arms origi- 
nated in Arlington, and stopped there to obtain 
reliable authority for the story, some years, 
since as I was returning from a visit to Ben- 
nington. I had in my pocket the guard-roll of 
Governor Chittenden ; on old man was pointed 
out to me (Mr. Deming, I believe, was his name,) 
as one of this Company. I joined him, introduc- 
ed myself, and walked down with him to his 
liouse. It was summer, a warm day, about 
noon, and we sat down in the porch before the 
door, where some vines grew and it was cool, 
to have a cliat I asked him if he was one of 
(Jhittenden's guard He was proud as a pea- 
cock to be asked. I showed him tlie roll, there 
was his name, and he informed me that he 
was the only man of the Company then living. 
I asked where he boarded at the time, " at the 
Governor's" he replied, " I was a young man 
and so boarded with him. We had plenty to 
eat and diink, a good place it was." Said I 
do you remember any thing of the drinking 
cups? "Yes, they were of horn." Had any of 
them any mark or marks on them ? " Yes, the 
seal of our State was first engraved on one of 
them, I have drank out of it many a time. An 
ICuglish Lieutenant, who used to secretly bring 
letters to the Governor, was there one time, 
"sparking" 'the Governor's hired girl, he stop- 
ped several days, and taking a view from the 
west window of the Governor's residence, of a 
wheat field, some two acres in the distance, 
beyond which was a knoll with one solitary pine 
upon its top, he engraved it upon this cup. 
The field was fenced off from a level space in- 
tervening between the house, within this space 
he put " the cow" with her head over the 
fence for the grain. The Governors drink- 
ing cups were made from the horn of an ox, 
and bottomed with wood. First was cut off 
a cup from the lower end of the horn that meas- 
ured half a pint, next a gill cup, then a third 
cup which was a " glass" 

The engraved cup attracted the notice of Ira 
Allen, who adopted its device for our State 
Seal; only when he took hold of it he brought 
tho cow over the fence into the midst of the 
grain — bundles on either side, so when she had 
eaten one stack the other was ready." Mr. 



Stevens, meanwhile, kindly showed unto us 
several variations of this device, adopted from 
time to time, on old State proclamations, &c., 
in his possession. — Ed.] 



Bennington is situated near the S. "W. comer 
of the state, about thirty miles from the city of 
Troy, with which it is connected by the Ver- 
mont Western, and the Troy & Boston Rail- 
roads. It is rich in its agricultural, mineral, 
manufacturing and mechanical productions, and 
was for many years the largest and most wealthy 
town in the state. In 1781 its taxable proper- 
ty was more than double that of any other 
town (excepting Pownal and Shaftsbury,) and 
it continued to exceed that of any other until 
after the year 1820, when Rutland, Windsor, 
and Burlington, began to compete with it. 

The early importance of the town in the 
state organization is shown by the fact that of 
the provision tax assessed by the legislature in 
October, 1*780, for supplying the troops of the 
state for the next year, more than one-four- 
teenth part was levied upon Bennington, So 
of a body of 300 men raised for permanent ser- 
vice in 1782, twenty-four — more than one thir- 
teenth of tho whole were furnished by this 
town. It may be here mentioned that the pro- 
vision tax for Bennington in 1780, consisted 
of 82 barrels of flour, 26 of Beef, 13 of Pork, 
413 bushels of corn, and 206 bushels of rye, 
and that this was merely for victualling the 
troops, leaving the cost of transportation, the 
munitions of war and the monthly pay of the 
officers and men to be otherwise provided for. 
There is no data from which to determine the 
population of the town at any period prior to 
the census of 1791, when the number of inhab- 
itants was 2377. It seems probable that the 
population at the beginning of the revolution 
In 1775 was about 1500, and that it had in- 
creased to some 2000 by the close of the war 
in 1783. The number of inhabitants at each 
succeeding census after that of 1791 was as fol- 
lows, viz: in 1800—2243, in 1810—2524, in 
1820^2485, in 1830—3419, in 1840— 3429, in 
1850—3923, in 1860—4392. In 1830 the pop- 
ulation of Bennington was greater than that of 
any other town in the state except Burlington, 
in 1840 it was only exceeded by Burlington 
and Montpelier, and in 1850 by Burlington 
alone. Now it is surpassed by Burlington and 
Rutland, only. 

Though the situation of Bennington near the 
corner of the state prevented Its entering into 
serious competition with other more central 
towns to become the seat of government, yet 
several sessions of the legislature were former- 
ly held here, viz: in June 1778, in February 
1779, October 1780, June 1781, January 1782, 
February 1784, February 1787 and in January 
1791; and the convention which adopted the 
constitution of the United States, and assented 
to the admission of Vermont into the Union as- 
sembled here January 6, 1791. The United 
States Circuit Court, also held its sessions here 
in June 1791, 1792 and 1793, and in May 1794 
and 1796; after whicli Rutland was substituted 
for Bennington as the place for holding that 

Soon after the admission of Vermont as a 
member of the federal uninn, this town became, 
and long continued to be a recruiting station 
for the army. In the spring and summer of 
1792, Gen. Wm. Easton, afterwards distin- 
guished in tlie war with Tripoli, thon a Captain, 
recruited a company here, and at its head 
marched to Pittsburg and joined the army un- 
der General Wnyne, then preparing for his 
campaign against the Indians. Men were also 
enlisted here for the army and marine service 
during the administration of the elder Adams, 
on the apprehended war with France. It was 
also a recruiting station during the war of 1812, 
and in 1813 the 30th regiment of U. S. Infantry 
under Col. Ellas Fassett was mustered and 
drilled here preparatory to joining the army for 
actual service. 

Th" agricultural productions of the tjwn are 
such as arc common in other parts of the state, 
for which a ready home market is found in its 
manufacturing villages. Iron ore is found in 
several places in this town and also manganese. 
Yellow ochre, a good article for common use, is 
also found and prepared for and sent to market 
in large quantities. 

The town is watered by the Walloomsack, a 
branch of the Hoosick, which issuing from va- 
rious sources among the Green Mountains, flows 
in a north western direction through the town, 
affording many places for the convenient use of 
water power, which is extensively used. 


Bennington has three principal Villages. 
First, Bennington proper, formerly designated 
as Bennington East Village, second, Benning- 
ton Center, and thirdly, North Bennington. 





That portion of the town embraced by the 
corporate boundaries of Bennington village, 
now the most populous and important village 
in the S. W. section of Vermont, was, for the 
earlie t period of the history of the town, its 
most inconsidprahle and unsettled part. 

Like most of the early settlers of New Eng- 
land, the men who came first to Bennington 
selected their homes and built their houses up- 
on the higher lands, avoidmg the low grounds 
where the streams from the Green Mountains 
find their way westward to the Hoosick. 

But if these men did not appreciate the nat- 
ural advantages of the place to the extent of 
later times, they were not entirely unmindful 
of them, and the grain which was grown upon 
the fertile fields of other portions of the town 
and the logs out of which their lumber was man- 
ufactured were brought to the mills erected 
here the second year of the settlement of the 
town, to be ground and sawed for use, as may 
be seen by reference to the proprietors' records 
of the town of Bennington for the year 1762. 

At a proprietors' meeting held March 31st, 
1762, it was "voted to give Esq. Samuel Rob- 
inson and Dea. Joseph Saflford five acres of 
land, with the privilege within the said five 
acres to build a corn mill on, and forty dollar,', 
in case it be built by the first day of Augu'^t 
next," also "voted to give forty dollars to any 
on the east side of the town that should build a 
saw mill by the first day of September next." 

The same records inform us that these two 
enterprising men had completed the saw mOJ 
by the 16th of June following, and on that day 
the proprietors voted forty dollars to Esq. Sam- 
uel Robinson and Deacon Joseph Safiford "to 
build a grist mill where they have built a saw- 
mill, and they are to have it dons by the first 
of September next,'' — thus extending the time 
for building the grist mill one month from that 
limited in the first vote. 

This Deacon Joseph Saflford was the father 
of Gen. Samuel Saffbrd and the grandfather of 
the Samuel SafiTord who died in 1851, and who 
is doubtless remembered by most of the inhab- 
itants of Bennington. They were all worthy 
men and lived and died respected by all. The 
blood of Deacon Joseph Safibrd has flowed in 
the veins of a large uuipbar of descendants, and 
has mingled with that of many other families. 

It was of good quality, and the mixture will not 
be found deteriorated by it. 

Though built by the two men named, the 
mills were called the Samuel Saflford mills by 
the proprietors in 1766, in referring to them as 
the eastern terminus of the road from Benning- 
ton centre. 

Here, then, upon the banks of the stream 
which now turns so many wheels for this peo- 
ple, near where the South paper-mill of Benton 
& Jones stands, was the power of water first 
employed to perform the labor and do the 
drudgery of civilization in Bennington. 

The grist-mill stood where the South paper- 
mill now stands, and the saw-mill was upon 
the opposite bank of the stream. 

The grist-mill had the extraordinary privi- 
lege of taking three quarts toll to the bushel, 
being one pint more per bushel than was al- 
lowed to other mills. 

"v^'hile other portions of the town were being 
settled and improved, this part continued unal- 
tered until about the year 1800, with the ex- 
ception of the accession of three or four famil- 
ies which selected sites romoto from each other 
for their homesteads. 

Eldad Dewey, son of the Rev. Jerlediah Dew- 
ey, about the year 1775, erected a house upon 
the site of the present residence of his son .Jed- 
ediah Dewey, Esq., and he continued from 
time to time to improve and build upon his 
farm, which covered a large part of the village. 
He built a grist mill upon the stream near his 
house, about the year 1785, and the next year 
leased, for 21 years, a piece of land 70 or 80 
rods farther down the stream, to or.© George 
Keith, who erected a forge upon it, and brought 
from the centre village a part of the Hessian 
barracks, out of which he constructed a house 
where he lived. This was the first forge in the 
vicinity of Bennington, and it continued in op- 
eration within the present century. 

At the time of the Battle of Bennington many 
of the inhabitants to the northward had aban- 
doned their homes, and a considerable number 
had stopped with their families in tliis town, 
where they were furnished with the best ac- 
commodations that could be afforded tiiem. — 
S6me of them were at the house of Eldad Dew- 
ey, and obliged to take lodgings upon the floor. 
Mrs. Dewey used to relate some characteristic 
conversation which she overheard while up 
with a sick child, the night before the battle. 
One woman plead very earnestly with her hus- 
band to let others fight the battle, and to fly 



■with ber and the family to a place of safety. — 
The fond wife, more affectioniite than patriotic' 
used all the arguments her ingenuity could sug- 
gest, to induce him to desist from his purpose 
of forming one of the band which was the next 
day to meet the enemy at "Walloomsac; but the 
stout hearted patriot told her, that even though 
he should be killed, she and the children would 
be better off than to liave a husband and father 
who deserted his country in time of need, and 
he painted to her in colors so vivid the disgrace 
which would ever attach to their names, if he 
should then show the white feather, that she 
at length gave up all hopes of prevailing upon 
him to alter his purpose. 

The reverse of this picture was presented in 
another part of tha same room, where a hus- 
band was complaining to his wife of a severe 
cholic, which he feared would prevent his going 
in the morning. Her woman's wit told her, it 
was not so much the cholic as cowardice, and 
she told him the neighbors would always fling it 
in his face, that he was a coward. The man's 
reply showed that he had coumge to brave 
such taunts, and he still insisted that he should 
be upon the sick list the next morning, until 
his wife declared, in a tone and with an empha- 
sis that convinced her spouse, that he might re- 
ly upon what she said, that unless he went out 
to meet the foe with the rest, she would ex- 
change cloJies with him, and go herself. This 
argument proved so effective, that he promised 
to go on, cholic or no cholic. 

At the commencement of this century there 
were less than 20 buildings, exclusive of barns 
and sheds, scattered over the territory included 
within the limits of this village. There were 
no indications of a village at this time. Only 
two roads, one running North and South, the 
other East and West. At this period the road 
to Woodford, instead of passing directly by the 
Stafford place, now M. C. Morgan's, went South 
and then turned to the East, after passing the 
grist mill, near Asahel Howard's house, and 
so on, bearing to the south of the present road, 
came out into it, near Colvin and Rockwood's 
oil mill. 

Tlie country. East of the Safiford Grist Mill, 
except a clearing near the present East knitting 
factory, where then stood the log house and 
blacksmith shop of Capt. Frye, was an unbiok- 
en wilderness. 

Going from the grist mill and saw mill, the 
latter of which continued to be used, though 
only for a short time in the present century, we 

next come to the house of John Riclnnond, the 
sailor who has the honor, if such it be, of christ- 
ening the place "Algiers." This man carried 
on the cabinet business, and lived near where 
Isaac Crossett now resides Richmond had 
been a sailor, was a talking man — had been 
about the world more than his neighbors — had 
visited Algiers and other contiguous places, and 
without, perhaps, thinking the [ilace wouHl re- 
ally g^~by the name he gave it, he called it Al- 
giers. For several years thereafter this name 
was applied to the village, especially by those 
whose local interest were affected unfavorably 
by its growth and prosperity. A little west 
from Richmond's house, on the opposite side of 
the road, was that of the tailor Searls, whose 
.shop wr,s in his house ; then, on the same side, 
the small building now in front of Grover & 
Harrington's furnace ; a small house where 
Lauren Peck resides; the Ebenezer Chase 
liouse where Thomas Riddle lives ; the Roger 
Booth house, where is E. S. Pratt's ; the Joseph 
Norton house, where Alva Hawks liv.cs ; the 
buOding where 0. F. Northrup lives ; Stephen 
Pratt's house, being part of the Stark house; 
around the corner North, Capt. Hill's tavern. 
Mr. Faxon, a tailor, lived in a house not far 
from Harris's store. Tlien comes Eldad Dew- 
ey's house, grist mil! and forge. North street 
l)ad one house before reaching the Hunt place. 
Where now are the other streets of the village 
were sugar orchards and pastures. No stores, 
no post ofQce, no lounging places and no loun- 
gers, except such as may assemble at Capt. 
Hill's tavern in the evening, to learn whether 
a traveler had honored the new hotel with a 
call, or to try the Captain's liquor and discuss 
the news which some one has brought from the 
centre village, then, and for many years after- 
wards, the centre of business of all kinds, for 
miles around. 

The commencement of the present century, 
however, is directing increased attention to the 
east part of the town ; and, in 1804 Capt. Mo- 
ses Sage has erected a saw mill and several 
houses, and his furnace, two miles east of this 
village, and nearly to Woodford line. A black- 
smith's shop is erected near the Joseph Norton 
house ; a few small buildings upon either side 
of the street, at such distance from each other 
that our neighbors' hens will not trouble us, 
are put up ; a tannery is started where Buckley 
Squires suljsequently carried on the business ; 
and now, in 1817, Union Academy is incorpo- 
rated, and a building with a steeple and a large 



room suitable for religious meetings, aud for 
baJI:>, is for the first time to be found in this place. 

In 1824 there were 60 buildings, exdusive 
of barns or sheds, in the bounds of the corpora- 
tion, and Algiers is beginning to be called " East 
Village" by the Algeriaes and Algiers, in ear- 
nest, by the more wealthy and elevated village 
one mile west. From this time forward its 
growth has been continued, although it has had 
much to contend with, and to-day there are 
about 400 buildings in the village with the 
same exclusion of barns and sheds. Its popu- 
lation, by the late census, is 2070. — Among the 
buildings are 33 stores of different kinds of bus- 
iness; 4 meeting-houses that will compare fa- 
vorably with those of any village of its size in 
New England ; 2 paper mills, employing 50 
hands; 2 knitting factories, employing 50 hands 
in and about the mills, and out side of the mills 
150 more ; 2 furnaces, with from 15 to 25 hands 
each ; the largest wadding factory in the coun 
try ; a stone ware pottery, employing 30 hands ; 
an extensive pottery, known as the United 
States pottery, which has fur the time suspend- 
ed business, but which gives employment to 
200 hands, when in operation ; also another 
pottery which manufactures porcelain wares , 
a large tin shop, employing 50 hands; 2 grist 
mills; an oil mill; a saw mill ; 2 planing ma- 
chine buildings; several machine shop:^ ; a 
large fire-brick factory, and the usual number of 
smaller shops found in New England villages. 

The principal post office is here, and the vil- 
lage bears the name of the town ; the prize, 
however, of a protracted, though successful 
struggle between this and the centre village, 
remarkable for the vigor and tenacity with 
which it was prosecuted on bdth sides. The 
feeling which distinguished that contest has 
long since passed away, and the utmost harmo- 
ny pervades the town so fur as local interests 
aro concerned. 

This village is the southern terminus of a 
branch which leaves the "W. Vt. R. R. at North 
Bennington, and its inhabitants paid largely to- 
wards its construction both by voluntary sub- 
scriptions to its stock and by involuntary pay- 
ment of an undue proportion of the debt of the 
Company, in order that the road might be op- 
(We here resume the Historical account of Gov. Hall.) 


Bennmgton Centre was the first settled part 
of the town, where the first meeting-house was 

erected, where the town meetings were held 
and all public business transacted until quite a 
late period. It was the head quarters of the 
Green Mountain Boys in their controversy with 
the Yorkers, and of the fathers of the state, du- 
ring the revolutionary struggle, as it will be 
more fully seen hereafter. 

It now has the Court House and Jail, th4 
Meeting House of the first Congregational 
Church, a flourishing Seminary, a Post Oifice, 4 
merchants' stores, several mechanics shops, and ' 
by tlie census of 1860, contained about 400 in- 
habitants. It is very pleasantly situated for 
residences ; but being on a hill, without the ad- 
vantage of water-power, a large portion of the 
business which formerly centered here has pass- 
ed to more favorable locations, on the streams. 


The village of North Bennington is situated 
on the Western Vermont Railroad at its junc- 
tion with the Bennington branch. It is about 
a mile and a luilf east of New York line and ex- 
tends North to Shaftsbury line, from which the 
railroad depot is about 20 rods distant. 

The village was early and long known as 
"Sage's City," named from Capt. Moses Sage, 
one of its first settlers, and long its principal 
proprietor. In a local news paper of Dec. 12, 
1828, is f mnd an aiticle as follows : 

"A new Post Cflice is established in this 
town in the North West Village, commonly 
known as Sage's City. Its official appellation 
is North Bennington. Daniel Loomis, Esq., is 
appointed Post Master." From this date the 
Poat Office name g-adually became that of the 
village, and lias long sincj been ful'y estab- 

The village, by the cen-^us of 1860, contains 
a population of 600 inhabitants, and is a place 
of considerable business. It has a B.aptist 
Meeting House, an academy, 2 cotton factories, 
one of them belonging to Robinson & Parsons, 
running 5,000 spindles and 108 power looms, 
employing 100 hands, aud making 28,000 yards 
of print cloth, weekly. The other factory is 
owned by Truman Estes, runs 2,400 spindles, 
64 looms, employs about 50 hands and makes 
weekly 12,000 yards of cloth. It has also the 
paper mill of Thatcher & Welling, employing 20 
hands, and in which are made from 3 1-2 to 4 
tons of paper, weekly. The village has also 4 
merchants' stores, a shoe store, and mechanical 
work of almost every kind is extensively car- 
ried on. Suitable grounds for the County Fair, 



have lately boon enclosed and fitted up hero for 
permanent use. About a mile south of the vil- 
lage, at Irish Corners is the extensive wadding, 
and batting fictory of Jeremiah Essex. 

A branch of the Walloomsack rising in the 
easterly part of ohaftsbury. called Paran Creek, 
runs through the villa.ue, in a southerly direo- 
tion, furnishing convenient water power, which 
has long been used. A saw mill was erected 
here ils early as 1775, perhaps earlier, and was 
for several years owned and occupied alternate- 
ly by several of the neighboring settlers in 
Bennington and Shaftsbury. It eventually be- 
came the sole property of Mr. Sage. 

In 177G or 1777, a grist m'U was built on the 
present site of Thatclier & Welling's paper mill. 
One Joseph Ilaviland appears to have had 
some connection with the mill; and in 1777, it 
was, by order of the council of safety, sequester- 
ed i'S his propert}', to the use of the state, he, 
having on the invasion of Burgoyne, become a 
tory and fled to the enemy. But iu June 1778, 
the General Assembly sitting in this town, af- 
ter full investigation , found that "William Ilavi- 
land, Moses Sage and James Rogers, were the 
real builders and owners of the mill, and it was 
accordingly restored to them. Tliey continued 
the joint owners for a few years, when Havi- 
land sold to Sage, and he became the sole own- 
er sometime before the year 1800. A fulling 
mill had also been erected prior to 1781, which 
was likewise owned by Sage. Blacksmithing 
and wagon and carriage making constituted an 
important part of the village business, from an 
early day. Mr. Sage also erected and opened 
a store, on the site lately occupied by the Un- 
ion company. 

In the Spring of 1805. Sage sold his mills 
and other property in the village, to Daniel 
Rogers of Hoosick, and removed to the east 
part of the town Mr. Ro,G;er3 placed two of 
his sons-in-law in possession of the property, 
under whose administration the business of the 
village was much enlarged. One of them, "Wm. 
S. Cardell, soon opened a store filled with a 
largo assortment of goods, and for several years 
comman'led an cxten-ive trade from this and 
other towns. In 1811 or 12 he erected works 
for sawing marble, where Estes' factory now 
stands, and for several years carried on the bus- 
iness of quarrying and preparing it for market. 
The marble was, however, found not to be of 
the first quality, and its manufacture was aban- 
do.ied about the year 1816. 

In 1811, a cotton factory was erected where 

that of Robinson & Parsons no\,' is, by an asso- 
ciation of individuals residii.g priLcip.ill}'- in 
Bennington, Shafisbury and lioosick. who soon 
afterwards becanje incorponted under Jie name 
of the Par..n Creek Manufacturing Company. 
In this factory cotton cloih was made in con- 
siderable quantities until after the close of the 
war in 1815, when the busin ss became unprof- 
itable and ceased to be carried on by the cor- 
poration. The property, many years afrerwards, 
came into the hands of Asa Doty, who after 
carrying on the business fior a considerable 
time sold to P. L. Robinson, one of the present 
proprietors. The old site of CardcU's marble 
mill came into the possession of Mr. Estes, in 
1825, and has since been occupied for a cotton 
factory. Tiie grist mill with other property 
formerly belonging to Sage , and afterwards to 
Rogers, was purchased by B. M. Welling in 
1824, who, in 1853, after the injury of the mill 
by the flood, turned it into the paper mill be- 
fore mentioned. The growth of the village has 
been somewhat increased by the opening of 
the Railroad, and has for several years past 
been gradual and healthy. 

Two or three of the former inhabitants of the 
village deserve at least a passing notice. 

Captain Moses Sage was a native of Norwich, 
Ct., and came to this town during some of the 
first years of the revolutionary war, and settled 
in this village. To his enterprise and energy 
of character it owes not only its first distinctivo 
name, but its early growth and business. His 
business operations were not, however, confin- 
ed to this village. Eor several years he had 
been either sole or part owner of the blast fur- 
nace situated on what is still called Furnace 
Brook, two miles north of Bennington village, 
and, iu 1804, he erected what was then called 
the ne V furu.ace, east of that village. This, in 
1811, was sold to Thomas Trenor; and. in 1814, 
Mr. Sage removed to Chatauque, Co., N. Y. 
and died in 1817. Several of his descendants 
still remain in lown. 

Wm. S. Cardell, tor several years (from 1805 
to 1816) occupied a leading position iu the 
business affau-s of the village. His princi- 
pal business was that of a merchant and mar- 
ble manufecturer. He was born in Norwich, 
Cl., Nov. 27, 1780, an i was eluea-e.i at 
Williams College, and though lie did not be- 
come a graduate, his scientific and literary ac- 
quirements were of a high order. He was 
fond of literary pursuits, and to k p'easure in 
imparting instruction and promoting a tasto for 



earning to the youth of the village and neigh- 
borhood, by some of whom his kind notice 
and attentions are still remembered with grati- 
tude. Mr. Garden's business operations in the 
village proved finally unsuccessful, and about 
the year 1816, he removed from town and after- 
wards became a teacher in French and English 
in Troy and New York City, and died in Lan- 
caster Penn., Aug. 10, 1828. He was the au- 
thor of several works of merit, connected with 
the subject of education, among wiiicl) were an 
"Essay on Language," '• The Moral Monitor," 
" The Happy Family," and "Jack Halyard the 
sailor boy," The last was a very entertaining 
as well as instructive book, and had a very ex- 
tensive sale as a popular school book for many 

Mr. Cardell was half brother to the Hon. Reu- 
ben H. Walworth, late chancellor of New 
York, who, in 1805, prior to his commencing 
the study of law, occupied the position of clerk 
in tlie store in this village. John "Walworth, 
an elder brother of the chancellor, was a part- 
ner of Cardell in the mercantile business from 
1806 to 1808 when he was appointed a lieuten- 
ant in the army, in which he served until after 
the close of the war with England, and was in 
the battle at Little York and at the capture of 
Fort George. He afterwards I'esided for sever- 
al years at Plattsburgh, but removed to New 
York City on receiving the appointment of 
Register in chancery, where he died Aug. 6th, 
1839, aged 55. 

The Rev. Hiram Bingham, one of the first 
missionaries to the Sandwich Islands in 1819, 
was a native of this place. He continued a 
missionary there nearly 20 years, and is the 
author of a history of the Islands. He is one 
of seven brothers all born and reared here, and 
all now living, (18G0) their united ages being 
519 years, and their average age 74. On 
thanksgiving day, in December, 1855, the seven 
brothers from five different states had a family 
meeting here with their three surviving sisters. 
Kinsley Scott Bingham, formerly Governor of 
Michigan, and now a Senator in Congress, from 
that state, is a son of Calvin, one of these seven 
brothers, his mother being a sister of the late 
Col Martin Scott. 

The following account of an extraordinary 
calamity which happened to this village, Feb 
11, 1852. is taken from the Bennington Banner 
of the succeeding week : 

'• Terrible iNUNDATtoN at North Benning- 
ton — Immense Loss of Property — Loss of Life. 

— On Wednesday afternoon last, the 11th inst. 
our thriving sister village. North Bennington, 
was visited by a destructive and teirible inun- 
dation, which swept away a large amount of 
property, and tore the centre of the village com- 
pletely out. The water, which did the im- 
mense damage, broke from a pond just above 
the village, which pond has but lately been 

The dam was formed by the Western Ver- 
mont Railroad, which crosses the stream at 
this place, and was composed of frozen dirt and 
mud, dumped in as a fill for the grading of the 
track of the railroad, and was 30 to 40 feet in 
depth. The amount of water set back by this 
large dam was vast, and covered, at a depth of 
from five to twenty five feet, thirty to thirty- 
five acres of land. 

On Wednesday morning last, water found its 
way through tlie mud and sand, which liad till 
then impeded it; and in spite of laborious ex- 
estions to prevent it, continued to work a larger 
passage until 1 o'clock in the afternoon, when 
all efforts to staunch the flood ceased, and in a 
short time the entire mass of water rushed 
through the opening it had formed and precipi- 
tated itself upon the village below, cnrrying 
with its resistless current 12 to 15 buildings, a 
woman and a child, and every description of 
property to an immense amount. The ava- 
lanche of w.iter followed the course of the river 
until it reached the heart of the village, where 
it spread across and down the streets, tearing 
buildings from their foundations, and liurling 
them and tlieir contents into a vortex of surging 
waler tliat tore them to pieces with a power 
and velocity that was truly terrific. 

Although notice of the imiiending danger 
was given to the citizens before the breaking 
of the dam, they had not prepared for so great 
a rush of water, and 10 or 12 families were 
driven from their buildings to witness the de- 
struction of everything they owned in the 
world, and to rejoice at their own deliverance 
from so fearful a death as seemed inevitable 
would overtake them. When the current 
reached Truman Esty's pond, it had gained such 
a power nnd was confined in so narrow a space 
that its force was perfectly irrcsstible. Two 
large, double houses were carried away from 
here, and not the slightest vestige left to mark 
their previous location. One of these houses 
was occupied by Wm. Dutcher and Ansel 

Mrs. Dutcher, at the first alarm, stepped out 
of the door to see how near the flood was, 
leaving her child fourteen months old sleeping 
in the cradle. Before she could return, the 
house was floating on the fierce current. Mrs. 
Kane being in the house, floated off with it. 
The building held together until it went over 
or through the first dam below ; here it careen- 
ed and broke. Mrs. Kane having hold of the 
rafters, threw herself upon the root which part- 
ing, soon left her to take refuge upon the float- 
ing fragments and timbers floating past her. 
Upon these she supported herself until by al- 
most superhuman effort she gained the shore, 
nearly a mile from where she started, alive, but 



almost chilled through. The body of the child 
was found the next morning, tangled in the 
fence, about half a mile from where the house 

The damage done by this sad occurrence 
cannot be correctly estimated at present. It 
cannot be less than .$50,000. Mr. Esty loses 
largely ; he must have been damaged to the 
amount of $15,000. E. M Welling, Hawks, 
Loomis & (,"o., P. L Robinson. Jones & Rich- 
ardson (who lose a woolen factory and its con- 
tents,) P. E Ball, Dr.*. Bruce and Ranny, Mr.s. 
Christie, Hiram Mclntyre, Rufus Bangs, B. F. 
Faj% George Cloarwater, Charles Cameron, Geo. 
Harwood, Wm. Butcher, Ansel Kane and John 
V. Cohin, are among the principal losers. 

The loss to the town b}' the destruction of 
bridges, roads, &c., is large. The railroad 
company also lose a considerable amount. 

There is not a water privilege now available 
in North Bennington. AH the dams are gone, 
and the wheels, ftctories and shops that are 
standing are filled with mud and water, and are 

Fragments of machinery, broken furniture, 
tattered remnants of clothing, and articles of 
every description indiscriminately piled togeth- 
er, mark tho of this disastrous inunda- 
tion through one of tho most thriving villages 
in the State. 

Ut. Welling's stone grist mill was submerged 
in part, its rooms filled and their contents, 
grain, flour, &c., buried in sand and water. 
Jones & Richardson's Woolen Factory is parted 
and ruined, its maciiinery gone, no one knows 
where, and the stock on liand gone after the 
machinery. Ban;!^s' Square shop has vanish: d 
entirely. Ball's Blacksmith shop ditto. Jones' 
Welling's, and Esty's dams are gone, and the 
emb inkmecifs so injured as to retard the pro- 
gress of re-building. 

Ti)e water entered the counting-room on the 
sales room floor of Hawks, Loomis & Co.'s store, 
hurled a safe weighing 4 or 500 lbs., through 
the stout' pnnnelling of an enclosed desk, and 
carried it to the opposite side of the room. The 
Water also entered the counting-room of P. L. 
Robinson, Esq., on the same floor, .saturated 
his books, soaked his papers, ravaged his safe, 
and left its filthy insignia four or five feet from 
tl)e floor ou the ceiling of tho room. Drs. Bruce 
& Ranney suffered severel}^ The mass of wa- 
ter which entered their residence, broke through 
the floor, precipitated their furniture, a valuable 
parlor organ, and their household fixtures into 
the cellar beneath. 


Bennington was the first town that was set- 
tled in Vermont west of the Green Mountain, 
and its charter is the oldest in the state. The 
grant was made by Benning Wentvvorth, his 
majesty's governor of New Hampshire, and ap- 
pears to have been ordered by advice of his 
council, January 3, 1749. It was of a town- 
ship 6 miles square, lying 6 miles north of the 

Massachusetts province line, and 20 miles east 
of Hudson's river, divided into 64 shares, and 
was to be called Bennington, after tho baptis- 
mal name of the Governor. In conformity to 
the governor's order it was surveyed in Novem- 
ber, 1749, and the charter was issued the March 
following, bearing the before mentioned date 
of the original grant. The township is describ- 
ed in the charter according to the survey in 
the following words, .viz : 

" Beginning at a crotched hemlock tree 
marked W. W. six miles due north, or at a 
right angle from said province line, said angle 
commencing at a white oak tree in said line 
marked M. J :j: 0. I. T., which tree is 24 miles 
east from Hudson's river, allowing one chain in 
thirty for swag, (which allowance is made 
through the whole fdlowing survey) and from 
said hemlock tree west ten degrees north four 
miles to a stake and stones, and from said stake 
and stones north ten degrees east six miles to a 
stake and stones; and from thence east ten de- 
grees south six miles to a stake and stones, and 
from thence south ten degrees west six miles 
to a stake and stones, and from thence west ten 
degrees north two miles to the hemlock before 

It is deemed proper to be thus particular in 
giving the charter position of the town, in order 
to contradict a statement put forth under the 
direction of the New York authorities in a nar- 
rative of the proceedings of the settler* under 
New Hampshire, published in 1773, and with- 
in a few years past, copied into one of the newa 
papers in this state, in which it is declared that 
the charter was of a township 24 miles east of 
Hudson river, and that the inhabitants, finding 
it upon a mountain, "by no better authority 
than a vote of their town meeting presumed to 
extend it westward within 17 instead of 24 
miles from that liver." It may be added that 
the average distance of the west line of the 
town from the Hudson is not less than 20 miles, 
though the N. W. corner is something short of 
that distance. 

Of the 64 shares into which the town was di- 
vided, only two were for public purposes, viz : 
one for schools and one for the first settled min- 
ister. Benning Wentworth was named as the 
grantee of two shares, and the remaining sixty 
were to that number of diflerent individuals. 
Immediately after the grants the proprietors 
met at Portsmouth, where most of them resid- 
ed, and raado a plan of the township, by which 
after laying out 64 lots of one acre for each 
proprietor, near the centre of the town, in con- 
formity with a provision in the charter, they 
divided the residue into 64 parts, which they 



distributed among themselves by lot. Under 
this division and distribution the different rights 
•were conveyed and have since been held. 

The charter was issued in the name of the 
king, he being the party purporting to make 
the grant, and there was reserved to him " all 
the white and other pine trees fit for masting 
our royal Navy;" and also" a yearly rent for 
the first ten years of one ear of corn if demand- 
ed, and after the expiration of that time a rent 
of one shilling proclamation money for every 
100 acres, payable at the council chamber at 
Portsmouth, on the 23d of December annually. 

The charter also conferred on the future in- 
habitants of the township the powers and au- 
thority belonging to New Hampshire corpo- 
ration towns, and appointed the last Wednes- 
day of March in each year as the day for forev- 
er holding their meetings for the choice of town 
oflBcers. It may be here stated that this re- 
quirement of the charter was faithfully and 
uniformly observed until within a few years 
past. It has latterly been found more conve- 
nient to hold the meetings on an earlier day 
in the month, and as there is now no power 
but the state government to complain of the vi- 
olation of the charter, it does not seem proba- 
ble that the town is in any great danger of 
losing its corporate privileges by the change. 

No attempt appears to have been made to 
settle the town until after the close of the 
French war, which terminated by the conquest 
of Canada in 1760. Previous to that time the 
whole territory comprising the present state of 
Vermont was substantially an uncultivated 
wilderness. The men of the New England 
provinces, who had participated largely in that 
war, had frequently passed over it, in their ex- 
peditions against the French and Indians, and 
becoming well acquainted with its soil, had im- 
bibed a strong desire to settle upon it. And 
no sooner was the territory opened for safe oc- 
cupation by the favorable result of that war, 
than the tide of emigration set strongly to- 
wards it from the New England provinces. 

Tradition informs us that the selection of Ben- 
nington for the first settlement on the west side 
of the mountain was in this wise. Samuel 
Robinson of Hardwick, Mass., had served du- 
ring several pampaigns as Captain in the army 
in the French war. His returning route from 
Lake George lay up the Hoosick to Williams- 
town, thence across the mountain to the Con- 
necticut. But on one occasion mistaking one 
of the branches of the Hoosick for the main 

stream, he, and a few companions, found them- 
selves approaching the mountain without pass- 
ing the Hoosick Forts. They had in fact, as- 
cended the Walloomsack instead of the Hoosick, 
and were within the limits of Bennington, where 
they encamped over night, and the next morn- 
ing pursued their way southerly to Williams- 
town. Capt. Robinson being much pleased with 
the land he had thus accidentally passed over, 
returned home with a determination to begin a 
settlement upon it. He repaired to New 
Hampshire and made purchases of a' consider- 
able portion of the township rights, and sought 
among his friends and acquaintances for associ- 
ate emigrants to the new country. 

The settlement was commenced in the spring 
of 1761. The most advanced posts at this time 
in New England, west of the Green Mountains, 
were two small forts called East and West 
Hoosick, one situated about two miles west of 
the present village of North Adams, and the 
other near the site of the Colleges in Williams- 
town. They had for a few years given partial 
protection to some families in their immediate 
neighborhood, but during the war, had afibrd- 
ed insufiScient security against the French and 
Indians, to induce extensive settlements. There 
were, also, to the west of Bennington, along the 
banks of the Hoosick, some Dutch families, a 
few of which had seated themselves as far up 
the river as Pownal. 

The first emigration to the town consisted of 
the families of Peter Harwood, Ebenezer Har- 
wood, Leonard Robinson, and Samuel Robin- 
son, Jr., of Ilardwick, Mass., and of Samuel 
Pratt and Timothy Pratt from Amherst. The 
party including women and children numbered 
twenty-two. They came on horse back across 
the mountain by the Hoosick forts and through 
Pownal, bringing on their horses all their 
household goods, and arrived in town June 18, 
1761 The first child born in town was Ben- 
jamin, son of Peter Ilarwood, January 12, 1762, 
who became a very worthy and intelligent citi- 
zen, and died January 22, 1851, aged 89. Dur- 
ing the summer and fall of 17G1, other flimilies 
to the number of twenty or thirty, came into 
town, among whom were those of Samuel Rob- 
insbn, Senior, James Breakonridge, John Fas- 
sett, Ebenezer Wood, Elisha Field, Samuel and 
Oliver Scott, Joseph Safford, John Smith, Jo- 
seph Wickwire, Samuel Montague, Samuel At- 
wood, John Burnham and Benajah Rood. The 
settlers were all purchasers under the original 
grantee, none of such grantees having ever re- 



moved to the town. There is some difficulty in 
ascertaining the precise time when many other 
of tlie early and permanent settlers came to the 

In October, 1764, a military company was 
formed in the town, of which an authentic roll 
has been found among the papers of the late 
Capt. Elijali Dewey, by his grandson, E. D. 
Hubbell, Esq. It is as follows, viz : 

" Muster Roll of the first company of Militia 
in the town ol Bennington, organized October 
24, 1764: 


John Fassett, Captain. 

Jaraes Breakenridge, Lieutenant. 

Elisha Field, Ensign. 


Leonard Robinson, IstSergent. 
Samuel Safford, 2d do 
Ebenezer Wood, 3d do 
Henry Walbridge, 4th do 


Benj. Whipple, 1st Corporal 
John Wood, 2d do 
Samuel Pratt, 3d do 
Peter Harwood, 4th do 
MUSIC, Benajah Story, Drummer. 


Timothy Abbott, Abm. Newton, 

John Armstrong, George Pengry, 

Libheus Armsnong, Timoihy Pratt, 
Samuel Atwood, Silas Robinson, 

John Burnham, Moses Robinson, 

W. M. Burnham, Joseph Richardson, 

Jolin Burnham, jr Daniel Rood, 

David Barnard, Benajah Rood, 

Levi Castle, David Safford, 

Nathan Clark, Joseph Safford, 

Nathan Clark, jr. Jonathan Scott, 

Asa Clark, Matthew Scott, 

Nathan Clark, 3d, Moses Scott, 

Isaac Clark, Oliver Scott, 

Cornelius Cady, Phinehas Scott, 

Joluison Cleveland, Samuel Scott, 
Robert Cochran, John Smith, 

Samuel Cutler, Daniel Scott, 

Isaac Davis, John Smith, jr 

Elijah Dewey, Joseph Smith, 

Enoch Eastman, Thos. Smith, 

David Fassett. Elijah Story, 

John Fassett, 2d, Thos. Story, 

Jonathan Fassett, Samuel Tubbs, 

Josiah Fuller, Joseph Wickwire, 

Thos, Henderson, Samuel Wright. 

Zachariah Harwood, 

Samuel Robinson, Clerk." 

The above list is supposed to embrace all the 
able bodied men then in town, between the 
ages of 18 and 60. 

In the 4th volume of the Documentary His- 
tory of NewYork, at page 585, is a printed list 
of persons settled in Bennington, prior to June 
1, 1765, prepared from recollection, by Samuel 

Robinson, Esq., in New York city, in December 
of that year, and furnished the Governor of that 
province — Mr. Robinson then being in New 
York, as the agent of the settlers. 

This list contains the following names not 
foimd on the foregoing MUitary roll, viz : 

George Abbott, Samuel Montague, 

Ilezekiah .'\rmstrong, Jedediah Merrill, 

Elkanah Ashley, Jolin Pratt, 

Benjamin Atwell, Silas Pratt. 

Benjamin Brownson, Samuel Robinson, Esq. 

Elipbalet Collins, Ebenezer Robinson, 

Rev. Jedediah Dewey, Joseph Rudd, 

Jonatlian Eastman, Stephen Story, 

Barnabas Harman, Gideon Spencer, 

Simeon Harman, Samuel Sweet, 

Eleazer Harwood, Benjamin Warner, 

Jacob Hyde, Daniel Warner, 

John Holmes, Seth Warner, 

John Holmes, jr. Benjamin Whipple. 

Of these Samuel Robinson, Esq., Samuel 
Montague, and perhaps two or three others, 
were among the earliest settlers ; but who, from 
age, or for other reasons, had not been enrolled 
in the military company. The residue were 
doubtless new comers. 

On a petition of the settlers to the King, dat- 
ed Nov., 1766, are found the following names, 
not on either of the previous Usts, viz : 

" Joseph Barber, Robert Cochran, jr., Jona- 
tlian Carpenter, Nathuniel Dickinson, M. D., 
Steplien Fay, Nathaniel Holmes, Natlianiel 
Holmes, jr., Samuel Huijt, Elnathan Hubbell, 
Israel Hurd, Weight Hopkins, Stephen Hop- 
kins, Daniel Mills, Joseph Robinson, Nathaniel 
Spencer, Henry Walbridge jr., Joseph Willough- 


On a petition to the Governor of New Hamp- 
shire, dated October, 1769, the following new 
names are found among the Bennington peti- 
tioners, viz : 

" Ebenezer Allen, Cornelius Cady, jr., Reuben 
Colvin, Brotherton Daggett, Elijah Fay, Benj. 
Fay, Joseph Fay, Nathaniel Filmore, Jesse 
Graves, Simeon Harmon, jr., Jacob Hyde, jr., 
Daniel Harmon, Simeon Ilatlieway, Thomas 
Jewett, Ebenezer Lyman, Josiaii Noble, Seth 
Porter, Joslma Reynolds, Jona. Scott, jr., John 
Stewart, Azel Warner, Reuben Warner, Isaac 
Warren, Elijah Wood." 

There were other inhabitants of the town, 
whose names are not found on either of the fore- 
going petitions. The following appear on the 
town records, viz : 

"In 1768, Jonas Fay, Robert Cochran, 2d; 
in 1769, Samuel Herrick ; in 1770, Ebenezer 
Walbridge, in 1771, Charles Cushman: in 1772, 
Elnathan Hubbell, jr., David Haynes, Moses 
Hurd, Roswell Wosely, and in 1774, Jesse Tin- 
ney, Zepheniah Branch, Benjamin Webb and 
Eleazer Plawks." 

Many others were here prior to the commence- 



nient of the Revolution, in 1775, among whom 
were the following : Thomas Abel, Natlianiel 
Brush, Samuel Blackmer, Jeremiaii and Calvin 
Bingham, John Bracket, Eleazer Edgerton, 
Wm. Henry, Joseph Hinsdill, John Kinsley and 
John Weeks. Besides these several of the sons 
of the early emigrants to the town had grown 
from cliildren to manhood, and become active 
members of society, viz : of the Robinsons, Saf- 
fords, Deweys, Harwoods, Hubbells, Harmans, 
Walbridges, and others. 

The year of 1761 was one of privation and 
hardship to tlie settlers. Their first business on 
arriving in town was to provide themselves with 
shelter from the weather. Boards for building 
houses were out of the question. Huts, with 
logs for walls, poles and brush or bark for the 
roof and earth for the floor, were speedily erect- 
ed. As much land as possible was cleared and 
sown with fall grain, the seed being brought on 
horseback many miles. Preparations were made 
for more extensive sowing and planting the en. 
suing spring. But to make the grain they hoped 
to raise available for bread, a mill to grind it 
was necessar}'. To remedy this, the propriet- 
ors of the town, at a meeting held March 31st, 
1762. voted to give Samuel Robinson and Jo- 
seph Safiford 5 acres of land and $40,00 for build- 
ing a corn mill by the first of August; the time 
being aftewards extended to the first of Septem- 
ber, when it was completed and ready for use at 
the place now occupied by the paper mill of Ben- 
ton & Co. It was also voted at the same time to 
give the like sum to any one who would build a 
saw mill on the east side of the town, and the 
same for building on^ on the west side, by the 
first of the ensuing September. Messrs. Robin- 
son and Safi"ord built tlie saw mill by the 18th of 
June, on the opposite side of the stream from the 
grist mill. It is also believed that James Break- 
enridge and Thomas Henderson built the saw 
mill within the specified time, on the stream 
west of the Island, at Paper Mill Village, for 
the west part of the town. The proprietors also 
taxed themselves heavily for making highways, 
which were laid out north and south, and east 
and west through the town, and in other direc- 
tions as necessity or convenience required. 

The first town meeting was held March 31, 
1762, at the house of John Fassett, when the 
following ofBcerswere chosen, viz: Samuel Mon- 
tagr.e, Moderator ; Moses Robinson, Town 
Clerk ; Samuel Montagus, Samuel Scott, James 
Breakenridge, Beuajuh Rood and Joseph "Wick- 
wire, Selectmen ; Dea. Joseph Safiford, Town 
Treasurer; Samuel Robinson, jr. and John 
Smith, jr., Constables; Dea Safiford and Ehsha 
Field, Titljing men ; Peter Harwood and John 
Smith, jr., Haywards ; Samuel Atwood anl 

Samuel' Pratt, Fence-viewers ; Timothy Pratt 
and Oliver Scott, Deerifts. 

These oflBcers were sueh as were then author- 
ized and required by the laws of New Hamp- 
shire, the duties of those last named relating to 
the i^reservation of deer during tiie season in 
which tlio killing of them was prohibited. — 
Thus the settlement became organized into a 
little republic, acknowledging fealty to New 
Hampshire, by which its existence as a part of 
the province had been recognized, not only by 
gianting its land, but by the appointment of 
Capt. Samuel Robinson as a justice of the peace, 
his commission bearing date Feb. 8, 1762. 

Among the acts of municipal legislation per- 
formed at this first meeting of the town was 
that of offering a bounty for the destruction of 
venomous serpents, recorded in the following 
words, viz: "Voted, that any laltlesnake that 
is killed in Bennington shall be paid two cop- 
pers, the persons bringing in the tail." From 
the language of this vote it would seem, that 
the rattlesnake was to have the coppers, though 
it may, perhaps, be safely presumed, that they 
were intended for tlie person who killed him. 

This is rather a rare specimen of the inaccura- 
cy of language in our town records, they hav- 
ing in general from the beginning been kept, not 
only in a fair hand, but in plain, intelligible 
style, and without very frequent violations of 
grammatical propriety. They remain, down to 
the present time, in a good state of preservation. 
The years 1762, '63 and '64, were years of 
success and prosperity with the settlers. At 
tiie first meeting of the proprietois, Feb. 11, 
1762, a committee had been appointed to look 
out a place to set the meeting house, and at an 
adjourned meeting on the 26th of the same 
month, the place was agreed upon, and measures 
soon after taken to provide for erecting it. The 
Rev. Jedediah Dewey had been settled as min- 
ister of the church and congregation, in the fall 
of 1763 ; and stated and regular religious 
worship provided for. By the year 1765 a 
large portion of the town had become occupi- 
ed by industrious settlers from Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, who had cleared much of the 
land, erected dwelling-houses and barns, with 
mills, opened and worked highways, and estab- 
lished schools for the instruction of children and 
youth, and were living in a comfortable and 
thriving condition. Settlements had also been 
made to the northward as farasDanby, and ex- 
tensive preparations were making for occupy- 
ing other townships, as well as for extending 
the settlements in those already commenced — 
the tillers of the hard New England soil being 
then, as they have often been since, swarming 
for emigration to new and uncultivated lands. 



In this state of things the settlers, in the 
spring of 17G3, -were surprised by a proclama- 
tion from Lieut. Governor Golden, of New York, 
dated April 10th, furnishing a copy of an order 
of the King in Council, of the 20th July preced- 
ing, by which the western bank of Connecticut 
River was declared to be the boundary between 
the provinces of New Hampshire and New 
York, and notifying all his majesty's subjects in 
the province " to conform thereto, and govern 
themselves accordingly." There is no doubt 
that this change of jurisdiction, made without 
the knowledge of the settlers, was contrary to 
their wishes, and quite distasteful to them. 

The people of New England were not favor- 
ably inclined towards the institutions and gov- 
ernment of New York. A large portion of the 
lands in that province had been granted in very 
extensive tracts, the tillers of the soil occupy- 
ing the position of tenants to their landlord 
owners, who were dignified with the lordly ti- 
tle of patroons. This tenancy was looked upon 
by the independent farmers of New England, 
as a species of degrading servitude. Tho gov- 
ernment of New York was also of an aristocrat- 
ic and central character, in which the body of 
the people had but little participation. All the 
officers, from the highest to the lowest — from 
the judges of the Supreme Court down to con- 
stables and superintendants of highways, were 
appointed, either directly or indirectly, by the 
central executive authority in New York City. 
The town meeting, that school and nursery of 
republican equality, in which the men of New 
England had been accustomed to elect all infe- 
rior officers, and to consult and legislate upon 
their local affairs, was an institution hardly 
known in that province. 

But notwithstanding the aversion of the set- 
tlers to the New York system and laws, there 
is no doubt that tho now jurisdiction would have 
been quietly submitted to, if nothing more had 
been demanded. Rumors, however, soon be- 
gan to prevail, that the King's Order in Council 
was to be construed in New York, not only as 
providing new governors and laws for the set- 
tlers, but also as annulling the titles to the lands 
they 'occupied. Those rumors became confirm- 
ed, in the course of the summer and fall, by the 
appearance among them of numbers of men 
from the metropolis of the province, having with 
them surveyors employed in running and mark- 
ing lines by trees in the woods, and setting up 
stakes and other land-marks in the cleared 
fields, and also by their making direct claims 
to lands, under New York patents. 

Becoming thus alarmed for the security of 
their property, the settlers of the several towns 
in this part of the territory, which had been an- 
nexed to New York, appointed agents to apply 

to the Governor of the province to protect them 
in their possessions. These agents, Samuel 
Robinson of Bennington, and Jeremiah French 
of Manchester, accordingly repaired to New 
York City for that purpose, in the month of De- 
cember, 17G5. But, on making known their 
errand to the Governor, they found the city 
speculators had been altogether too last for 
them ; that the largest and most valuable por- 
tions of their land had been already granted; 
and that, for the poorer land that remained, the 
enormous patent fees which were demanded, 
would be fully equivalent to the actual value of 
the soil. 

Aniong the lands which had thus been grant- 
ed, there may be mentioned as characteristic of 
the others, a grant of 2G,000 acres by the name 
of Princetown, to John Tabor Kempe, James 
Duane and Walter Rutherford, being a tract 
some 12 miles in length, by about 4 in breadth, 
and embracing the whole of the rich valley of 
the Battenkill, which is included in the town- 
ships of Manchester and Sunderland, and the 
largest part of that in Arlington, and a grant 
of 10,000 acres to Crean Brush, covering consid- 
erable portions of the southwesterly part of Ben- 
nington and the northwesterly part of Pownal. 
The persons who have be^n named, for wiiose 
benefit these grants were made, were all New 
York City lawyers — Kempe, the first named, be- 
ing Attorney General of the province. It was 
well known in New York, that these lands had 
long b-en granted by the province of New 
Hampshire, and were actually occupied under 
such grants ; and the patents were procured ia 
utter disregard of the rights and claims of the 
settlers. Such was the general character of the 
early New York grants. They were made by 
Lieut. Governor Golden to his favorites and 
friends, for mere purposes of speculation — the 
grantees, in their turn, gratifying him by tho 
payment of the patent fees, which they expect- 
ed speedily to realise, with enormous additions, 
from the avails of the land. 

The controversy occasioned by the grantmg 
by New York of the lands that had been pre- 
viously granted by New Hampshire, which re- 
sulted in a revolution that severed the territory 
from the jurisdiction of New York, btjlongs 
rather to the history of the State of Vermont 
than to that of any single town. The people 
of Bennington, however, took a leading and im- 
portant part in the controversy ; and a brief no- 
tice of the grounds of the dispute seems indis- 
pensable to a right understanding of subsequent 
events with which they were connected. 

The King's Order in Council of July, 1764, de- 
claring " tiie western bank of the river Connec- 
ticut to be ' the eastern boundary of New York, 
was construed by the ruling authorities of the 



province, as not only asserling what its bound- 
ary should he in future, but as affirming what it 
always had heen ; and hence they held that the 
grants of the Governor of New Hampshire, hav- 
ing been of lands not within bis province, were 
absolutely null and void. But they did not re- 
ly wholly, or indeed mainly, upon this doubtful 
construction of the King's Order. They claim- 
ed that the Connecticut River was the original 
boundary of New York, under and by virtue 
of the charter of King Chailes to the Duke of 
York, in 1764, and that such had ever continu- 
ed to be its rightful extent. The language of 
the charter, though confused and unintelligible, 
as a description of any definite territory, seem- 
ed, nevertheless, to favor the claim ; and, in- 
deed, unexplained by the lights of history and 
contemporaneous exposition, to give it an air of 
strong plausibility. It is not, however, intend- 
ed to discuss this question of legal right. It is 
deemed sufficient for our present purpose to 
state, that prior to the King's order of July, 1764, 
New York had never, for a single moment, exer- 
cised jurisdiction to any part of Connecticut 
River ; that New Hampshire had been repeat- 
edly recognized by the King and his Ministry, 
as extending westward to Lake Champlain, and 
to a line running southerly from that Lake to 
the northwest corner of Massachusetts, the pres- 
ent western boundary of Vermont ; tha!t in all 
the English and American maps of the period, 
and they are numerous, New York is represent- 
ed as bounded on the east by the last mention- 
ed line, and that such line was universally un- 
derstood, both in Old and New England, to'be 
the boundary between the two provinces of 
New Hampshire and New York. 

But even if it should be found, that the title 
of the settlers to the lands they occupied was 
not a strictly legal one, no question can be made 
but that it was in a high degree equitable. The 
Lands had been granted in the name of the 
King, by one of his royal Governors having ap- 
parent jurisdiction over them, and had been 
purchased in good faith by the settlers, and 
made valuable by then- improvements, they 
fully believing in the validity of their titles. It 
would be manifestly unjust and oppressive, and 
indeed a palpable fraud in the Crown, for him 
the allow another of his subordinates to deprive 
them of property thus acquired, or to require 
them to purchase it of him a second time. Yet 
such oppression and fraud was atempted, and 
earnestly sought to be consummated, by the 
governor and council of New York, and, as we 
have alrendy seen, from base and sinister mo- 

The situation of the people of Benningttm at 
this lime is so fairly audpleasamly stated by Mr. 

Bancroft, in his history ol the United States, (vol- 
5, p. 201,) that we cannot forbear to quote it. — 
Referring to a letter of Gov. Hutchinson to Gov 
Pownal, of July 10, I7G5, Mr. Bancroft says: 

" Men of New England, ' of a superior sort,' 
had obtained of the government of New Hamp- 
shire a warrant for land down the western slope 
. f the Green Mountains, on a branch of the 
Hoosick, 20 miles east of Hudson River; form- 
ed already a community of G7 lamilies, in as 
many houses, wiih an ordained minister; had 
elected their own municipal officers ; formed 3 
several public schools ; set tlieir meeting house 
among tiieir primeval forests of beech aud ma- 
ple; and, in a word, enjoyed the .flourishing 
state which springs from rural industry, intelli- 
gence and unaffected piety. Tliey called tlieir 
village Bennington. The royal officers at New 
York disposed anew of that town, as well as 
of others near it, so that the King wa-; known 
to the settlers near the Green Mountains, cinef- 
ly by his agents who had knowingly sold his 
lands twice over. In this way the soil of Ben- 
nington became a fit battle-field lor Independ- 

On the first of November, 1765, the famous 
Stamp Act went into effect, and the stamps 
which Lieut. Gov. Colden received from Eng- 
land having been forcibly wrested from him by 
a general rising of a patriot mob of New York 
City, and placed beyond his reach, he was un- 
able to authenticate his patents, aud the grant- 
ing them was consequently suspended until the 
news of the repeal of the act was received ia 
June, 1766. In the mean time, Lieut. Gov. Col- 
den had been succeeded in the administration 
of the government of the province by Sir Hea- 
ry Moore. He issued patents less rapidly, and 
with somewhat more regard to the claims of the 
grantees under New Hampshire, tnan Mr. Col- 
den had done. Still the dangers of the settlers 
from the patents already issued, as well as Irom 
new grants, were imminent, aud they resolved 
to apply directly to the Crown for relief. Peti- 
tions, stating the grievances under which they 
labored, were accordingly prepared and exten- 
sively signed, and Samuel Robinson, of Ben- 
nington, was appointed their agent to present 
them to the King. He reached London early in 
the year 1767, and so far succeeded in his mis- 
sion as to obtain an order from the King in Coun- 
cil, under date of July 24, 1767, forbidding the 
Governor of New York, in the most positive 
terms, from granting any more lands in the dis^ 
puted territory, until his Majesty's further pleas- 
ure should be made known. But while Mr. 
Robinson was stdl seeking for relief from the 
grants which had already been made, liis mis- 
sion was unfortunately terminated by his sud- 
den death. (See biographical sl<etch.) 

The order of the King, prohibiting further 



grants, accompanied and followed, as it was, by 
severe reprin)an''s. fmm the ministry, of tlie 
New York govemorvS, for their selfish and un- 
feeling treatment of the New Ilarapshire grant- 
e js, seems lo have greatly discouraged the claim- 
ants under the former patents ; and governor 
Moore, respecting and obeying, at least ost n- 
sibly, the King's order, the settlers wore left in 
comparative quiet during the remainder of his 
administration ; which, however, terminated by 
his death, in September, 1769. lie was suc- 
ceeded by Lieut. Gov. Golden, and new attacks 
upon the settlers immediately commenced. — 
Within a fcw days the Lieut. Governor pncur- 
ed the formal advice of his Council, to the effect 
that the King's order forbidding grants had b en 
wrongly understood by Gov. Moore, as applj'^- 
ing to the whole territory which had been a:> 
nexed to New York ; wherens, it should only 
apply to sucli lands within it as had been actu- 
ally granted by New Hampshire. He accord- 
ingly proceeded at once to issui; new patents 
to the speculators, as fast as they were ready 
to furnish the fees, paying no regard, whatever, 
to the distinction made in the advice of his Coun- 
cil; but granting indiscriminately, as well the 
lands which had been previously granted by 
New Hampshire, as those which had not. The 
claimants under Coldcn's former patents taking 
courage from his countenance and decisive con- 
duct, made formal demands of the settlers for 
the surrender of their [)ossessions, and, on their 
refusal to comply, commenced actions of eject- 
ment against tiiem before the Court at Albany. 

It is proper to mention here, that there was a 
tract of land in the nonhwesterly part of Ben- 
nington, which stood upon a somewhat different 
footing from that of any other New York grant, 
being embraced in a patent issued prior to the 
charter of the township bj'' New Hampshire. — 
It was included in a ratent of 12,000 acres call- 
ed Wallcomsack, which had been granted in 
1739. It began in the province of New York 
near the present village of North Hoosick, and, 
in order to embrace the windings of the stream 
and ihe rich land along its banks, was very ir- 
regular in form, having not less than ten angles 
or corners. It was, in fact, very much in the 
shape of a short-legged boot, the toe of which 
reached up into Bennington, covering the farm 
of James Breakcnridge. Mr. Breakenridge was 
the first occupant ; and it was not until he had 
been in possession several j'ears, and had made 
extensive improvements, that he was aware of 
the existence of this adverse claim. 

The New Yorkers, considering this as a favor- 
able patent under which to carry on their at- 
tacks upon the seltlers, not only demanded the 
possessions of Breakenridge, and served him with 
a writ of ejectment, but procured the appoint- 

ment of Commissioners under the Quit Rent 
law of the province, t'~>v the purptjse of divid- 
ing his land among the New York claimants. 
Tlie Commissioners, with surveyors and cliiiin- 
nien, made their appearance on his possessions, 
Oct. 19, 1769, where they found a consideiable 
number of men collected, some of them armed, 
but mostly engaged in harvesting corn. The 
(Commissioners and their attendants not relish- 
ing the presence of so great a number of peo- 
ple, called on them to disperse, which request 
not being complied with. Esquire Munro, of 
whom we shall learn more hereafter, advanced 
and read to them the riot act; but without much 
effect. No actual violence appears to have 
been offered; but the New York party, having 
cause to appiehend resistance if they continued 
their survey, became intimidated, and gave up 
tlieir undertaking. They made a report of their 
proceedings to Lieut. Gov. Golden, who issued 
ills proclamation for the apprehension of the of- 
fenders as rioters, naming, a" " the principal 
authors and actors in th.e riot," James Breaken- 
ridge, Rev. Jedediah Dewey, Samuel Robinson, 
Nathaniel Holmes Henry Walbridge and Moses 
Robinson. They were soon afterwards indicted 
as riotere, in the Court at Albany, but none of 
:hem were ever arrested, or brought to trial. 

The next June (1770) came on the ejectment 
trials at Albany. The Court took jadieial no- 
tice that the province of New York liad always 
extended eastward to Connecticut River ; and, 
holdi' g the New Hampshire charters produced 
by the defendants to be null and void, refused 
to allow them to be read to the jury. Verdicts 
were consequently very readily obtained for 
the plaintiffs. 

Ethan Allen is first heard of on the New 
Hampshire grants, in connection witli these tri- 
als. He had resided in Salisbury, Ct.. and came 
to Bennington about this time — was a proprie- 
tor under some of the New Hampshire charters, 
and assisted the defendants in preparing the 
cases for trial. It is related of Allen, that after 
the trials were over, .At;orney General Kempe, 
with two or three other gentlemen interested 
in tiie New York grants, called upon him and 
advised him to return to his Green Mountain 
friends, and persuade them to make the best 
terras they could with their new Inndloriis, inti- 
mating that however fair their claim might be, 
ii had certainly now become desperate, and re- 
minding him of the proverb, " that might makes 
right." To this proposal AUeii-meiely replied, 
" that the gods of the valleys were not the gods 
of the hills." This bconic figure of speech 
he left to be interpreted by his visitors, .adding 
only, when an explanation was asked by the 
King's Attorney, that if he would come to Ben- 



nington, the vieaning should he made clear to 

Among the judgments in Ejectment, which 
had been recovered at Albany, were tuo for 
lands in Bennington, one against James Break- 
enridge, who resided towards the north west 
part of the town, about a mile from New York 
line, at the place now occupied by his grandson, 
John Breakenridge. The other judgment was 
against Josiah Fuller, whose house and farm 
were in the southeasterly part of the town, a 
little to the eastward of the present residence 
of Tliomas Jewett. Dr. Fuller, the defendant, 
bad been settled on the farm for several years, 
when it was granted by Golden to one Slaugh- 
ter, under date of May 30, 17G5, before the oc- 
cupant could possibly have had an opportunity 
to apply for a confirmation of his New Hamp- 
shire title. 

On the return of the defendants and their 
friends to Bennington, a meeting of the settlers 
of tiie town was called to determine what should 
be done. It was plainly a matter in which 
their all was at stake. By the decision of the 
New York judges their titles were all declared 
to be invalid, and the only alternative left tliem 
was to surrender their property to their merce- 
nary enemies, or bid defiance to the process of 
the court. After duly considering the conse- 
quences of whichever course they should take, 
they resolved upon the latter. They according- 
ly voted to take the farms of Breakenridge and 
Fuller under the protection • of the town, and 
to defend them against the New York officers, 
at all hazzards. 

Encouraged by the success of the Albany 
trials, the New York claimants of the Walloom- 
sack patent made a second attempt to divide 
the lands of Mr. Breakenridge between them, 
but met with quite as decided opposition as be- 
fore, whereupon Lord Dunmore, then governor 
of the province, issued his proelamat'on for the 
arrest of the "rioters;" Simeon Hatheway, 
Moses Scott, Jonathan Fisk and Silas Robinson, 
being designated "as the principal authors and 
actors in the riot and breach of the peace." 
These persons, with twelve others, were indict. 
ed as rioters, and the sheriff of Albany county 
with his under officers, aided by Jo!m Munro, 
soon afterwards succeeded in arresting one of 
their number. Tnis John Munro had seated 
himself on Little White Creek, just within the 
limits of the town of Shaftsbary, under the pat- 
ronage of Duane and Kempe, the noted New 
York speculators, with whom he kept up an 
active correspondence. He had been commis- 
sioned as a justice of the peace for the county 
of Albany, and was not only ready to exercise 
his judicial functions against the New Hamp- 

shire settlers, but al-'o, when occasion 6ftered, 
to act in the capacity of constable or sheriff's 
assistant in airestitig them. Silas Robinson, 
one of the party indicted, resided on the main 
road, about two miles north of tije Bennington 
village, at the place now occupied by Stephen 
Robinson. Early in the of the 29th 
of Nov., the sheriff and his party went to bia 
house, and coming upf.n him when he was off 
his guard, succeeded in taking him piisoner: 
and by returning with great speed before notice 
could be given to Lis nt'i/hbors, they were en- 
abled to carry him off to Albany, where ho was 
detained in jail for several months. He is be- 
lieved to have been the onlj' settler in the 
grants whom the Yorkers, as they were styled, 
were ever able to arrest and punish as a rioter, 
thoiigh great numbers were accused ;rffd indict- 
ed as such. 

Now came on the great trial at Benning-ton 
that was to determine the strength of New, 
York laws, and the fate of the settlers. Sever- 
al attempts had been made by the Sherifi" of 
Albany to execute writs of possession against 
Breakenridge and Fuller; but he had been so 
effectually threatened and opposed, that they 
had all proved uusucces.sful, and there seemed 
no other way for the plaintiffs to acquire the 
possession of the farms of the defendants, than 
for the sheriff to call to his aid the power of the 
county. This was accordingly resolved upon, 
and great preparations made to ensure its 

Sheriff Ten Eyck made a general summons 
of the citizens of Albany, and when he left the 
c'ty for Bennington, on the morning of the 28th 
of July, 1771, he found himself at the head of 
over three hundred variously armed men, of 
different occupations and professions ; among 
whom, of the gentry of the town, were the 
Mayor and several Aldermen, and four eminent 
counsellore of the law, viz : Messrs. Sylvester, 
Robert Yates, Christopher Yates, and Mr. 
Bleecker. The party halted for the night at 
Sancoik, just below the present village of North 
Hoosick, and having received some addition to 
its numbers by new levies on the way, took up 
its march the next morning for the residence 
of Mr. Breakenridge, some 6 or 7 miles dis- 

The settlers had received notice of the ap- 
proach of the sheriff and his posse, qnd had pre- 
pared themselves for their reception. Mr. Break- 
enridge's house was situated about a mOe from 
the New Yoik line at the foot of a slight ridge 
of land running east and west, then covered 
with woods ; along the southerly side of which 
ridge ran the road past the house, and by 
which from the west, the posse would naturally 



come. ' In this woods, so far behind the ridge 
as to allow only their hqads and the points ot 
their muskets to be obscurely seen among the 
trees from the road, were posted nearly 100 
well armed men. Across a cleared field to the 
southeast of the house, in sight and within gun 
shot of it, was another somewhat smaller body 
of armed men. The house itself had been- pre- 
pared against an assault by strong bai ricades 
for the door, and loopholes in the walls from 
which to fire upon assailants, and within it 
were 18 resolute men, well supplied with the 
proper means for defence, and provide 1 with a 
red flag to be hoisted from the chimney, to no- 
tify their friends without whenever their assist- 
ance should be needed. The family of Mr. B., 
had taken up their abode at a neighbors, and in 
this condition the settlers calmly awaited the 
approach of their adversaries. 

When the advanced party of the Sheriff's 
posse reached the bridge, (now the Henry 
bridge) half a mile to the north-west of Break- 
enridgc's, they found it guarded by "six or sev- 
en men in arms who said they had orders to 
stop them." However, after some conversation 
it was agreed that a few of the party might pass 
for the purpose of seeing Mr. Brenkenridge, up- 
on condition that no more should cross until 
their return. These headed by Mayor Cuyler, 
were then conducted near Mr. B's house, where 
they found him in company with some 20 or 
30 others. On being inquired of why so many 
men were assembled, with the apparent design 
of opposing the Sheriff, Mr. B. gave thcci for 
answer that he had no farther concern with the 
form, " but that the township had resolved to take 
the same under their protection, and that they in- 
tended to keep it." This tlie Mayor told him v/as 
a mere evasion, which would not excuse him 
from the consequences that might ensue ; " but 
that whatever blood should be spilled, in op- 
posing the King's writ, would be required from 
his hands." After more discourse it was agreed 
that Mr. B. should have some further communi- 
cation with his friends: that the Mayor and his 
party should return to the bridge, where they 
should be informed in half an hour of the result 
of his conference. 

At the end of the half hour the Sheriff, who 
had now reached the bridge with his whole par- 
ty, was notified by a message from the settlers, 
that the possession vi'ould not be given up, " but 
would be kept, at all events." Whereupon the 
Sheriff gave order for the posse to march forward 
to the house, but not more than 20 or 30 could be 
persuaded to cross the bridge, and most of those 
with much apparent reluctance. The men com- 
prising the Sheriffs party had by this time ob- 
tahied an inkling of the kind of reception they 

were hkely to meet with, and were unwilling 
to expose their lives in a cause in which they 
had no interest, and of the justice of which they 
were not well assured. In fact a majority of 
them disapproved of the conduct of the specu- 
lators, and sympathized with the settlers in 
their deLnce of tlieir property. 

The Shtriff. and those who accompanied him, 
on approaching the house, held a parley with 
the leaders of tlie settlers, in which counsellor, 
Robert Yates used many ingenious arguments 
drawn from his knowledge of legal lore, to con- 
vince them that the New York claimants had a 
very clear right to deprive them of tiieir farms, 
and appropriate them to their own use. But 
t'';e argument3 proving much less successful 
than wlien they had been offered to the New 
York judges, the Sheriff seized an axe, and, 
going towards the door of the house, threaten- 
ed to break it open. Immediately the party in 
the field perceiving his movements presented 
their pieces towrads him, upon which he very 
suddenly came to the conclusion that -'discre- 
tion was the better part of valor," and retired. 
On returning to the bridge the Sheriff thought 
proper, (probably to save himself from censure) 
10 make a formal request of the posse to accom- 
pany him five miles further into the township 
of Bennington, to aid him in taking possession 
of tlie form of Mr. Josiah Euller ; but as no one 
seemed inclined to venture further in that di- 
rection, that part of the programme of the ex- 
pedition from Albany was concluded to be omit- 
ted, and "the power of the county" was allow- 
ed to evaporate— the men comprising it, dis- 
persing with all commendable speed to their 
several homes, thus leaving the settlers in qui- 
et occupation of their property, and illustrating 
the truth of 'tne quaint apothegm put forth by 
Allen after the trials at Albany, " that the gods 
of the valleys were not the gods of the hills."* 

It is scarcely possible to over estimate the 
importance, in the New York controversy, of 
this discomfiture of the sheriff and his posse. 
It not only gave confidence to the New Ilamp- 
sriire claimants in their ability to defend their 
possessions, but served to convince their oppo- 
nents that the feelings of the body of tlieir own 
people were in unison with those of the settlers, 
and that any attempt to gain possession of the 

* This account of the expedition of the Sheriff and 
his posse is prepared from a comparison of that by Ira 
Allen, in his History of A'ermont, with sutidry otliers 
of meinbers of the posse, found in the 4th vol. of the 
Documentary History of New York, and with a manu- 
script letter of Robert Yates. E.«q., written to his 
friends, Messrs. Duane & Kempe, immediately on his 
return from Bennington, and dated July 20, 1771. This 
letter is more particular in details than any of the oth- 
er accounts. 



disputed lands, by calling into public action the 
civil power of the province, would necessarily 
prove unavailing. This defeat of the New 
York clainaantss was the entering wedge that 
eventually severed tlie people of the New 
Hampshire Grants from a province to which 
they bad been unknowingly annexed by the 
arbitrary will of the Crown. Here, in fact, on 
the farm of James Breakenridge, was born the 
future State of Vermont, which, struggling 
through the perils of infancy, had, by tlie com- 
mencement of the general revolution, acquired 
the activity and strength of adventurous youth ; 
by its close reached the full stature of manhood, 
and not long afterwards had become the ac- 
knowledged equal of its associate American 

From the time of the retreat of the Sheriff's 
posse from Bennington, the forcible opposition 
to the New York patentees took a more defin- 
ite and systematic form, throughout the several 
townships on the west side of the Green Moun- 
tain, being more fully regulated by conventions, 
and carried into effect by a military association 
which had been organized for that purpose 
One company of tliis military organization was 
formed in Bennington, of which Seth Warner 
was Captain, and other similar companies were 
organized in other townships, the whole, when 
acting together, to bo commanded by Ethan 
Allen, to whom the title of Colonel was given. 
In defiant contempt of a reported threat of tlie 
governor of New York, that lie would " drive 
the opposers of his government into the Green 
Mountains," this military body assumed for 
themselves the name of Green iluuntain Boys, 
which eventually became an honorable appel- 
lation for the hardy freemen of the territory thej^ 
inhabited. This name was not, however, read- 
ily recognized by the New Yorkers as a proper 
designati^jxjf their antagonists, who shared the 
common lot of all early opposers of government 
oppression, of being stigmatized as "rioters." 
"conspirators," and "wanton disturbers of the 
public peace." These and other opprobrious 
terms were applied to them, when spoken of 
individually. Collectively, they were usually 
styled "the Bennington Mob," continuing to be 
called by this name, in the New York corres- 
pondence and official accounts of them, long 
after Bennington and its vicinity had ceased to 
be ihe place of their active operations. 

But the New York claimants and govern- 
ment officials did not enjoy a monopoly in the 
calling of h-^rd names. They iu tlieir turn were 
commonly designated by the New Hampshire 
settlers as " Yorkers," as " Yorkites," and were 
not unfrequeutly called "unfeeling speculators" 
' laud jobbers,' ' land thieves,' ' land pirates,' &c. 

But the New York controversy, more especi- 
ally from this jjeriod, belongs to the history of 
the state, rather than to that of a town", and 
cannot with propriety be pursued further iu our 
sketch of Benninuton. It may, however, be 
stated that the head quarters of the opponents 
of New York continued, for a longtime, to be 
at Bennington ; the place where the councils 
of the leaders were held, where their plans 
were devised and matured, being at the Green 
Mountain tavern kept by Stephen Fay, the sign 
of which was the stuffed skin of a Catamount, 
with teeth grinning towards New York. When 
Allen, Baker and Cochran, in daring mockery 
of a proclamation of the governor of New York 
for their apprehension, issued printed handbills 
over their signatures offering a reward of £15 
for James-Duane, and £10 for Attorney Gener- 
al Kempe, "those common disturbers of the 
public peace," as they were styled, were requir- 
ed to be delivered "at Landlord Fay's, in Ben- 

The house where this then famous tavern was 
kept, and which was subsequently occupied by 
the council of safety during the trying period 
of the Revolution, is still standing, being the 
second dwelling north of the Court House, on 
the same side of the highway. It is now occu- 
pied by Samuel Fay, Esq., a grandson of the 
original proprietor, a venerable and worthy 
representative of the olden time, now in the 
89th year of his age, having been born Aug. 16, 
1772. He was conscquentl}'- just five years old 
on the day of Bennington battle, of which he 
has a recollection. He also distinctly re- 
members Gov. Thomas Chittenden, Gen. Ethan 
Allen, Col. Seth Warner, and other notables in 
the youthful days of Vermont. He served as 
deputy to Sheriff David Robinson for 14 years, 
from 1793 to 1811, and from that time for 12 
years, until 1823, aa Sheriff of the county, the 
duties of which offices he performed to the en- 
tire satisfaction of all Long may he live in the 
continued enjoyment of the respect and affec- 
tion of his large circle of acquaintances and 


The opening of the revolutionary war found 
the people of Bennington nominally under the 
jurisdiction of New York, but substantially in- 
dependent, obeying only the decrees of commit- 
tees and conventions, and of their own town 
meetings. In none of the proceedings of the 
town was the authority of New York ever re- 
cognized. The warnings of their meetings up 
to the year 1770 are headed "Province of New 
Hampshire" — after that date no province is 



specified. Tlie peop'e of the towa had been 
prepared to enter actively into tlie contest for 
American liberty, by sharing in the generai 
hostility to the arbitrary measures of the British 
crown and ministry ; by sympathy with their 
friends in Massachusetts and Connecticut, from 
whenc3 they had emigrated ; by deep distrust 
of a monarch who had permitted his greedy 
servants, in his name, to grant his lands twice 
over, and to persecute his first grantees as fel- 
ons and outlaws; by the hesitaiing and tardy 
manner in which tlieir old enemies of the 
province of New York had seconded the patri- 
otic measures of the other colonies, and finally, 
by the massacre, by the king's New York offi- 
cers, of one of the inhabitants of the New- 
Hampshire Grants at Westminster. 

The people of Bennington were well aware of 
the importance of the post of Ticonderoga, in 
the approaching contest, and early in March, 
1775, their committee had agreed with John 
Brown, an agent of Samuel Adams and Joseph 
Warren, of the Massachusetts committee, that 
the Green Mountain Boys would hold them- 
selves in readiness to seize that fort, wlienever 
they should learn that hostilities had been com- 
menced by the King's forces in that province. 
Wlien, therefore, a few days after the Battle of 
Lexington, messengers arrived from Connecti- 
cut, accompanied by Brown, for the purpose of 
collecting a force to make an attack upon that 
place, they found here a body of men with 
minds already prepared for the expedition. The 
old military corps which had done effectual ser- 
vice in guarding the territory from the intru- 
sion of the Yorkers, and occasionally adminis- 
tering raiher sharp punishment to some of the 
most incorrigible of them, was speedily mus- 
tered and on their way to the Lake ; the town 
of Bennington furnishing the Commander and 
two of the Captains, Warner and Herrick, as 
well as a considerable portion of the officers and 
men. But the detaQs of this expedition, and 
also its important consequences, belong to gen- 
eral history. The immediate result of it was 
the well-known surrender of the fortress, on 
the demand of Allen, to a two-fold authority, one 
of which, that of " the Continental Congress," 
had, perhaps, never before been heard of by 
the garrison, and the other — it has been rather 
uncharitably suggested — was probably not 
much better known to them. 

The news of this unanticipated event came 
upon the friends of the King like a clap of 
thunder in a clear sky, and seemed a melancholy 
presage of the future. Lieut. Gov. Colden, who 
was then adminis'.ering the government of New 
York, and devoting all his energies to sustain 
the odious measures of his royal master, in giv- 

ing a doleful account of the great misfortune to 
Lord Dartmouth, the English minister, seems to 
seek some consolation in the fact, that the 
King's loyal and order-loving subjects, in the 
old colony of New York, were not concerned 
in it. " The only people of this province," he 
says in his dispatch, "who had any hand in 
tliis expedition, were thacsct of lawless people, 
whom your Lordship has heard much of, under 
the name of the Bennington Mob." 

Neither the prescribed limits of this sketch, 
nor the time permitted for its preparation, will 
allow of a detailed account of the part taken 
by the town of Bennington, as sucli, or its peo- 
ple, as individuals, in the Revolutionary strug- 
gle. Only some of the most prominent matters 
can be noticed, and most of them must be haati, 
ly passed over. 

In the regiment of Green Mountain Boya 
which was raised under the advite of ihe Con- 
tinental Congress, in the summer of 1775, for 
service in Canada, the town of Bennington was 
represented by Seth Warner, as its Lieut. Col- 
and Commandant, Samuel Safford as Major, 
Wait Hopkins as (Japtain, and Jolm Fassctt, jr.' 
Lieutenant, and by many others, in different 
capacities. Among the important services per- 
formed by this regiment was ihe decisive defeat 
of Gen. Carlton, at Longuiel, which prevented 
Ills furnishing relief lo St. Johns, and caused 
its immediate surrender, and also the abandon- 
ment of Montreal to.tlie American forces under 
Gen. Montgomery. 


The year 1716 opened with the gloomy intel- 
ligence of die defeat and fall of Montgomery be. 
fore Quebec, and with a strong appeal from Gen. 
Wooster, in Canada, for re-inforcements from the 
Grants. Col. Warner, whose regiment of Green 
Mountain Boys had been but a few weeks hon- 
orably discliarged, again beat up for volunteers, 
and he was in a few days at the head of another 
regiment, which immediately marched to Que- 
bec, and endured the hardships and penis of a 
winter campaign, bringing up the rear of the 
retreating American army the ensuing spring. 
No list of either the officers or men comprising 
this regiment has been found A fragment of 
a pay-roll merely shows that Gideon Brownson 
of Sunderland, was Captain of one of the com- 
panies, of which Ebenzer Walbridge, of this 
town, was Liutenant, as well as Adjutant of 
the regiment. 

The Continental Congress was so well satis- 
fied with the services, in Canada, of the men 
from the New Hampshire Grants, that a resolu- 
tion ■v^as pasted on the 5ch of July, 1776, for 
raising a separate Continental regiment of reg- 



ular troops, the officers of which were appointed 
from that territory. Of this regiment — which 
continued ^n service through the war — Seth 
Warner, .the Colonel, Samuel Safford,' Lieut. 
Colonel, "Wait Hopkins, Captain, Joseph Safford, 
Lieutenant, Jacob Safford, Ensign, and Beja- 
min Hopkins, Adjutant, were from Bennington. 

By the retreat of the American forces from 
Canada, the northern portion of the Grants be- 
came exposed to the invasions of the enemy, 
and at a town meetiu'^- held Sept. '2?>, 1776, it 
was voted to raise £90, "as an encouragement 
of those who may enlist into the service of 
guarding the frontier towns in the grants," to 
be appropriated in bounty of "forty shillings 
per man." It was also voted "to raise a suffi- 
ciency of money to pay those that went from 
this town, last June or July, to guard said fron- 
tier, if the Continent dont pay them." 

In October, upon notice from Gen. Gates, 
then in command on the Lakes, of an expected 
attack upon Ticonderoga, the militia of Ben- 
nington and the neighboring towns, under Col. 
Moses Robinson, turned out en masse,a,nd march- 
ed to his relief. At the same time Mr. Yancey, 
the commissary of that department, address 
ed a letter to the chairman of the committee of 
the town of Bennington, informing him that an 
immediate supply of flour was necessary for 
the subsistence of the army, and urging the 
conSmittee, in the most pressing terms, lo col- 
lect and forward at once all that was in their 
power. The next day after the receipt of this 
requisiiion, Nathan Clark, the chairmaa of the 
committee, returned for answer, that 1000 bush- 
els of wheat had been collected, and was being 
ground at the mills, and would be forwarded 
as fast as possible ; but saying " that I he militia 
having lefi us almost to a man, renders it very 
difficult to furnish assistance to convey what we 
have already on hand," and suggesting tlie pro- 
priety of discharging some of the militia, for 
the purpose of having them empl )yed in th^it 
service. F.or their promptness and energy in 
this matter, the Committee not only received 
the very warm thanks of the Commissiary, 
but also a dispatch from Deputy Adj.' General 
Trumbull, in which he says, " The General has 
seen your letter to Mr. Yancey, and directs me 
to return you his most cordial thanks for the 
zeal you expressed for the service of our insult- 
ed country. Agreeable to the request of the 
Committee, he has ordered one of the Compa- 
nies from your town to return for the purpose 
of assisting in a work so neccessary for the good 
of the army." The alarm for the safety of Ti- 
conderoga passed over, and Col. Robinson's 
regiment of militia were discharged eaily in the 
month of November. On dismissing them from 

service, the General addressed to Col. Robinson 
a testimonial of their service as follows: 

Ticonderoga, Nov. 9, 1776. 
To Col. Moses Robinson': — 

iSiR — I am to return to you 
and the officers an 1 men of your regiment my 
sincere thanks, for the spirit and alertness you 
have shown in marching to the defence of this 
important post, when tlireatened with an im- 
mediate attack from the enemy, I now, gen- 
tlemen, dismiss you with honor. I also ceriify 
that neither you nor any of your officers have 
received any pay from me fir your services on 
this occasion. That I leave to be settled and 
adjusted between your State and tlio general 
Congress of all the United States, With senti- 
ments of gratitude and respect, 
I am, Sir, your most 

Obedient humble servant, 

Horatio Gates. 

A roll of one of the companies from Benning- 
ton whicli was in service on this occasion, has 
been found among the papers of Captain Elijah 
Dewey, who commanded it. The following is 
a copy ; 

"Pay Roll of Captain Elijah Dewey's Ci.m- 
pany in Col. Moses Robinson's Regiment of the 
Militia in the service of the United States of 
America, Mount Indepondenc?, 1776. 

Elijah Dowey, Capt., Ebeuezer Walbridge, 
1st. L'eut., Thomas Jewett, 2d Lieut, Xathau- 
iel Fillmore, Ensign — Joseph Rudd, Daniel Uar- 
man, John Fa}', Sergeants, ,Iohn Smiih, Jede- 
diah Merrdl, Thomas Story, Corporals. [Pri- 
vates] Samuel Cutler, Ezekiel Ilarman, Joseph 
Wickwire, D.miel Kinsley, Jonathan P..rsons, 
Andrew Weaver, Abner Marble, Phineas Scott, 
Aaron Haynes, Silas Harman, Joseph Robin- 
son, Ezekiel Smith, Seth Porter, David Powers, 
Ilopestill Armstrong, Joseph Willoughby, Sam- 
uel Hunt, Joshua Carpenter, Othniel Green, 
Piiilip Matteson, Roswel Moseley." 


The people of Bennington took an active and 
patriotic part in the stirring events of the year 

Anxious to complete the regiment of Col. 
Warner, which was to represent their town and 
the New Hampshire Grants in the regular con- 
tinental army, the town, at a meeting held the 
14th of April, voted to raise £240-lawful money, 
($800) to be paid in bounties of $40 to each 
man from the town that should enlist in such 

In the month of June, on the advance of Bur- 
goyne up Lake Champlain, the militia regiment 
f'f Co!. Moses Robinson, which among other 
companies included two from this town, was 
called into service, and was at Mount Indepen- 
dence when that fort, together with Ticondero- 
ga, was evacuated by St. Clair, July 6, 1777. 
At this time the Convention for forming the 



Constitution of the slate was assembled at 
Windsor ; but, on i-eceiving the alarming news 
of the loss of these posts, ihey hastily adjourn- 
ed, appointing a Council of Safety to administer 
government until tlie meeting of the legislature 
under the constitution. This Council of Safety 
met at Manchesler the I5th of July, and soon 
afterwards adjourned to Bennington, where it 
continue.l in permanent session until after the 
close of the campaign by the surrender of Bur- 
goyno in October following. Tlie room which 
this boJy occupied during tliis tryiug period is 
still to be seen in the ancient tavern hou.-e of 
"Landlord Fay," with the words "Council- 
room," cut in olden time on the mantle piece. 

The battle of Bennihgton wliich occurred a 
few weeks after tlie evacuation of Ticonderoga 
is doubtless an event which from its character 
and consequences appropriately belongs to gen- 
eral histoiy, though the part taken in it by tlie 
people of Bennington as clearly belongs to that 
of the town. -It would be impossible to make 
the latter reasonably intelligible without some 
general outline of tlie engagement, and of the 
circumstances preceding and attending it. This 
will be done with as much brevity as shall be 
found practicable. 

The progress of Burgoyne towards Albany 
had been so retarded by the natural difiQcu'.tics 
of the route, and the obstructions thrown in his 
way by the Americans, thut it was nearly a 
month after his c ipture of Ticonderoga before 
he had readied j,he Hudson river. Here he 
found himself so deficient in provisions and also 
in cattle and carriages for transportation, that he 
was greatly embarrassed about the means of 
advancing further. The articles he most need- 
ed had been collected in considerable quantities 
at Bennington, as a convenient depot from 
which to supply the American forces. These 
Burgoyne resolved to seize for the use of hi< 
own army. He accordingly detached for that 
purpose a select body of about 500 German reg- 
ulars, some Canadians, a corps of Provincials 
and over 100 Indians, with two light pieces of 
artillery, the whole under the command of Col. 
Baum. To favor their operations, and to fur- 
nish assistance in case of necessity, a detach- 
ment of the British army was posted on the 
east bank of the Hudson, opposite to Saratoga, 
and another detachment of five or six hundred 
Germans, under Col. Breyman, was advanced 
to Battcnkill. Baum set off with the force un- 
der his command, for Bennington, on the morn- 
ing of the 12th of Aug., and arrived that day at 
Cambridge, about 15 miles N. W. from Ben- 

On the evacuation of Ticonderoga by G-en. 
St. Clair, Cols. "Warner and Frances, in charge 

of the guard, were overtaken at Hubbard- 
ton by a greatly superior force of the enemy. 
and after a severe action were defiRated. The 
remnant of Warner's regiment, reduced to but 
little over 100 effective men, assembled at Man- 
chester, where it was stationed until the day 
before tlie battle of Bennington. In order to 
aid in arresting the progress of Burgoyne, a 
brigade of militia had been mustered and sent 
from New Hampshire, under the command of 
Gen. Jo! in Stark. Crossing the mountain from 
Charlestown, (No. 4) he reached Manchester 
the 7th of August. — Finding that a considerable 
body of the enemy which had been for some 
time at Castleton, threatening Manchester, and 
to cross over to the Connecticut river, had 
marched to the Hudson, Gen. Stark with his 
brigade passed on to Bennington, where he ar- 
rived the 9th of August. His troops encamped 
about two miles west of the meeting-house, 
near the then residence of Col. H rdck, more 
lately known as the Bimmick place, where they 
remained for five days ; Gen. Stark in the mean 
time, collecting information in regard to the po- 
sition and designs of the enemy, and consulting 
with the Council of Safety and with Col. War- 
ner, who was also at Bennington, in regard to 
future operations. 

On the 13th Isaac Clark and Eleazer Edger- 
ton, two scouts from this town in the service 
of the council of safety brought information tliat 
a party of Indians were at Cambridge, and Gen. 
Scark sent Lieut. Col. Gregg, of his brigade, 
with 200 men, to stop their progress : but dur- 
ing the following night ho was advised that a 
large body of troops, with a piece of artilcry, 
was in the rear of the Indians, and that they 
were advancing towards Bennington. On the 
morning of the 14th Stark moved with his brig- 
ade, and such other militia as could be rallied, 
to the support of Gregg, and about 5 miles from 
Bennington, met him retreating before the en- 
emy. Stark drew up his men in order of battle, 
but Baum perceiving the Americans to be too 
sti-ong to be advantageously attacked, halted on 
a commanding piece of ground, commenced 
throwing up entrenchments, and sent back an 
express for re-inforcements. Stark, unable to 
draw him from his position, fell back about a 
mile and encamped; the place of his encamp- 
ment being four miles north westerly from the 
village of Bennington, on tlie farm now owned 
by Paul M. Henry, Esq., to the north east of 
his dwelling house — a considerable portion of 
the camp-ground being now occupied by old 
apple trees. 

The well chosen position of Baum was on the 
summit of a hill which rises abruptly some tlireo 
or four hundred feet from the west bank of the 



Wallooiusack, with somewhat lower hills to the 
north and west of it, and a large plain, then 
partly covered with woods, across the river in 
front. The "Walloomsack, which is a crooked, 
fordable branch of the Hoosick, after running a 
northerly direction for half a mile beyond the 
encampment of Stark, turns gradually to the 
west-, and then again suddenly to the south, in 
which direction it passes the encampment of 
Baum, and then takes a westei'ly course by 
Sancoik, which is about two miles below the 
position of Baum. The encamprm/nts of the two 
ho.^tile armies were about two miles from each 
otiier, and tlie road from Bennington, by San- 
coik to Cambaidge, passed both of them ; but 
by reason of the bend in the river, crossing it 
twico between them. On the hill, of which 
Baum had taken possession, which was covered 
with woods, he immediately commenced throw- 
ing up entrenchments of earth and timber, and 
continued thus to strengthen his position, until 
the attack upon him coniratnced on the after- 
noon of the 16th; his encampment being al- 
so defended by two brass field-pieces. lie 
had been joined, on his way from the Hud- 
son and at his encampment, by a considerable 
body of loyalists of the vicinity. Among these 
was Francis Pfister, a retired British officer of 
the French war, who re-ided qn what is now as the Tibbetts place, half a mile west 
of Hoosick Four Corners, and was familiarly 
known as Col. Pfister. Th( se loyalists, togeth- 
er with Peter's corps of provincials, were post- 
ed on the other side of the river, ibjce-fourths 
of a mile to the S. E. of Baum, and upon a 
hill considerably lower than that occupied by 
him. Here also were erected works of defence, 
of earth and logs, designated by the Americans 
as the " Tory Breastwork." Tradition, in the 
vicinity, assigns the immediate command of this 
post to Col. Pfister, and there seems no room for 
doubt that he occupied a prominent position 
there as an officer, if he was not in its actual 
command. The road crossed the river about mid- 
way between these two posts, at what has been 
latterly known as the Barnet place, and is at 
the second rail road bridge, in passing from 
North Bennington to Troy. Between the two 
bridges the Batim hill covered with woods, may 
be seen by the traveler from the cars to the right, 
and the place of the " Tory breastwork," in a 
cleared field to he left. 

The force under Gen. Stark consisted of three 
regiments of New Hampshire militia, respect- 
ively commanded by Cols. Hubbard, Stickney 
and Nichols, a small body of militia from the 
east side of the mountain, under Col. Wm. Wil- 
Jiams of Wilmington, a corps of Rangerfe then 
forming under the authority of the Vermont 

Council of Safety, commanded by Col. Herrick, 
a body of militia from Bennington and its vicin- 
ity under Col. Nathaniel Brush, of which there 
were two companies from Bennington, the one 
commanded by Capt. Samuel Robinson and the 
other by Capt. I'^lijah Dewey, and Stai'k was af- 
terwards joined by part of a militia regiment 
from Berkshire county under Col. SimmDiis — 
his whole force probably amounting to about 
IGOO men. 

On the night of the 14th, after taking up his 
encampment, Stark called a council, and it was 
resolved to attack the enemy the next morning. 
But the 15th proved so rainy as to prevent a 
general action i but the exact position of the 
enemy was ascertained by scouts and skirmish- 
ers, and the plan of attack fully matured. The 

morning of the 16th opened bright and clear. 

and to the Americans closed no less brightly, 
But we prefer to allow Gen. Stark to give an ac- 
count of the battle in his own words. This was 
done by him in a letter addressed to Gen. Gates, 
of which the following is an accurate copy. 
General Stark tu General Gates. 

Bennington, Airgust 2'2, 1777. 
Deae General : — 

I received yours of the 19th in- 
stant, which gave me much pleasure ; I beg to 
be excused for n-it answering it; sooner. I have 
been so sick ever since that I could not write, 
neither am I well yet. But General Lincoln 
has written and I joined with him in opinion on 
the subject of his letter. 

I shall now give yoar honor a short account 
of the action on the IGih instant. I was in- 
formed there was a party of Indians in Cam- 
bridge, on tlieir march to tlii.s place ; I sent 
[Lt.] Colonel Gregg of my brigade, to stop 
tlieni wicli two hundred men. In the night I 
was informed, by expr. ss, that there was a 
large body of the enemy on lli"ir march, in the 
reo.r ( f the Indians. I ralli. d all my brigade 
and what militia was a:, this place, i,i order to 
.stop their procjcdings. I likewise sent to Man- 
chester, to Col. Warner's regiment that was 
stationed therr; also sent express for t'lC mili- 
tia to come in with all speed to o;;r assistance, 
which was punctually oboy>.d. I then inarched 
in com.pauy witli Colonels Warner, WilHam.s, 
Ileriick and Brush, with all the men that were 
present. About five miles from thi?. place I 
met Colonel Gregg on his retreat, and th -^nc- 
my in close pursuit after him. I dre\v up my 
little army in order of battle; but when the 
enemy hove in sight, they halted on a very 
advantageous hill or piece of ground. I sent out 
small parties in their front to skirmish with th. m, 
which scheme had a good effect : they kiil-.d 
and wounded thirty of the enemy, without any 
loss on our side ; but the ground that I was on 
did not suit for a general aciion. I marched 
back about one mile and encamped, called a 
council, and it was agreed that' we should send 
two detachments in their rear, while fclio others 
attacked them in front; but the ]5th it rained 




all day, therefore had to lay by — could do noth- 
ing but skirmish wUh tiicm. 

i_;n the lUth, in the morniag, was joined by 
Col. Simmons, with some militia from Berkshire 
conn I y. I pursuc-d ray plan, deracbod Col. 
Nicliols, with two huudred men, to attack them 
in the rear ; I also sent Col. Hcrrick, with three 
hundred men, in the rear ottlieir right, both to 
join, and when joined to attack their camp. 
[Baum's] in the rear ; I also sent Cols. Hub- 
bard and Stickney, with two hundred men to 
tbeir right, [Tory Breastwork,] and sent one 
hundred men in their front, to di-aw away their 
attention that way ; and ab,>ut three o'clock we 
got all ready for iho attack. Col. Nichols be- 
gun the same, which was followed by all the 
re.-t. The remainder of my little army I push- 
ed up in the front, and in a few minutes the ac- 
tion begun in general, it lasted two hours, the 
hottest I ever saw in my life — it represented 
one continued clap of thnndei'; however, the en- 
emy was obliged to give way, and leave their 
field pieces and all their baggage be'iiud them. 
They were all environed with two breast works 
with their artillery, but our martial courage 
proved too hard for them. 

I then gave orders to rally again in order to 
secure the victory, but in a few minutes was 
informed that there was a large re-enforcement 
on I heir march within two miles. — Lucky for us, 
that moment Col. Warner's regiment came up 
fresh, who marched on and begun the attack 
afresh. I pushed forward as many of the men as 
I could to tbeir assistance. The battle continued 
obstinate on both sides till sunset ; the enemy 
was obliged to retreat ; we pursued them till 
dark, but had day light lasted one hour longer,, 
we sliould have taken the whole body of them. 

We recovered [in the two actions] four pieces 
of brass cannon, seven hundred stand of arms/ 
and twelve brass-barreled drums, several Hes- 
sian swords, about seven hundred prisoners, 
two hundred and seven dead on the spot, the 
number of wounded is yet unknown. That 
part of the enemy that made their escape 
marched all night, and we returned to our camp. 

Too much honor cannot be given to the brave 
officers and soldiers for gallant behavior; they 
fought through tlie midst of fire and smoke, 
mounted two breastworks that were well forti- 
fied and supported with cannon. I cannot par- 
tionlarize any ofQcer, as they all bei)aved with 
the greatest spirit and bravery. Col. Warner's 
superior skill in the action was of extraordina- 
ry cervico to me ; I would be glad if he and his 
men could be recommended to Congress. As 
I iJ»omised in my order that tlie soldiers should 
Lave all the plunder taken in the enemy's camp, 
would be glad your honor would send mo word 
what the value of the cannon and other artillery 
stores above described may be. Our loss was 
inconsiderable ; about forty wounded and thirty 
killed. I lost my horse, bridle and saddle in 
the action. 

I am, Sir, your most devoted, and most obe- 
dient humble servant, 

John Stark. 

Gen. Gates, Albany. 

The part taken by Col. Seth Warner in the 

battle of Bennington, though well authenti- 
cated by contemporaneous accounts, has been 
strangely misunderstood, and consequently mis- 
represented by several subsequent historians. 
Both Dr. Williams and Ira Allen in their histo 
ries represent Col. Warner as arriving en the bat- 
tle-ground with his regiment after the first action 
vjos over. 

Now, no historical fact is more certain, than 
that Warner was with Stark, at Bennington, 
for several days previous to, and remained with 
him until after the battle, assisting him in plan- 
ning the first, and in conducting both actions; al- 
though his regiment only reached the ground in 
time to participate in the second engagement. 
The mistake has doubtless arisen from assuming, 
without inquiry, that Warner came in person 
with his regiment from Manchester, where it had 
been stationed ; whereas, it was marched from 
that place under tlie command of Lieut. Col. 
Samuel Safford — Warner himself having been 
for some time at Bennington, 

That Warner was witli Stark at Bennington, 
prior to the attack upon Baum, and not with 
his regiment at Manchester, clearly and dis- 
tinctly appears from Stark's official account of 
the battle above given. Speaking of events 
that occurred on the 1.3th and Hth he says: 
" I likewis3 sent to Manchester, to Col. War- 
ner's regiment that was stationed there ; also 
sent expresses for the militia to come in with 
all speed to our assistance, which was punc- 
tually obeyed ; 1 then marched with Cols. War- 
ner, Williams, Herrick and Brush, with all the 
men that were present." Stark then gives an ac- 
count of his proceedings on the 14th and 15th, 
and of the engagements on the 16th, represent- 
ing Warner's regiment as coming 'a^ fresh, after 
the first act ion, without intimating that Warner 
came up with it. After bis account of all the 
events of the day, he says : " Col. Warner's 
superior skill in the action was of extraordina- 
ry service to me," as it undoubtedly was. 

Gordon in his " History of the Revolution," 
(vol. ii., p. 539,) also states that " Stark march- 
ed with Warner to meet the enemy on the 
morning of the 14th of August," and Dr. 
Thatcher in his contemporaneous journal, says, 
that " on the 1 6th Stark, assisted by Warner, 
matured his plans for the battle," (p. 93.) 
These statements would seem to make it very 
certain, that Col. Warner participated in both 

It maybe further stated in addition, that with- 
out knowing what Stark himself had written 
on the subject, the writer of this sketch had, as 
long ago as 1828, noticed the discrepancy be- 
tween the accounts of Gordon and Williams, 
and had set about ascertaining from the mouths 



ol living persona liow this fact really was. — 
Again, in October, 1833, on receiving a letter 
of inquiry from Edward ICverett, wbo was then 
preparing a life of Stark for Spark's American 
Biography, (see vol. 1, p. 88,) the writer of this 
again renewed the investigation, and now has 
before him the statements of several intelligent 
and truthful survivors of the battle, reduced to 
writing on those occasions, and confirming the 
fact, that Warner was here, at Bennington, with 
Stark, before and during both engagements. 

Among the statements are three which may 
be mentioned, viz : Jacob Saffoed, who was a 
l.eutenaiit in Warner's regiment (see "Journals 
of Congress," for Nov. 18, 1119.) and marched 
with the regiment from Mancliester, under tlie 
command or his brother, Lieut. Col. Samuel Saf 
ford, and well remembered that Warner was 
absent from Manchester, and was at Benning- 
ton for some time previous to tlie battle. He 
gives a particular account of the march from 
Manchester, and of the part taken by tlie regi- 
ment in the battle, and states the causes of the 
delaj' of its arrival on the battle-ground. Sol- 
omon Safford. another brother of he Lieut.- 
Colouel, belonging to one of the Bennington 
companies of miliiia, was left in charge ot the 
baggage, at an out-post, when tlie iroops march- 
ed for the attack on the morning of the IGlh, 
and was passed and spoken to by Stark and 
Warner, who were riding side by side to the 
battle-field. Gov. Isaac Tichenor. who was an 
assistant commissary, under the authority of 
Congress, came to Bennington in June, 1777, 
and distinctly remembcr.s, that after Stark reach- 
ed Bennington, he applied to him for guard for 
a drove of cattle he had purchased, and was 
tak:ng to Albany ; that, on Stark's declining to 
provide it, he applied to Warner, who procured 
the guard for him fiom tlie Vermont Council of 
Safety, tlien in jjerinanent session ; and, that af- 
ter taking the cattle to Albany, he returned to 
Bennington by way of Williamstovvn, and reach- 
ed there at evening, on the ICthof August, just 
after the battle was over. He also, from his in- 
timacy with the officers engaged in the battle, 
knows that Warner was of great assistance to 
Stark in planning the attack on Baum ; that he 
went into the first aci;ion with Stark, and was 
by his side all day ; and that it was contrary 
to the first impression of Stark, and on the earn- 
est appeal of Warner, that the reinforcement 
of Breyman was immediately resisted, instead 
of ordering a retreat to form the scattered forc- 
es in regular order of battle. 

Warner's residence was at Bennington ; he 
was familiarly acquainted with every rod of 
ground in the neighborhood of the posts which 
had been occupied by Baum and their approach- 

es ; he was a Colonel in the Continental army, 
superior in rank to any officer in the vicinity; 
and he had already acquired a high reputation 
for bravery and skill ; — all which naturally 
made him the chief counsellor and assistant of 
Stark, in his deadly struggle with the enemy. 
Thus much it is deemed pi^per to say, in order 
clear up a point in the history of the battle, 
which seems to have been ratlier extensively 

The body of 300 men under Col. llerrick, men- 
tioned by Stalk as having been sent in the rear 
of Baum's right| was compoiied of llei rick's 
Rangers and part of C(,l. Lrush's re imcnt of 
militia, a portion of which was from this town. 
An authi ntic roll (a copy of which is hereto 
appended) of the men of Capt. Samuel Robin- 
son's Company, who were iu the battle, has 
been preserved, and has on it 77 names. If 
Capt. Dewey's conipau}' contained an equal 
number, and there is no reason to suppose that 
it was much, if any, less, the men of iJenning- 
nington would make up fullj' one half of that 
detachment, especially as some of Herrick's vol- 
unteer Bangers were from this town. 

The five weeks which had followed the evac- 
uation of Ticonderoga, had been to the people 
of Bennington a period of great anxiety and 
alarm The settlers along the Lake, and as far 
down as Manchester, bad either submitted to 
Burgoj'ne and taken his protection, or were 
abandonii:g their possessions, and removing to 
the southward. When it became known that 
an army of Hessians and Indians was approach- 
ing the town, the people from tlie borders 
flocked to the centre, as did. also, numbers 
from other towns ; bringing with tlicm such of 
their roost valuable property as could be hast- 
ily collected and transported. The more tim- 
id and prudent pas.-ed on beyond, while otliers. 
making such preparations as they could for a 
sudden removal, awaited further events. On 
the day of the battle the old village and its vi- 
cinity was crowded with women and children, 
whose husbands, fathers and brothers had gone 
out to meet and encounter the enemy. Here 
the heavy sound of musketry and cannon was 
plainly heard, furnishing evidence that a dead- 
ly conflict was in progress. A'.y attempt to 
describe tiie painful anxiety which, during that 
long summer day, was felt fur the result of the 
struggle, and for the fate of the dear friends en- 
gaged in it, would be fruitless. That, as well 
as the gush of overflowing joy and exultation 
which followed the news of the defeat of the 
enemy, can only be imagined. The victory was 
indeed a noble and proud one to the town, and 
also to the country, an ominous presage of the 
fnture overthrow of Burgoyne. 



But the joy of the people of Beiiningtoa was 
not uumixed with sadness. Four of its most 
respected citizens had fallen on the field of bat- 
tle. They were John Fay, (a son of Stephen,) 
Henry Walbridge, (brother of Ebenezer,) Dan- 
iel Warner, (cousin of the Colonel,) and Nathan 
Clark, (son of Naihan, and brother of Isaac af- 
terwards known as " old Rifle.") They were all 
in the prime of life, and all heads of families, 
leaving widows and cliildren to mourn their 
sudden bereavement. The grief for their loss 
was not confined to their immediate relatives, 
but was general, deep and sincere. 

Among those of the enemy who lost their 
lives in the action were the commander of the 
expedition, Col. Bautn, and the leader of t'.e 
toriea, Col. Pfister. They were both mortally 
wounded, and separate!}' brought a mile and a 
half this side the battle-ground, to a house still 
standing opposite the paper-mill of Messrs. 
Hunter & Co. They both died within twenty- 
four hours, and were buried near the bank of 
the river, a few rods below the paper-mill — 
There is nothing to mark the spot, and the ure- 
ase pLice of iheir iutermont is not known. 

Of the relics of the battle remaining in town, 
there is a broad sword which was taken from 
Col. Baum, on the field of battle, by Lieut, 
Thomas Jewett, of Capt. Dewey's company. It 
was afterwards purchased by David Robii.son, 
and usod by him as a Captain of cavalry, and 
subsequently as a field and general officer of 
the militia, and is still in the possession of his 
grandson, George W. Robinson. 

One of the two persons who captured the 
wounded Col. Pfister was Jonathan Armstrong,* 
a volunteer from the vicinity of Bennington, and 
into whose hands there fell, as the spoils of war, 
a portion of his baggage, among which was 
found his commission, on parchment, as '"Lieu- 
tenant in his Majesty's Sixtieth, or Royal Amer- 
ican Regiment of Foot," dated Sept. 18, 1760, 
and signed by Sir Jeflery Amherst ; a set of 
draughting instruments, and a map of tlie route 
from St. Johns, through lakes Cliamplain and 
George, and along the Hudson to New York. 
The map is in three parts for the convenience 
of folding and use, the whole being about 4 feet 
long, by 10 inclies inside. The lakes and rivers 
are colored, and the -w hole is so neatly and ac- 
curately done with a pen, as to be scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from a fine engraving. These relics 
are in the possession of tlie honorable L. B. 
Armstrong, of Dorset, a grandson of the soldier 
into whose hands they fell on the battle-field. 

Two of the four brass field pieces taken in the 
battle, are now in the Capitol at Montpelier, 
with- the foUovdng inscription of ancient date, 
engraved on each, viz: 

"Taken from the Germans, at Bennington, 
Aug. 16, 1777." 

Tradition furnishes many anecdotes of the in- 
dividual prowess and adventure of men engag 
cd in the battle, and also of female exertion and 
courage connected with its approach and pro- 
gress, which it miglit be interesting to relate, 
but wliich for want of space must be passed 
over. For the same reason we forbear to men- 
tion the subsequent exertions made by the peo- 
ple of Bennington, to aid in stopping the prog- 
ress of Burgoyne, other than to say, that they 
were continued both in men and means, fully 
up totiieir ability, until the Campaign was end- 
ed by his surrender at Saratoga, the 17th of 
October following. 

The IGtii of August has, ever since the battle, 
been a holiday in Bennington and its vicinity, 
being usually observed in a similar manner with 
that of the fourth of July in other parts of the 
country. The first anniversary day in 1778, 
was celebrated with appropriate patriotic de- 
monstrations, an oration being delivered on the 
occasion by Noah Smith, and a poem by Steph- 
en Jacob, both of which have been preserved, 
and are creditable to the authors. Both these 
gentlemen are believed to have then just grad- 
uated at Yale College, both were afterwards 
law3'^ers by profession, and both became prom- 
inent men in the "new state," to which they 
were emigrating- 
Copy of Capt. Samuel Robinson's Roll, Aug- 
ust 16, 1777 — were in battle 
Robert Cochran, Samuel Henry, 

Gideon Spencer, Edward Henderson, 

William Henry, Jonathan Haynes, 

Henry Walbridge, Arclielaus Tupper, 

Rufas Branch, Daniel Warner, 

John Lamed, Lt. Simeon Hathaway, 

Thomas Abel, Aaron Miller, 

Nathan Lawrence, John Fay, 

Jo-^i.ih Brush, El jaii Fay, 

David Fay, (Fifer ) Joseph Fay, 
Leonard Robinson, John Clark, 
Daniel Biddlecome, Jehosephat Holmes, 
Levi llatheway, Moses Rice, 

Abram llatheway, Benj. Whipple, jr., 
Reuben Colvin, Sihis Robinson, 

Eliphalet Stickney, Jolm Weeks, 
Daniel Rude, Moses Scott, 

Benj. Holmes, Alpheus Hathaway, 

James Marivater, Solomon Walbridge, 

Mr. Alger, Ebenezer Bracket, 

Ammie Fuller, Jehiel Smith, 

Jonah Brewster, Asa Branch, 

George Dale, Phinehas Wright, 

John Marble, John Smithy 

Epiiraim Marble, JesseT^eTEnap, 

Aaron llubbcll, Silvanes Brown, 

Samuel Safibrd, jr., John Forbes, 
Aaron Smiih, Stephen Williams, 

Ephraim Smith, William Post, 

* See Dorsot biographical department. 



David Safiford, 
Jared Post, 
Jeremiah Bingham, 
Samuel Sloeum, 
Josiah Hurd, 
Ezekiel Brewster, 
Solomon Leason, 
Thomas Seldeii, 
John Rigney, 

PJlisha Smith, 
Solomon Safford, 
Joseph Roe, 
William Terrill, 
Noah Beach, 
Simeon Sears, 
David Robinson, 
Joseph Safford, 
Isaac Webster, 

Although the capture of Burgoyne and his 
army, in the fall of 1777, wag a most fortunate 
event in the revolutionary struggle, yet it left 
Lake Champlain in the possession of the ene- 
my, and Vermout, during the remaining 5 years 
of the war, constantly exposed to their incur- 
Bions. This exposure, and the frequent appear- 
ance of a strong British force towards the south 
end of the Lake gave countenance and encour- 
agement to the loyalists in Northern New York 
and Vermont, and kept the inhabitants of Ben- 
nington and its vicinity in a state of almost 
coniinual apprehension and alarm. 

In the spring of 1778 the effective, but un- 
defined authority of the Council of Safety ceased 
and gave place to a regular government under 
the state constitution. The first state Legisla- 
ture assembled at Windsor on the 12th of 
March, and after a session of two weeks, ad- 
journed to meet at Bennington on the 4th of 
June following. 

On the evening of the last day of May, four 
days before the meeting of the Assembly, CoL 
Ethan Allen returned to Bennington from his 
captivity, after an absence of nearly three years, 
and the next day was one of great rejoicing. 
The people flocked into town to welcome him, 
and the old iron 6 pounder which, in 1772, had 
been transported from the Fort at East Hoosick, 
for defence against an apprehended invasion by 
Gov. Tryon, of New York, with a body of land 
claimants and British regulars, was brought out, 
and, notwithstanding a great scarcity of pow- 
der, was fired fourteen times — "once for each 
of the thirteen United States, and once for 
young Vermont." 

Allen returned to find his old friends as un- 
reconciled as ever to British rule, and if possi- 
ble, still more hostile to tories than they had 
formerly been to Yorkers. They were at that 
time under great excitement in regard to a tory 
by the name of David Redding, who had been 
detected in going back and forth to and from 
the enemy on the Lake, and, finally, in clandes- 
tinely taking and carrying off for the use of the 
tories, a number of guns from the house of Da- 
vid Robinson, where they had been lodged for 
safe keeping. For these acts he had been 
charged with the crime of "enemical conduct," 
and, in pursuance of the demand of public opin- 
ion, had, upon satisfactory evidence, been con- 

victed and sentenced to be hung on the 4th of 
June, the day appointed for the meetmg of the 
Legislature. After the Governor and Council 
had met, it was shown to them by John Burn- 
ham, attorney for Redding, that he had been 
tried by six jurors only, and that the common 
law required a jury of twelve, upon which the 
Council, on the morning of the day appointed 
for his execution, in order that the Assembly 
might have time to act on the case, granted him 
a reprieve "until Thursday next, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon," adding in their order; "This 
Council do not doubt, in the least, but that the ' 
said Redding will have justice done him, to the 
satisfaction of the public." The reprieve had 
been granted too late to prevent the assembling 
of a large concourse of people to witness the ex- 
ecution of one whom they, as well as the court, 
had already condemned as a traitor and spy. 
Wheij the multitude found that the execution 
was not to take place, they were clamorous at 
their disappointment; and there were some in- 
dications that another tribunal, since personifi- 
ed as "Judge Lynch," might take the matter in 
hand. Whereupon Ethan Allen, suddenly press- 
ing through the crowd, mounted a stump, and 
waving his hat exclaiming, ''attention the whole" 
proceeded to announce the reasons which pro- 
duced the reprieve, advised the multitude to 
depart peacably to their habitations, and return 
the day fixed for the execution in the act of the 
Governor and Council, adding with an oath, 
"you shall see somebody hung at all events, 
for if Redding is not then hung, I will be hung 
myself" Upon this assurance the uproar ceas- 
ed, and the crowd dispersed. 

Redding, in accordance with Allen's predic- 
tion, was hung on the 1 1th of June, the day to 
which his execution had been postponed by the 
Council, he having on the 9th been tried and 
convicted by a jury of twelve ; Allen, by ap- 
pointment of the Governor and Council, acting 
as attorney for the state. The place of execu- 
tion was in a field west of the road, and oppo- 
site the tavern house of "Landlord Fay." For 
want of a jail, Redding had been confined in 
the saddle-rooin of the tavern-house shed, and 
had once, for the want of suEBcieiit care of one 
Sackett, his keeper, escaped, and fled as far as 
Hoosick, where he had been retaken. For 
i~^ackett's negligence he was required by Sher- 
iff Benjamin Fay, to drive the wagon with Red- 
ding to the place of execution. 

Although public opinion seemed to be uni- 
form in demanding tha execution of Redding, 
yet, after the excitement in regard to him had 
subsided, the propriety of the sentence was 
sometime e called in question. The writer of 
this sketch recollects, when a small boy, of 



hearing the matter discussed by a group of old 
ladies rormd a kitchen fire. Considerable sym- 
pathy was manifested for the deceased offender, 
and one old lady seemed to think she bad put 
a clincher to the argument in his favor, by de- 
claring, "that Doctor Jonas Fay had the anat- 
omy of Redding locked up in a closet in his 
house, and that lie could never make the bones 
come together right," which she thought plain- 
ly showed tliat lie ought not to have been hung. 

During the remaining period of the war. tlie 
State was under the necessity of maintaining a 
' permanent guard on the border of tlie territory^ 
to which the people of Bennington contributed 
their full proportion of men and means. Tliey 
were also subject, upon alarms of invasion by 
the enemy, which were sometimes made, and 
ofiea apprehended, to be called to march in a 
body to the froniier. But contributions and 
services of this character, though onerous and 
important, must in this sketch be passed over 
witliout further notice. 

Alt lOugh the town of Bennington, for aeon, 
giderable period after the close of the revolution, 
continued to occupy a prominent and leading- 
position ill the affairs of the State, It is not 
deemed advisable in this sketch to pursue its 
history further in the conseeuiive order of 
events. Such matters as it is deem d proper to 
notice will be treated, either in a disconnected 
manner, or by grouping together those of a kin- 
dred character, at whatever period they may 
have occurred. 


Until about &.. t>. 1830, there was but one house 
for public worship in town, tiwxt of the Congrega- 
tional Church in the Centre Village. Now there 
are seven others, viz: two for Baptists, two for 
Meth.odists, one for Episcopalians, a second Con- 
gregational church, and o le for Roman Catholics. 

The first emigrants to Bennington were. Con- 
gregationalists, and it is related of Samuel R^b- 
inson, the largest proprietor, that when persons 
came to purchase land, it was his practice to 
invite them to his house over night. In the 
course of the evening he contrived to ascertain 
their religious views. If he found they did not 
correspond with his, he persuaded them to 
settle in Shaftsbury or Pownal, in both of whicli 
he was also a proprietor. By this means the 
settlers of Bennington were nearly all of one 
religious faith, and they continued so witli some 
exceptions, for many years. This attempt to 
preserve uniformity of sentiment was doubtless 
designed to promote the harmony and conse- 
quent happiness of the town, though it probably 
did not have that effect. It is quite certain 

that while there was but one organized church 
in town, the bickerings connected with relig- 
ious matters were mnch more frequent and bit- 
ter than they have since been. 

On the 2d of December, 1762, a church was 
organized, which by vote, on the same day, 
adopted tlie Cambridge platform, with the ex- 
ception of such parts as admitted the aid of 
civil magistrates in enforcing the support of the 
ministry, and their coercive power in other 
matteis. This afttion of the church, as well as^ 
the evidence of tradition, would indicate that its 
members belonged to that small class of Con- 
gregationalists whose notions of religious free- 
dom were in advance of those of their brethren, 
and which had acquired for them the name of 
separatists. This doctrine was, indeed, in those 
days, peculiar to minorities; and it is worthy 
of remark, that this church, when it was after- 
wards clothed with sufficient authority by the 
laws of the state, departed from it by insisting 
upon supporting their minister, and building 
tlieir new meeting-house by a town tax. Tiiis 
forgetfulness of their early principles, under the 
temptation_of power, ought not, perhaps, to ba 
a matter of great astonishment. For even now, 
ill 1860, when it would seem that the prijciples 
of religious freedom ought to be fully under- 
stood, there are not wanting worthy christians 
in the state, and even christian ministers, who 
do not seem to have any very clear idea that 
people who differ from them can possibly have 
consciences, especially if they belong to abated 
sect, and who think it very hard that they can- 
not be clothed witli the authority of law, to 
compel their neighbors to have their children 
taught a faith which both parent and child be- 
lieve to be lalse. 

At the first meeting of the proprietors of the- 
town, of which there is any record, in February 
1762, a site for a meeting-house was fixed up- 
on; but the building was not erected and ready 
for use until 1765. 

In the fall of 1763, the Rev. Jedediah Dew- 
ey, of Westfield, Massachusetts, in consequence 
of a call from the church and society, removed 
here and became their pastor. In addition to 
the encouragement given him by voluntary sub- 
scr.ption, tae proprietors of the town voted him 
•'the Ministers Right" of land, which was situ- 
ated near the centre, and was valuable. He 
was much beloved and confided in by the peo- 
ple of the town, and is believed to hare exerted 
no small influence in their secular as well as 
spiritual affairs. He held a correspondence 
with Governor Tryon, of New York, in relation 
to the grievances of the settlers, an 1 once had 
the honor of being indicted, with others, as a 
rioter, by the court of Albany ; though no at- 



tempt was ever made to arrest or bring him to 
trial. In fact he was never engaged in any vi- 
olent aot whatever a^^ainst the Yorkers, though 
it in quite probable be may bave counseled re- 
sistance to the oppressive measures of New York 
as he afterwards did to those of the mother 
country. He died Dec. 24, 1178, universally 
lamented. He had been twice married, and left 
a larj>e number of children, and lias numerous 
descendants residing in town, who are among 
our most respactable inhabitants 

The Ri-.v David Avery succeeded Mr. Dew- 
ey as pastor, and was settled May 3, 1780. 
Tie had bpen a Chaplain in the army, and re- 
signed that situation, when he received a call 
f om this church. He brought with his family 
to town a co'ored woman, whom he insisted on 
his light to hold at a slave, which created much 
dissatisfaction in the church; and this, with 
other objections to him, occasioned his dismis- 
sion at the end of three years, in May, 1783. 

The Rev, Job Swift, D. D., was next in 
cha"ge of the church and congregation, and was 
settled Feb. 27, 1786. He remained their pas- 
tor over sixteen years, and his labors gave great 
satisfaction until about the close of that time, 
w!;en dissensions ari.sing, growing out of the bit- 
terness of party politics, he thought proper to 
a.«ka dismission, which took place June 7, 1801. 
Ho after ^vards removed to Addison, in this 
state, and was settled over the church in that 
town, and died October 20, 1804, at Enosbm-gh. 
where he had gone on a mission by the consent 
of his people, aged 61, He was eminent as a 
christian and a clergyman, but as he was not a 
native of this town, and was not a resident here 
at the time of his death, this does not seem to 
be the place for a more extended notice of him. 

After Mr. Swift left, the pulpit was supplied 
during a considerable portion of the years 18.;3 
and 1804 by the Rev. Joshua Sjjaulding, though 
he was not regularly settLd. 

In March, 1805, the Rev. Daniel Marsh became 
the settled clergyman, and continued in charge 
of the church and congregation until April, 1820. 
when he was dismissed. He soon afterwards 
removed from town, and has sines deceased. — 
He was a worthy christian minister, and enjoy- 
ed the confidence and respect of the community. 

The Meeting-House had been built by vol- 
untary subscription, and for nearly thirty years 
the ministers had been supported in the sime 
manner; the method adopted to raise the sum 
required being, to assess t^ie same upon the tax- 
lists of those who gave their assent to the con- 
tribution. But in March, 1790, an article was 
inserted in the warning for the town meeting, as 
Ibllov.'s, viz : " To see if the town v.'ill adopt a 
certain law of this State, entitled 'a?i actforsup- 

porting and maintaining the gospel miniatry:^ ' 
and at tiie me. ting it passed in the affirmative. 

By the act thus adopted, the salary of, the 
minister was to be assessed upon the polls and 
ratable estate of the inhabitants of the town, 
and collected in the same manney as other town 
taxes ; and no persan was to be exempt from 
its payment, unless he lodged with the town 
clerk for record, the certificate of some minister 
or officer of another cliurch, that he agreed in 
religious sentiment with the signer thereof 

This vote created considerable dissatisfaction 
in the congregation, and Nathan Clark, one of . 
the fathers of the town, denounced it in severe 
terms, in an article published in the Gazette, 
over his own signature. The practice tlius in- 
itiated in 1790, of supporting the mini-<try by 
town tax, does not seem to have been abandon- 
ed until the repeal of the law on the subject in 
October, 1807. 

The tax for the support of the Minister am- 
ounting usually to $450 per annum, appears to 
have been submitted to with a considerable de- 
gree of patience ; but the attempt to apply the 
law to the building of a new Meeting-house, 
which wonld require more than a ten-fold great- 
er tax, roused a very serious opposition. Those, 
however, who were in favor of thus erecting 
the house, were sufficiently strong to carry a 
vote in the town-meeting held December 12, 
1803, to raise a tax of 5000 dollars for that pur- 
pose. At the same meeting a committee, con- 
sisting of Isaac Tichenor, David Robinson, Mo- 
ses Robinson, jr., Thomas Abel and Jesse Field, 
were appointed a building committee, and the 
liouse was afterwards erected under the special 
superintendence of Moses Robinson, jr., the act- 
ing agent of the committee. 

In 1801 the law providing for the support of 
the Gospel ministry, and the erection of houses 
of worship, Was so far modified by the Legisla- 
ture, that any tax-payer could be relieved from 
contribution, by lodging with the town clerk a 
certificate signed by him in the following words, 
viz : " 1 do not agree in religious opinion with 
a majority of the inhabitants of tins town." — 
And soon after the vote of the meeting-house 
tax, the names of 136 of the payers, owning a 
considerable portion of the property in town, 
were found in the clerks's office attached to 
such a certificate. 

When the house was completed, in Decem- 
ber, 1805, it was found to have cost $7793,28, 
and that only the sum of $2200,97 had been 
collected of the 5000 dollars which had been as- 
sessed. It was finally agreed to sell the pews at 
public auction, to raise the money to pay for the 
house, and that persons not purchasing should 
have the money they had paid refunded them. 



The house was dedicated January 1, 1806, 
the sermon being preached by the Rev. Mr. 
Marsh. The house was beheved, at the time, 
to be the best in the State. It has sincj been 
modernized, by the substitution of slips for 
pews, and by other improvements, and will now 
compare fovorably with most of the churches 
in country towns. 

Tiie old meeting-house was torn down and 
removed in the autumn of 1805. It was a 
wooden, unpainted building, without a steeple, 
and stood on the common between the present 
house and tlie tavern-stand opposite, the north 
and south road passing each side of it. 

The Rev. Mr. Marsh was succeeded in the 
ministry of this church by the Rev. Absalom 
Peters, who was ordained July 5, 1820. Ho 
was released from his charge Dec. 14, 1825, on 
becoming Secretary of the Home Missionary 

The Rev. Daniel A. Clark was pastor fiom 
June 13, 182G, to October 12, 1830. He w;;s 
succeeded by Rev. Edward "VV. Hooker, who 
was pastor from Feb. 22, 1832, to May 14, 1844. 
The Rev. J. J. Abbott was ordained August, 
1845, and remained here two years. 

The Rev. R. C. Hand was settled Jan. 20^ 
1848, and dismissed Nov. 26, 1852. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Isaac Jennings, June 1, 
1853, Avho is the present minister. The pres- 
ent number of members of this church is 242. 

The second religious society which was form- 
ed in this town was what is now designated as 
the First Baptist Church. It was organized 
April 11, 1827 — its first meetinghouse being 
erected in the East Village, in 1830, and dedi- 
cated July 7th, of that year. The pastors of 
this church have been the following, viz : the 
Reverends, F. Baldwin, from June, 1828, to Oc- 
tober, 1830 ; Thomas Teasdale, until Feb., 1S32; 
Jeremiah Hall for three years, until April, 1835 
Samuel B. Willis for cne yeai, endintr in June, 
1836; Stephen Hulchins, from 1836 to 1841 ; 
Wm. W. Moore, for one year, ending in 1843; 
Cyrus W. Hodges, from the fall of 1843 to the 
fall of .1848; Edward Conover, from 1849 to 
1852. Mr. Conover was succeeded by Rev. A. 
Judson Chap'in, and he by the Rev. Warren 
Lincoln, the present minister. 

When the church was first organized, in 1827, 
it consisted of 32 members. It now numbers 

The Methodist Church, in the East Village, 
was organized in May, 1827, and its- meeting- 
house erected in 1833. The following named 
clergymen have been stationed here, with the 
church, snice May, 1827, each for two years, 
viz : the Reverends, Cyrus Prindle, John M. 
Weaver, WYight Hazen, Henry Burton, Henry 

Smith, — Hubbard, C. R.Wilkins, Jesse (Jraig, 
J. W. Belknap, H B. Knight, R. Wcscott, G. 
R. Wilkius, Merritt Bates, H. R. Smitli, Ensign 
Stover: 1856-7, J. E. Bonner; 1858-9, C. R. 
Morris. The present minister is the Rev. S. P. 
Williams. The present number of members 

An Episcopal Church was organized here Ju- 
ly 24, 1834, by the name of St. Peters Church, 
under the ministry of the Rev. Nathaniel 0. 
Preston, and a church edifice built of brick, in 
1836, which was consecrated July 22, 1839. — 
The Rev. Mr. Preston continued in charge of 
tiie Parish until the fall of 1844. and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. C. I. Todd for one year, and by 
Rev. E. F. Remington for a few months. The 
Rev. George B. Manser, D. D., became Rector 
iu February, 1850, and still continues in that re- 
lation. In 1850 the Church consisted of less 
than 30 communicants. It now has over 120. 

In Nov., 1834, a portion of the old Centre 
Congregational Church formed tiiemsclves into 
a new cliurch, adopting the Presbyterian f )rm 
of government, and in 1835 erected a neat stono 
house for worship, at Hinsdillvillo, a mile south 
of the North Village. The Rev. Mr. Kenny, 
the Rev. Mr. Johnson, and the Rev. Mr Nott, 
were successively pastors. The chui'ch ceased 
to hold meetings in October, 1842, and the mem- 
bers, who originally numbered 75, mostly re- 
turned to the Centre Church from whicli they 
had f 'rmerly separated. The house was sold to 
a Methodist Society in 1858. 

The Second Congregational Church, being a 
colony from the old Centre Church, was formed 
April 26, 1836, and soon afterwards the Rev. 
Arctas Loom is became its pastor. He continu- 
ed iu charge of the church and congregation 
until Nov. 6, 1850, and was succeeded by hia 
son-in-law, the Rev. Andrew M. Beverage, for 
a short time. The Rev. C. H. Hubbard vras 
settled in 1851, and still continues here. The 
church numbers 150 members. 

In the year 1836 a Uriivcrsalist Meeting- 
house was erected in the North Village. The 
Reverends, G. Leach, Mr. Bell, Warren Skinner 
and other?, succcKsively officiated as clergymen. 
In 1849 the building was purchased for an Ac- 
ademy, and has since been occupied as such. 

In July, 1844, a Baptist Church was organ- 
ized at the North Village, called the Second 
Baptist Cliurch in Bennington, and in 1845 a 
neat and convenient house of worship was erect- 
ed. The Rev. Justin A. Smith became pastor 
in 1844, and continued in that relation for near- 
ly five years, until Julv, 1849. He was in a 
few months succeeded by the Rev. J. D. E. 
Jones, who continued in charge of the church 
until the spring of 1855. The Rev. Wm. Han- 



cock was then pastor for one year, and the Rev. 
Jay Huntington for four years from the spring 
of 1856 to 1860. The present clergyman is the 
Eev. Jireh Tucker. The church now numbers 
102 members. 

In the spring of 1858, a Methodist Church 
was organized in the northwest part of the town, 
and the old house of worship, built in 1835 for 
the Presbyterian congregation was purchased 
and repaired, and well fitted up for their use. 
The Rev. J. E. Bowen was stationed there dur- 
ing the years 1858 and 1859. The present 
preacher is the Rev. Mr. McChesney. The 
church numbers about 100 members. As long 
ago as 1836 a small chapel had been built about 
half a mile from the present church edifice, 
which was supplied by preaching in connection 
with another society in Hoosick — among the 
clergymen who thus ofiBciated here were Rev- 
erends, A. A. Farr, in 1840; F. D. Sherwood, in 
1841-2 ; C. Barber, in 1843-4; "Wm. Henry, in 
1845 ; A.Jones, in 1846-7, and I. Sage, in 1848 
and 1849. After this, regular preaching was 
suspended until the new organization, in 1858. 

For some years previous to 1850 Father OCal- 
laglian, residing at Burlington, held occasional 
Catholic meetings in the Court House in this 
town. He was succeeded by the Rev. J. Da- 
ley, who came regularly at stated times. He was 
followed, in 1855, by Rev. Z Druon, who resid- 
ed here, and under whose administration a con- 
venient church building was erected the same 
year. He remained here about two years, when 
the meetings weie held by Rev. C. Boylon from 
Rutland, until January, 1859, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. Cloarec, the present resident 
piiest. The congregaiion, which embraces the 
towns of Shat'tsbury, Bennington and Pawnal, 
numbers about 175 families. 


Several Missionaries to foreign conntries have 
gone from this town. 

Rev. Hiram Bingham went to the Sandwich 
Islands in 1819, in the first missionary company 
that visited those Islands, where he remained 
about 20 years. He is the author of a history 
of the mission. 

Tlie Rev. William Harvey and the Rev.IIoliis 
Reed and his wife. Caroline Ilubbell Reed, went 
together from here as missionaries to Bufmah, 
in 1828, where Mr. Harvey fell a victim to the 
Asiatic eolera, a few years afterwards. After 
Mr. Harvey's death, Mr. Reed and wife were, 
from failing health, obliged to return to this coun- 
try. All these were sent out uiider the patron- 
age oftlie American Board of Foreign Missions. 

In 1834, the Rev. James M. Haswell, son of 

Anthony Haswell, went to Burmah under the 
direction of the Baptist Missionary Society, 
where he still remains. A sonof h is, Rev. James 
B. Haswell, bora in Burmah, and sent home for 
education, was, during the past year, ordained 
as a Missionary, and has sailed for Burmah to 
join his father. 


The subject of Education received the early 
attention of the inhabitants of the town. In 
January, 1783, the proprietors voted a tax on 
their lands for building a School house, and in 
the following April it was voted in town meet- 
ing, to raise a tax to suppost the schools in 
" three parts of the town." As the settlementa 
extended, new schools were opened, and they 
have been ever since kept in all parts of the 
town; so that a convenient opportunity has at 
all times been afforded to all the children and 
youth within its limits, to obtain instruction in 
the common English branches of education. 

In November, 1780, an Academy was incor- 
porated in this town by act of Assembly, under 
the name of '■ Clio Hall," and a convenient build- 
ing for that purpose was soon afterwards erect- 
ed on the site now occupied b}^ the Centre meet- 
ing-house. In this Academy the languages and 
higher branches of English education were 
taught by various individuals, at different peri- 
ods, until early in 1803, when the building was 
destroyed by fire. The school was sometimes 
prosperous, but does not appear to have been 
steadily and continually kept. 

About the year 1816, " Union Academy," in 
the East Village, was incorporated, and a build- 
ing erected in which academical studies were 
for a time pursued. It did not, however, suc- 
ceed as a permanent institution. 

In 1821 a brick buUding was erected in the 
Centre Village, in which the higher branches 
were successfully taught for many years. In 
January, 1829, a difiiculty arose between James 
Ballard, the principal, and the committee or trus- 
tees, in regard to his authority over the scholars 
while out of school; he insisting upon regulat- 
ing their "amusements and holidays," and the 
committee, that the parents should be allowed 
the control in these matters ; or at least, that 
no scholar should be excluded from the school 
by the teacher, for being tlms engaged in am- 
usements which were approved by his parents, 
" without his first obtaining the consent of the 
committee." To this Mr. Ballard refused to as- 
sent, and he was dismissed from the school, and 
auothei' teacher employed. The clergyman, the 
Rev. Daniel A. Clark, and a majority of hia 



cburch, (then the only one in town) taking sides 
with the disraissed tcaclier, a violent tind bitter 
quarrel ensued, which divided the village, the 
church ond the town, for several years. 

Mr. Ballard immediately opened a separate 
school in the village, and his fi iends erected for 
him a new Academy building, with a boarding- 
house attached, to which the came of ''The 
Bennington Seminary" was given. Thus two 
rival institutions were in operation in the same 
villnge, both being z'ealously supported by their 
respective partizans and friends. Both schools 
continued in apparent successful operation un- 
til the winter of 1837, when that of Mr. Bal- 
lard was unexpectedly stopped, and the exam- 
ple was' very soon followed by the other. The 
people had, in fact, become weary of their ex- 
tra exertions to maintain their favorite schools, 
and were mostly quite willing to see them both 

The bitter animosity with which the war of 
the Academy began, had been gradually modi- 
fied, and it finally gave place to something like 
kind and christian feeling — the vDlage eventu- 
ally uniting in the desire for the establishment 
of a single literary iuFlitution. It was, howev- 
er, a long time before a permanently flourish- 
ing school could be again put in operation. 

In the year 1856 the Seminary property was 
purchased by Mr. George W. Yaies, who has 
since conducted a successful High School, which, 
for literary as well as moral instruction and 
training, will compare favorably with other sim- 
ilar institutions in the country. 

About the year 1833, a High School was be- 
gun in the East Village, and a new Academy 
building erected. It enjoyed the patronage of 
the Baptist denomination of the town aud vi- 
cinity, and was for several years in a floui ish- 
ishiug condition, under the successive charges 
of Mes-srs. Adiel Harvey, Horace Fletcher, Jus- 
tin A. Smith, Wm. G. Brown, and others. It 
has been discontinued for several years, and 
the building appropriated to other uses. 

In 18.J9 Miss Eliza M. Clark and sisters open- 
ed a young ladies' boarding school, in the East 
Village, in which are well taught all the vari- 
ous branches of education usual in the highest 
female Seminaries. The school has thus far 
been a decided success. 

In 1849 a building, which had been erected 
for a Universalist church in North Bennington, 
was purchased by the citizens of the place, and 
fitted up for an Academy. A High School has 
been kept there for the past year, by Professor 
A. M. S. Carpenter, which is well approved and 
patronised by the inhabitants of the vicinity. 


Not much has been ascertained in regard to 
the early physicians of the town. 

Dr. Josiah Fuller was in Bennington in 
1762, and died here in July, 1806. He is be- 
lieved not to have been regularly educated, as a 
physician, though he practiced as such at an 
early period. He resided in the South East 
part of the town, half a mile east of the present 
residence of Thomas Jewett. He was one of 
the defendants in the ejectment suits at Albany^ 
in 1770, against whom judgments were recov- 
ered. He, however, appealed to the stronger 
tribunal at Bennington, and kept his farm. He 
was surgeon at Ticondcroga, for a short period 
after its capture by Allen, in 1775. 

1)B. Nathakiel Dickinson came here as 
early as 17 06, and removed from town about 
the year 1790. His residence was at the place 
now occupied by the widow of the late Capt. 
Stephen Pratt. 

Dr. Benjamin Warner, father of Col. Seth 
Warner, came to Bennington in the spring of 
176.'), and remained here about three years, 
when he returned to Connecticut. His son 
Reuben, who lived here many years later, also 
had the title of Doctor, though it is believed 
that neither the father or son were regularly 
educated as physicians. 

Dr. Jonas F.vt settled here about 1766, and 
practiced medicine many years. . (See Biograph- 
ical sketches.) 

Dr. Medad Parsons was in town as early 
as 1784, and had a large practice until about 
the year 1802, when he removed to the north- 
ward. He resided in the west part of the 
town, at the place now occupied by Wm. 

Dr GAitTS Smith is believed to have settled 
here during the Revolution. He resided half a 
mile east of Dr. Parsons, at what has since 
been known as the Young place. He was for 
many years in extensive practice, and removed 
to Burlington, N. Y., in 1804. 

Dr. Benjamin Robinson, son of Col. Samuel 
Robinson, born Feb. 11, 1776, was educated as 
a physician, and practiced here for a short lime 
about the year 1800. He soon after removed 
to Fayetteville, N. C, where he became emi- 
nent in his profession, and as a citizen. After 
an extensive practice for about half a century 
in his adopted state, he died there in 1857. 

Dr. NOAniAH Swift, son of Rev. Job Swift, 
was born at Armenia, Duchess Co., N. Y., Nov. 
24, 1776, and came as one of his father's family 
to Bennington in 1786, from which time until 
1801 his father was pastor of the Cengregation- 



0,1 Cliuich iu this town. After receivrng a com- 
mon school education, be pursued academical 
studies under the insiruclion ot his father, and 
studied luedicine with Dr. Medad Parsons. He 
married Jennett Henderson, May 23, 1802, 
having a short time before commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession in this town. His prompt 
and kind attentions to the calls of his patients 
together with their confidence in his skdl and 
integrity, soon acquired for him great populari- 
ty, and an extensive and lucrative practice. 
This practice he retained over 50 years, and 
until near the time of his decease, which occur- 
red March 21, 1860. 

His personal popularity was such, that his 
poliiical Irieuds sometmies insisted on making 
him a candidate for office, and when brought 
forward was generally successful. He was 3 
years representative to ilie Assembly, and twice 
in 1840 and 1841, elected to the State Senate. 

Dr. Swift became a member of the Mrst Con- 
gregational Church in 1831, and soon after one 
of its deacons, in which relation he continued 
until his decease. His moral and religious life 
was always exemplary. Indeed, few men have 
been engaged so long in such extensive and va- 
ried business, who have uniformly sustained an 
equally unblemished and spotless reputation. 

Dr. Swift died in the city of New York, where 
he was temporarily residing in the famdy of his 
son, Edwaid H. His remains were brought 
home to Bennington, and interred beside those 
of hi3 wife, who had gone a few years before 
him. His children were, the son nefore men- 
tioned, and a daughter married to tlio Hon. 
Pierpoint Isham. 

Dr. Heman Swift, a younger brother of Dr. 
Noadiah, was born in Bennington, Sept. 30, 
179 1, and graduated at Middlebury Collcgo. in 
1811. lie commenced studying for the ministry 
at Andover, but his health failing he was 
obliged to leave that institution. He afterwards 
studied medicine, and begun the practice in 
this town in 1821, in company with his brother. 
He sustained a high professional reputation, and 
was iu active practice until it was suddenly ter- 
minated by his death, the 30th of January 
1856. He had long been a member of the 
Congregational Church, luid was much respect- 
ed; and his death was extensively and deeply 
lamented He married Ruth Robinson in 1818. 
who survives him. Among his children was 

Dr. H. Sedwick Swift, born June 16, 1827. 
He was a graduate of Williams College, and af- 
ter receiving a thorough education as a physi. 
cian and surgeon, acquired great practical know- 
ledge and skill in the hospitals of New York 
and other cities. He was author of several 
treatises which were published iu the Medical 

Journals, some of which were translated into 
German and French, and by which he acquired 
much credit and distinction. He was a young 
man of great moral worth, as well as of extra- 
ordinary professional promise ; but died of a 
disease of the lungs, Sept, 23, 1857, at the ear- 
ly age of 30 years. 


Only a brief notice can here be given of the 
v'eceased lawyers who have resided and prac- 
ticed iu Bennington. 

The name fiist known in tliis town, .in con- 
nection with the practice of law, was that of 
John Burnham, wl.o appeared before the Gov- 
ernor and Council June 4, 1778, with a copy 
of Blackstone's Commentaries, which he had 
then recently purchased, and obtained a new 
trial for David Ridding, who had just been sen- 
tenced to be hung, after a trial by a jury of only 
six men. He does not appear to have been ad- 
n:itted to the bar, but was a man of strong in- 
tellect, and was justly entitled co the credit of 
being a very "respectable pettifogger." He 
was born at Ipswich, Mass., and came to Ben- 
nington with his father in 1761, at the age of 
19. He resided a portion of the time in Ben- 
nington, and a portion in Shaft.sburj^ until 1785, 
when he removed to Middletown, where he 
died Aug. 1, 1829, He was a member of the 
convention that framed the constitution of the 
State, and a representative from Shaftsbury in 
177S and 1779. 

NoAU Smith is believed to bavebeen the first 
lawyer to commence the iiractice in this town. 
There is exiant a printed address, styled "a 
Speech," delivered at Bennington, Aug. IG. 1778, 
the year after the battle in commemoration of 
that event "by Noah SnTith, A. B." The ad- 
dress is brief, and chiefly of a historical charac- 
ter, breathing a patriotic spirit, and is quite 
creditable to the author, M'^ho was doubtless 
just out of College. At the first session of the 
County Court in 1781, ilr. Smith was appoint- 
ed States Attorney, which office he held for sev- 
eral years, and in 1789 and 1790 he was a 
judge of the Supreme Court. He built and re- 
sided in the house now owned by Henry Kel- 
logg, Esq., and is believed to have removed to 
Milton, in this State, about the year 1800, and 
to have died a few years afterwards. 

Isaac Tichenoe was admitted to the bar of 
the County Court in April, 1785: Jonathan 
Robinson, in June, 1793; and David Fay, in 
June, 1794. (See Biographical sketches.) 

Nathan Robinson, son of Gov. Moses, and 
father of Gov. John S., was born March 4, 1772 



admitted to the bar in 1797, and died Sept. 27, 

Andrew Selden was born at Hadley, Mass., 
when young removed with his father to Stam- 
ford, represented that town in the General As- 
sembly for six successive years, from 1790, 
came to Bennington about 1797, studied law 
with Jonathan Robinson, was admitted to the 
bar in December, 1800, was Register of Pro- 
bate several years, and died Sept. 1825, aged 63. 

Jonathan E. Robinson, son of Jonathan 
Robinson, admitted December, 1800. (See no- 
tice of liis father.) 

David Robinson, jr., son of Gen. David Rob- 
inson, born July 12, 1777, admitted to the bar 
December, 1800, and died in March 1858. He 
was in reputable practice for many years. 

Samuel B. Young was born at Stockbridge, 
Mass., and was admitted to the bar in this 
county in December 1803. He commenced 
practice with bri]li;mt prospects and a good bus- 
iness, which, however, he gradually lost, to- 
gether with the confidence of tlie community. 
He was afterwards noted for his full drab qua- 
ker dress, and his keen wit and satire in bar- 
room story telling. He died in the fall of 1820. 

Orsamus C. Merrill was born June 18, 
1775, came to Bennington about the, year 1800, 
and was admitted to the bar in June 1804. 
He is stili living, yet his advanced age and re- 
tirement from the cares of life is thought to 
make it not improper to say that he long enjoy- 
ed the confidence of his fellow citizens of the 
town and state. He was for several years Post 
Master, a Lieut. Colonel in the army during the 
war of 1812, a member of Congress in 1817-18 
and 19, and was afterwards a member of tlie 
State Council for five j'ears, a representative to 
the Assembly, and judge of Probate. 

CiiARLKB Wright, son of Solomon Wright 
of Pownal, was born in 1786, graduated at 
Williams College, studied law with Chancey 
Langdon of Castleton, and was admitted to the 
bar of Rutland Co.. in 1807. He soon after 
commenced the business of his profession in 
Bennington, in which he continued until his, Feb. 15, 1819. At the time of his 
death he had ihe largest and most lucrative 
practice of any lawyer in the county, and sus- 
tained a high reputation for professional talent 
and integrity. 

James Hubbell, born in Bennington, Oct. 
17, 1775, was admitted to the bar in December 
180G. He resided in the city of New York for 
a considerable period, and held the office of 
magistrate under the appointment of Gov.DeWitt 
Clinton, which gave him. active and responsible 
employment. Ho afterwards returned to Ben- 
nington, and died here April 21, ]840. 

Truman Squier came to Bennington to re- 
side in 1810. He was born at Woodbury, 
Conn., in January, 1764, was in the practice 
of law at Manchester for several years prior to 
and after the year 1 800, where he held the of- 
fice of States Attorney 2 yecfrs, Judge of Pro- 
bate 3 years from 1798, and was also Secretary 
to the Governor aud Council for several years. 
He was a good lawyer and an upright man, and 
died in the respect aud confidence of all, May 
21, 1845. 

TnoM.AS J. Wright, a brother of Charles 
Wright before mentioned, was admitted to the 
bar of the County Court in June, 1812, and 
died in 1813. 

Marshall Carter, a young man of much 
talent and professional promise, born in Charle- 
mont, Mass., studied law with Charles Wright, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1817. He was 
long in feeble health, and died Sept. 5, 1820, 
aged 31. 

Daniel Church came from Arlington to 
Bennington lo practice law, in the year 1820 or 
1821, and remained here until about the year 
1830, when he removed from the state, and died 
soon after. 



The following Biographical Sketches embrace 
only deceased persons who were inhabitants of 
Bennington. Those deceased individuals, who 
were considered most prominent in their profes- 
sional charact^.s, have been mentioned under 
the respective heads of Ecclesiastical history, 
Physicians and Attorneys at Law. These 
sketches are necessarily mere skeleton notices. 
Jf time and space had permitted, most of these 
might have been made much more interesting 
and instructive, by fuller and more characteris- 
tic details. 

Although living residents of the town have 
been excluded from our biographical notices. 
It may not, perhaps, be improper to mention 
the names of some individuals who were natives 
or descendants of Bennington inhabitants, who 
have acquired distinction abroad. Those of 
missionaries have been alreadjr named in our 
account of ecclesiastical affairs. 

Among the natives of this town may be men- 
tioned Ann C. Ltnch,_ of literary and poetic 
celebrity, now the wife of Professor Botta, of 
New York. The distinguished clergyman and 
orator, Rev. E. H. Chapin, is a son of Benning- 

Theodore S. Fat, a popular author, and now 



resident minister of the United States in Swit- 
zerland, is a descendant of Stephen Fay, and by 
the female line, of the Rev. Jedediah Dewe^v, 
two of the early prominent inhabitants of this 

The father of President Filmore (Nathaniel 
Filmoro) was born in Bennington, April 19, 
1*771. He married here, and emigrated to 
■western New York, about the year 1798, and 
is still living at Aurora, Erie Co. Nathaniel 
Filmore, the grandfather of the President, an 
early and reputable inhabitant of this town, 
was Ensign in Capt. Dewey's company, in the 
battle of Bennington. One of his sons, and 
many of his descendants, are still living in town. 

The parents of the Hon. Kinsley Scott 
Bingham, formerly Governor of Michigan, and 
now Senator in Congress from that State, were 
both natives of Bennington, the mother being.a 
sister of the late Col. Martin Scott, who lost his 
life in the Mexican war. 

The Hon. Reuben H. Walworth, late Chan- 
cellor of New York, once had his residence in 
this to Wa. 

John LovETT,.who was aid to G«n. Stephen 
Van Rensselaer on the Niagara frontier, in the 
war of 1812, and afterwards, until 1817, a mem- 
ber of Congress from the Albany district, a man 
of decided talent, resided in this town as a 
merchant for 3 or 4 years, ending in 1807, 
when he removed to Albany. He was a grad- 
uate of Yale College, and had also studied the 
profession of law. He was not successful as a 
merchant, but is kindly remembered here for 
his interesting and amusing conversational pow- 
ers and his genial wit. One of his brief poetic 
efifusions, exhibiting a coarse phase of human 
vanity, has come down to us as follows : 

I sing the Indian, great Bob Konkepot 
That used to swear he 'd rather flght than not, 
'Cause 't made follis talk Konkepot 
Great much, great deal — 
Dis make Bob Konkepot great man, big feel. 

There are doubtless other natives or descend- 
ants of Bennington, who might properly be no- 
ticed here. 


Capt. Samuel Robinson was born at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., in 1705, removed to Hardwick, 
about 1735, and emigrated to Bennmglon in 
1761, the acknowledged leader of the band of 
pioneers in the settlement of the town ; and he 
continued to exercise almost a controlling au- 
tliorify in the aflFairs of the town during the re- 
mainder of his life. He had served as Captain 
in the troops of Massachusetts, in the French 
war, during several campaigns, and was at the 

head of liis company in the battle of Lake 
George, September 1755, when the French 
were defeated by Generals Johnson and Ly- 
man. Ho was commissioned as Justice of the 
Peace by Gov. Wentworth of New Hampshire, 
Feb. 8, 1762, being the first per^son appointed to 
any judicial office within the limits of this State. 

In the summer of 17G4 a controversy in re- 
gard to jurisdiction arose in Pownal, between 
claimants under New Hampshire, and otliers 
under New York, in which the authority of 
Esquire Robinson as a magistrate seems to 
have been invoked. Mr. Robinson being, at 
Pownal, was, together with Samuel Ashley, a 
New Hampshire sheriff's deputy, and two other 
persons, arrested by the New York sheriff and 
his assistants, and carried to Albany jail. This 
collision of officers produced a correspondence 
between the Governors of the two provinces, 
which appears to have resulted in a sort of 
compromise, by which Mr. Robinson and those 
with him were released on moderate or nominal 
bail, and though indicted for resisting the New 
York officers, were never brought to trial. 

In December, 1765, when it was ascertained 
by the settlers under New Hampshire, that 
their lands were being granted fiom under 
them by Lieut. Gov. Golden, Mr. Robinson was 
deputed by those of Bennington and neighbor- 
ing towns, to go to New York for the purpose 
of trying to persuade him to save their posses- 
sions from the grasp of the city speculators, but 
his efforts were unavailing. He was tl.e next 
year appointed by the whole body of the set- 
tlers and claimants, their agent to repair to 
England, and present their petitions for relief to 
the King. Hfe left for England late in the fall 
of 1766, and reached London early in February 
following. In conjunction with William Sam- 
uel Johnson, then in London as the agent of the 
Colony of Connecticut, and with the aid of " the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," he so far procured the ear of 
the crown, that Lord Shelburne, on the 11th of 
April, 1757, addressed a letter to Sir Henry 
Moore, who had then become governor of the 
province of New York, forbidding him in the 
most positive terms from making any new grants 
of lands in the disputed territory, and from mo- 
lesting any person in possession under a New 
Hampshire title. On the 20th of July follow- 
ing, upon a hearing before the king in council, 
an order in council was made prohibiting the 
governor of New York, "under pain of his 
majesty's highest displeasure," from making any 
such new grants. While Mr. l^obinson was 
still prosecuting the business of his mission, he 
unfortunately took the small pox, and died in 
London, October 27, 1767. 



Mr. Johnson, in communicatiag the intelli- 
gence of his decease to his widow, under date 
of Nov. 2, 1767, says of him, "He is much la- 
mented by his friends and acquaintances which 
were many. Tou may rest assured no care or 
expense was spared for his comfort and to save 
Ijis lif?, had it been consistant with the designs 
of Providence. * * * After his death, as 
the last act of friendship to his memory, I took 
care to furnisli him a decent funeral, at which 
General Lyman and other gentlemen here from 
America attended with me as mourners. He 
is intered in the burial ground belonging to 
Mr. Whitfield's church, where he usually at- 
tended public worship." * * * 

Capt. Robinson was an intelligent, enterpris- 
ing and energetic man. of exemplary moral and 
religious cliaracter, and well suited to be the 
Irader of a band of emigrants to a new country. 
Hfs loss was deeply felt and deplored by the 
whole body of settlers on the New Hampshire 
Grants. Capt. Robinson left six sens and three 
daughters, who were all born at Hardwick, all 
emigrated to Bennington, and all became heads 
of faaiilies. His descendants are very numer- 
ous, some of them are to be found in almost ev- 
ery state and territory in the Union. Of the 
sons, Leonard, tiie oldest, and Silas, the- fourth, 
removed from Bennington to Franklin Co., and 
died there. Mercy, the eldest daughter, mar- 
ried Joseph, son of Deac >n Joseph Saflford ; Sa- 
rah, the second daughter, married Benjamin, 
son of Stephen Fay ; and after his death, Gen* 
Heman Swift, of Cornwall, Connecticut. — Anna- 
the youngest, married Isaac Webster of Ben- 
nington. The other children were Samuel, Mo" 
ses, David and Johnathan, who'will require sep- 
arate notices. 


Col. Samuel Robinson, son of Samuel Rob 
inson. Senior, was born at Hardwick, Mass. 
Aug. 15, 1738, was one of the first company of 
settlers who came to Bennington in 1761, mar- 
ried Esther, daughter of Deacon Joseph Safibrd, 
and died in Bennington May 3. 1813. lie was 
an active man in the New York controversy, 
and in the other early affairs of the town : in 
1768 was chosen town committee in place of 
hisfether deceased, commanded one of the Ben- 
nington companies of militia in Bennington 
battle, performed other important military ser- 
vices during the war, and rose to the rank of 
Colonel. In 1777 and 1778 he had charge as 
"overseer," of the tory prisoners, and in 1779 
and 1780 represented the town in the General 
Assembly, and was for three years a member 
of the Board of War. He was the first justice 
of the peace appointed in town, under the 

authority of Vermont, in 1778, and was also 
during the same year one of the judges of the 
Special Court for the South Shire of the Coun- 
ty and in that capacity sat on the trial and con- 
viction of Redding. Col. Robinson was a man 
of good natural abilities, and of much activity 
and enterprise in early life, upright and honor- 
able in all his dealings, possessing undoubted 
personal courage, and beloved by all for the 
kindness, generosity and nobleness of his na- 
ture and conduct. He left numerous worthy 
and respectable descendants, some of whom re- 
side in this town, and others in diJBFerent parts 
of this and the United States. 


MosE.s Robinson, son of Samuel, Senior, was 
born at Hardwick. Mass., March 20, 1741, 
married Mary, daughter of Stephen Fay, and, 
after her death, Susanah Howe; and died at 
Bennington, May 2(), 1813. He was chosen 
Tov^n Clerk at the first meeting of the town, 
March, 17G2, and held the office 19 years until 
March, 1782. In the early f)art of 1 777 he was 
Colonel of the militia, and was at the head of 
his regiment at Mount Independence, on its 
evacuation by Gen. St. Clair. He then became 
a member of the Council of Safety, which held 
continued sessions for several months afterwards 
and was succeeded in his military rank by Col. 
Nathaniel Brush of Bennington. On the first 
organization of the Supreme Court, iu 17 78, he 
was appointed Chief Justice ; which office he 
held (with the exception of one year) until 
1789, when there being no choice of Governor 
by the people, he was elected by the Legisla- 
ture to that office, but was sucCL>eded the next 
year by Thomas Chittenden, the former Govern- 
or. He had, in 1782, attended the Continental 
Congress as one of the agents of Vermont, and 
on the adjustment of the controversy with New 
York, was, in January, 1791, elected one of the 
Setiators to Congress, (Stapiien R. Bradley be- 
ing the other.) Gov. Robinson was a political 
friend of Jeflferson and Madison, and when in 
Congress united with them in their favorable 
views of the French revolution and government, 
and in their hostility to Jay's treaty with Eng- 
land. He not only voted against the treaty, in 
the Senate in June, 1795, but after its ratifica- 
tion by that body, was instrumental in procur- 
ing its condemnation by a Bennington town 
meeting, and by a convention of the county, in 
order, in connection with similar demonstrations 
in other parts of the country, to induce Con- 
gress to withhold the necessary appropriations 
for carrying the treaty into effect. In June, 
1791, Mr. Jefferson, then Secretary of Stat;-, and 
Mr. Madison, a member of the House of Repre- 



pentaiives, iti uiakitig a liorseback tour tliiMUgh 
New England, stopped in Pennington, and spi-n. 
the Sabbath with Gov. Robinson, who had then 
been recently elected to the Senate. Gov. 
Rdbinso!'- was a zealously pious man, and scru- 
pulo sly exact in the performance of his relig- 
iotas duties, wliile bis visitors, cspeoi;dly Mr. 
Jefferson, were accused of not only sympathis- 
ing with the French republicans in politics, but 
also in religion, or rather in the want of it. 
This visit of these distinguished gentlemen, in 
connexion with the subsequent political course 
of Gov. Robinson, was afterwards made the 
occasion of sundry newspaper squibs of the op- 
posite partj% particularly in reference to his in- 
tercourse with his guests during the Sabbath. 
According to one of them. Gov. Robinson, who 
was a little proud (as Bennington people are 
still apt to be) of the performance of the choir 
of singers, insisted upon having their opinion 
r.pon its merits, and especially how it compar- 
ed with the church music in other places, upon 
which it was said both of them were obliged to 
coniess, that they were no judges of the matter, 
neither of them having attended church before 
in several years! 

Another rather characteristic story was told 
of him, by his political opponents. It ran in 
this wise : At the close of the session of Con- 
gress, in which he had voted against the appro- 
priations for Jay's treaty, and had given other 
votes which it was thought indicated hostility 
towards Washington's administration, he rode, 
on his way home from Philadelphia, in a car 
riage in company with a portion of the Connec- 
ticut delegates, ami ng whom was Uriah Tracy, 
then a member of the house, long noted for the 
sarcastic keenness of his wit. In the course of 
the journey to New York, Gov. Robinson, as 
was his wont, fell to discoursing upon religious 
matters, and particularly upon doctrinal points, 
insisting, with great earnestness, upon t'nc truth 
of the doctrine of total depravity. — Tracy's pa- 
tience being somewhat tried, he suddenly bi oke 
in upon him with the question, "Gov. Robin- 
son, do you think you are totally depraved ?" 
The Governor appeared somewhat confused, 
but, after a little hesitation, felt obliged to ans- 
wer, that ho thought he was. To which Tracy 
promptl}^ replied — " I know that your f iend^ 
have thought so for some time past, and I am 
glad you have become sensible of it yourself." 
This sharp reply is said to have changed the 
subject of conversation. Gov. Robinson, though 
sustained in his political views by his neighbors 
of the town and county, found himself in a 
minority in the State, and accordingly resigned 
his office of Senator, in October. 1796, a few 
months before the expiration of his term, and 

was succeeded by Isaac Ticlietior. He repre- 
sented the town in the General Assembly in 
1802, and was not afterwards in public life. 

Gov. Robinson was a man of exemplary mor- 
al and religious character, intelligent and up- 
right in the performance of all his duties, both 
as a public man and a private citizen, always pos- 
.sessing the confidence and esteem of all who 
knew him. He died May 26, 1813, in the 73d 
year of his age, and was extensively lamented. 

By his wife, Mary Fay, Governor Robin- 
son left six sons. Moses, the eldest, was a 
member of the Council in 1814, and was sever- 
al times, in 1820 and afterwards, representative 
of the town in the General Assembly. He 
died January 30, 1825, aged 62. Aaron, the 
second son. was Town Clerk seven years, and 
in 1815, and afterwards, a justice of the peace 
23 years, a representative to the Assembly in 
1816 and 1817, and Judge of Probate in 1S35 
and 1S36, and died in 1850, aged 83. Samuel 
Robinson, the third son, was clerk of the Su- 
preme Court for the County, from 1794 to 1815. 
He died January 7, 1820, aged 53. Nathan 
Robinson, another son, was a lawyer by pro- 
fession; represented the town in 1803, and died 
Sept. 27. 1812, aged 40. The other sons were 
Elijah and Fay. 


Gen. David Robinson (son of Samuel Senior) born at Hardwick, Mass., Nov. 22, 1754, 
he came to Bennington with his father in 1761. 
lie was in the battle of Bennington as a private 
in the militia, and afterwaids rose by r. gular 
promotion to the rank of Major General, which 
ofiBee he resigned about 1817. He was Sheriff 
of the County for 22 years, ending in 1811, 
when he was appointed United States' Marshal 
for the Vermont district, which oflSce he held 
for 8 years until 1819. Gen. Robinson was a 
very active, energetic man, and well fitted for 
the executive ofiSces he was called upon to fill. 
He sustained through life an unexceptionable 
moral and religious character, and died Dec. 12. 
1843, at the advanced age of 89. 

By his wife Sarah, a daughter of Stephen 
Fay, he had three sons who became heads of 
families, viz : David, a lawyer by profession, who 
died in March, 1858, aged 81 ; Stephen, who 
\\as successively a member of the Assembly for 
several years, a Judge of the County Court, and 
a member of the Council of Censors in ] 834, 
and died in 1852, aged 71, and Heman, who 
died Feb. 26, 1837, aged 50. — The two latter 
left numerous descendants. 

JtTDGE Jonathan Robinson (the youngest 



son of Samuel, lieiiior) was born at Hardwidc, 
Jlass., Aug. 11, 1756, and came to Bennington 
as one of his father's family, in 1761. He was 
admitted to the bar in June, 1793, and was 
early in public life ; was Town Clerk 6 years, 
from 1795, represented the town 13 years prior 
to 1S02, was chief judge of the Supreme Court, 
from 1801 to 1807, when he was chosen Sena- 
tor to Congress, to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by ihe resignat'on of Israel Smith, then elected 
governor of the State, and was also Senator for 
the succeeding term of G years, which expired 
March 3, 1815. In October 1815, he became 
Judge of Probate, and held the ofiSce for 4 years ; 
and in 1818 again represented the town in the 
General Assembly. He died Nov. 3, 1819, in 
the 64th year of his age. 

Judge Robinson was a man of pleasant and 
insinuating address, and by his talent and po- 
litical shrewdness occupied a leading position in 
the republican party of the State for many years. 
While in the Senate he was understood to have 
the ear and confidence of President Madison, 
and to have a controlling influence in the dis- 
tribution of the army and other patronage of 
the administration within this State, which in 
consequence of the war with England was then 
very great. 

He married Mary, daughter of John ^assett. 
Senior — his children were Jonathan E., who 
was a lawyer by profession, was Town Clerk 9 
years, Judge of the County Court in 1828, and 
died April 27, 1831; Henry, who was S'lcces- 
sively paymaster in the army, Clerk in the Pen- 
sion office, Brigadier Genera! of the Militia, and 
for 10 years Clerk of the County and Supreme 
Court, and died in 1856; a daughter Mary, 
married to Col. C. Merrill, but now deceased, 
and another son, Isaac T. Robinson, is still liv- 
ing in Bennington. 


Gov. John S. Robinsok was son of Nathan 
and grandson of Gov. Moses Robinson, and was 
born at Bennington, Nov. 10, 1804. His great 
grandfather, Samuel Robinson, served several 
campaigns as Captain of Massachusetts troops, 
in the vicinity of lakes George and Champlain 
in the French war, which terminated in the con- 
quest of Canada; was leader of the band of 
pioneers in the settlement of Bennington, and 
died in 1767, in London, while on a mission to 
implore the aid of the crown in behalf of the 
New Hampshire settlers, against the oppression 
of the New York government. 

Mr. Robinson, the subject of this brief notice, 
graduated at Williams College in 1824, was ad- 
mitted to the Bennington County Bar hi 1827, 

and was in the active practice of his profession 
in his native town during the remainder of his 

He was twice elected a representative of Ben- 
nington in the General Assemb'y ; was twice a 
member of the State Senate ; and, in 1S53, on 
the failure of an election of Governor by the 
people, he was chosen to that office by joint 
ballot of the two houses. Mr. Robinson be- 
lonsed to the Democratic party, and was fre- 
quently supported by his political friends for 
Member of Congress, Governor and other im- 
portant offices ; but his party being generally in 
the minority, he was unsuccessful, except as be- 
fore stated. 

In April, 1860, he attended the National 
Democratic Convention, at Charleston, South 
Carolina, was Chairman of the delegation from 
Vermont, and died in that city of apoplexy, on 
the 24th of that month. 

The legal attainments and high order of tal- 
ent of Mr. Robinson placed him at an early day 
in the front rank of his profession, which posi- 
tion he always maintained. Generous of heart, 
amiable in disposition, and with integrity un- 
doubted, he, by his uniform courtesy and kind- 
ness, endeared himself to all with whom he had 
business or intercourse. His remains were 
brought for interment to his native town, where 
his funeral was attended by the members of the 
bar in a body, as mourners, and by a large con- 
course of acquaintances and friends — an impres- 
sive funeral discourse being delivered by Presi- 
ident Hopkins, who was his associate in College. 

Gov. Robinson was married to Juliette Stan- 
iford. in Octob-^r, 1847, then widow of Wm. Rob- 
inson, who survives him. He left no children. 


Among the settlers in Bennington of 1161, 
was the family of John Fassett, at whose house 
the first town meeting was held in March, 1162. 
He resided about half a mile south of the meet- 
ing house near what has been lately known as 
the Doctor Swift place. He kept a tavern, and 
the town meetings were at the house " John 
Fassett, Innholder,'' until 1767, when they were 
at the meeting-house. In October, 17 64, Mr. Fas- 
sett was chosen Captain of the first military com- 
pany formed in the town, by which title he was 
afterwards distinguished. He was one of the 
two representatives of the town chosen to the 
first State Legislature, which was in March, 1778. 
He died at Bennington, Aug. 12, 1794, in the 
75th year of his age. He had a numerous fam- 
ily of children, among whom were the follow- 
ing, viz : 

John Fassett, Jr. was born at Hardwick, 
June 3, 1743, came to Bennington with his fa- 



ther in 1761, married Hannah, daughter of Dea. 
Joseph Safford. and removed to Cambridge, Vt., 
1784, where lie died. He was one of the two 
representatives from Arhngion, 1778, and was 
elected one of the Council, in 1779, which ofBce 
he held, with the exception of the years 1785 
and 1786, until 1795, and he was also Judge of 
the Supreme Court for 8 years, from 1778 to 
1786. He was father ( f Elias Fassei t, who was 
Colonel of the 30th Regiment of United States 
Infantry, in the war of 1812. Col. Benjamin 
Fassett was born at Hardwick, and came to 
Bennington with his fither, Capt. John Fassett, 
in 1761. He was a Commissary in the war of 
the Revolution, and served in other capacities 
in military and civil life, was an active business 
man, and died in Bennington many years since, 
leaving numerous descendants. 


Stephen Fay came from Hardwick to Ben- 
nington about the year 1766, kept a public 
house in the centre of the town, known in the 
language of the time as '' LaniUord Fays." The 
house built by him is still standing, and occu- 
pied by his grandson Samuel Fay. It was the 
usual place of meeting of the sectl^rs in their 
early contest with the Yorkers, and known as 
their headquarters. Ethan Allen made it his 
home for a great portion of the time for several 
years from 1766, when he first came to the New 
Hampshire grants. Mr. Fay occupied an influ- 
ential position among the early inhabitants of 
the town, and died in 1781. He had ten child- 
ren, in the order of their ages as follows, viz : 

John, the eldest, who was killed in Benning- 
ton Battle, Aug. 16, 1777, aged 43. He left a 
widow and children, and many of his descend- 
ants are now living in the northern part of this 
State. Jonas, the second son ; Stephen, who 
died at Charlestown, Mass ; Mary, married to 
Gov. Moses Robinson ; Sarah, married to Gen. 
David Robinson ; Elijah died in Bennington, Ju- 
ly 5, 1835, aged 85; Beulah, married to Samu- 
el Billings of Bennington ; Benjamin, born Nov. 
22, 1750, was the first Sheriff appointed in the 
County and State, and held the ofiice from 
March 26, 1778 until October, 1781. and died in 
17."~'6. He left several children, among whom 
was Samuel Fay above mentioned, born Aug. 
16, 1772, and who has been more particularly 
spoken of in the sketch of the town. The other 
children of Stephen Fay were Joseph and David. 


Son of Stephen Fay, was born at Hardwick, 
Mass., Jan. 17, 1737, and removed to Benning- 
ton in 1766. He occupied from an early day a 
prominent position among the settlers on the 
New Hampshire Grants, as well in the contest 

with New York as in that with the mother 
country, and also in the organization of the State 
government. In 1772, when Governor Tryon 
invited the people of Bennington to send agents 
to New York, to infoim Iiim of the grounds of 
their complaint, he, with his father, was appointed 
for tliat purpose. He was clerk to the conven- 
tion of settlers that met in March, 1774, and re- 
solved to defend by force, Allen, Warner, and 
others who were t'lreatened with outlawry and 
death by the New York Assembly, and as such 
clerk certified their proceedings for publication. 
At the age of 19 he h;id served in the French 
war during the campaign of 1776. at Fort Ed- 
ward and Lake George, as Clerk of Capt. Sam- 
uel Robinson's Company of Massachusetts 
troops, and he served as Surgeon in the expe- 
dition undef Allen, at the capture of Ticondero- 
ga. He was continued in that position by the 
committee of the Massachusetts Congress, who 
were sent to the lake in July, 1775, and also 
appointed by them to muster the troops as 
they arrived for the defence of that post. He 
was also surgeon for a time to Col. Warner's 

In January, 1776, he was clerk to the con- 
vention at Dorset, that petitioned Congress to 
be allowed to serve in the common cause of the 
countrj^, as inhabitants of the New Hampshire 
Grants, and not under New York ; and also of 
that held at the same place, in July following. 
He was a member of tlie convention which met 
at Westminister in January. 1777, and declared 
Vermont to bo an independent State ; and was 
appointed chairman of a committee to draw up 
a declaration and petition announcing the fact, 
and their reason* fir it, to Congi'ess, of which 
decl ;ration and petition, he was the draughts- 
man and author. He was secretaiy to the con- 
vention that formed the constitution of the State 
in July, 1777, and was one of the Council of Safe- 
ty then appointed to administer the affairs of 
the State, until the Assembly provided for, by 
the constitution, should meet; was a member 
of the State Council for seven years, from 1778, 
a Judge of the Supreme Court, in 1782; Jitdge 
of Probate from 18S2 to 1787, and he attended 
the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, as 
the agent of the State, under appointments, 
made in January, 1777, October, 1779, June, 
1781, and February, 1782. 

Dr. Fay was a man of extensive general in- 
formation, decided in his opinions, and bold 
and determined in maintaining them. His ed- 
ucation was such as to enable him to draw 
with skill and ability the public papei's of the 
day, of many of which, besides the declaration 
of independence before mentioned, he was the 
reputed author. In 1780, he, in conjunction 



with Ethan Allen, prepared and published a 
pjmplilet of 30 pages on the New Hampshire 
and New- York controversy, wliich was printed 
at Hartford, Conn. Dr. Fay was on terms of 
friendship and iutiiiiacy with Gov. Thomas Chit- 
tenden, tlie Aliens, "Warner and other foun- 
ders of the State. He was twic^ married, and 
has left numerous descendants. On the occur- 
rence of the birth of twin sons, Jan. 12, 1779, 
he named one of them Ethan Allen, and the 
other Heman Allen, after his two friends of 
those names. The latter, Major Heman A. Fay, 
graduated as a cadet at "West Point in 1808, and 
was appointed a Lieutanant in the army in 
which he served through the war of 1812, and 
soon afterwards became Military store-keeper at 
Albany, which oiBce he held until within a few 
years past, when he returned to Bennington, 
where he now resides. 

Dr. F;iy resided in Bennington in a house 
that stood on "the blue hill," a mile soutli of the 
meetiug-house until after the year 1800, when 
he removed to Charlotte for a few years, and 
afterwards to Pawlet, but returned again to Ben- 
nington, where he died March 6, 1818, aged 82. 


Son of Stephen Fay, was born at llardvvick about 
17.32, and came to Bennington a member of his 
father's familj^, in 1760. He was Secretary to 
the Council of Safety and of the State Council 
from September, 1777, to 1784, and Secretary of 
State from 1778 to 1781. He was the associate 
of Ira Allen, in conducting the famous negocia- 
tion with Gen. Haldimand by which the opera- 
tions of the enemy were paralyzed, and the 
northern frontier protected from invasion dur- 
ing the three last years of tlie revolutionary 
struggle. He was a man of very respectable 
talents and acquirements, of fine personal ap- 
pearance and agreeable manners and address, 
and well calculated to manage such a diplomat- 
tic adventure with adroitness and ability. He 
built and resided in the house now occupied by 
the widow of the late Truman Squier, next 
north of the Court House ; but removed to New 
York City in 1794, where he died of the yellow 
fever in October, 1803. Theodore S. Fay, well 
known as a popular writer, and now Minister 
of the United States to Switzerland, is a grand- 
son of Col. Fay. 


David Fay, youngest son of Stephen Fay, 
was born at Hard wick, Mass., December 13, 
1761, and came to Bennington as one of his 
father's family in 1766. He was in the battle 
of Bennington, though less than 16 years old, 

his nnme being found on the roll of Capt. Sam- 
uel Robinson's company, designated as '■ filer." 
lie was admitted to the bar'in June. 1794, and 
was States Attorney for four years previous to 
1801, was United States Attorney for the Ver- 
mont District under Mr. Jefferson, Judge of the 
Supreme Court for 4 years Irom 1809, Judge of 
Probate in 1819 and 1820, and a member of the 
Council for 4 years, ending in 1821. He died 
June 5, 1827, leaving no descendants. 


Gen. Ebenezeb "Walbridge was born at 
Norwich, Conn., Jan. 1, 1 738, and came to Ben- 
nington in 1765. He was early in military ser- 
vice. He was an ofiBcer in Col. "Warner's regi- 
ment of Green Mountain Boys in the winter 
campaign of 1776 in Canada, and from the frag- 
ment of an original muster roll still in existance, 
it appears that on the 3d of March of that year 
he was before Quebec, a Lieutenant in Capt. 
Gideon Brown.son's company, and Adjutant of 
the regiment. He al$o seiTcd as Adjutant in 
Bennington battle, where his brother, Henry 
"Walbridge, was killed. In 1778 he was Lieu- 
tenant Colonel in the militia, and in 1780 suc- 
ceeded Col. Herrick, in command of the Ben- 
nington regiment, and afterwards became Brig- 
adier General. He was in active service on the 
frontiers at several periods during the war, and 
in December, 1781, when troops were called out 
by both New York and Vermont to sustain their 
respective claims of jurisdiction over " the "Wes- 
tern Union," as it was called. Col. "^''albridge 
commanded those of this State. But for the 
decided superiority of the Vermont force, and a 
disposition to forbearance on the part of the Ver- 
mont authorities, it seems probable an actual 
military collision would have occurred. The 
matter was, however, compromised for the 
time being, through the mediation of Gen. 
Stark, who was then in command at Saratoga, 
and the troops on both sides were withdrawn. 
The correspondence of CoL Walbridge with the 
New York authorities, which is creditable to 
his intelligence and decision of character, as 
well as forbearance, is preserved among the pa- 
pers ot Gov. Clinton, in the State Library at 
Albany. Gen. "Walbridge also served the State 
faithfully and well in civil life. He was a rep- 
resentative of the town in the General Assembly 
in 1778 and 1780, and a member of the State 
Council for 8 years from 1786 to 1795. He was 
an active and enterprising business man. In 
1786 he was joint proprietor with Joseph Hins- 
dill, in the first paper-mill erected in the State, 
he having built a grist-mill some 4 years previ- 
ously. These mills were at what has since 
been called Paper Mill Village, near his then 



residence, now occupied by his grandson, Steb- 
bins D. Walbridge. He died Oct. 3, 1819. 


Nathan Clark was a resident of Benning- 
ton as early as September, 1762 ; but tlie place 
of his birtb, or that from whence he emigrated, 
has not been ascertained. He was a leading 
man in the controversy of the settlers with the 
New York laud claimants, and his name ap- 
pears in nearly all of their public proceedings 
prior to the Revolution, generally as chairman 
of their committees and conventions. He is 
said by tradition to have been " a pen and ink 
man," and to have been the draughtsman of ma- 
ny of the published papers of the early time- 
He was chairman of the committee of safety of 
Bennington in 1776, and as such held corres- 
pondence with Gen. Gates, then commander at 
Ticonderoga, rendering him substantial and ef- 
ficient aid in collecting and forwarding supplies 
for the army He was representative from the 
town in the first legislature held in the State, 
which met at Windsor, in March, 1778, and was 
Speaker of the Assembly. He is said to have 
been a man of decided energy of character, and 
of very respectable talent. One of his sons, Na- 
than Clark, jr., died of a wound received in 
Bennington battle. He had other sons in the 
battle, one of whom, Isaac Clark, was afterwards 
known as " Old Rifle," and served as Colonel in 
the war of 1812. Nathan Clark died at Ben- 
nington, April 8, 1792, aged 74, leaving many 




James Breakenridge came to Bennington in 
the fall of 17G1, and settled in the north-wester- 
ly part of the town, being the owner by pur- 
chase of several rights of land. He was of 
Protestant Irish descent, and there afterwards 
settled about him the families of Henderson, 
Henry and one or two others of the same an- 
cestry, which gave to the neighborhood the 
name of "the Irish corner," and which it has 
ever since retained. Mr. Breakenridge was a 
man of quiet and peaceable disposition and hab- 
its, though his property being covered by the 
old patent of "Walloomsack, necessarily placed 
him in a belligerent attitude towards the Nev/ 
York claimants. Although indicted as a rioter 
and outlawed with Allen, Warner and others, 
by the New York government, he does not ap- 
pear to have ever taken any part in their active 
proceedings. He was sent to England by a 
convention of the settlers with Jehiel Hawley 
of Arlington, as his associate in 1772, to ask re- 
lief from the crown against the New York 
claimants and government, but the ministry 

were too much absorbed with their project of 
taxing America to give their attention to the 
matter, Mr. Breakenridge was chosen Lieuten- 
ant of the first military company formed in Ben- 
nington, in 1764, and is, therefore, frequently 
designated in the records of the town by ihat 
title. He was a man of exemplary moral and 
religious character, and died April 16, 1783, 
aged 62, and has left numerous descendants. 


Col. Seth Warner was born in Ro>'bury, 
then Woodbury, Conn., May 17, 1743, came to 
Bennington to reside in January, 1765, and re- 
mained here until the summer of 17S4, wlien, 
being in failing health he returned to his native 
town, where he died the December foUov/ing, 
being in the 42d year of his ago. The life of 
Warner has been written by j aniel Chipman 
and by others, and is too well known to justify 
any detailed notice of him in this sketch. As 
a military leader he was honored and confided 
in above all others by the people of this State, 
a nd his bravery and military capacity appear to 
have been always appreciated by the intelligent 
officers from other States with whom he served. 
In the disastrous retreat from Canada, in the 
spring of 1776, he brought up the rear, and he 
was placed in command of the rear guard on 
the evacuation of Ticonderoga, by which he 
was involved in the action at Hubbardton. At 
Bennin-ton he was with Stark for several days 
before the battle, and was his associate in plan- 
ning the attack upon Baum, and in carrying it 
into execution, and it was by his advice, and 
contrary to the first impression of Stark, that 
Breyman was immediately opposed, without first 
retreating to rally the scattered American forces, 
^tark in his official accouut of the battle was 
not the man to overlook the valued services of 
his associates. In his letter to Gates he says 
that Warner marched with him to meet the en- 
emy oil the 14th, and of the battle on the 16th.- 
" Warner's superior skiU in the action was of 
great service to me." Contemporaneous liis'o- 
ries confirm the account given by Stark. Gor- 
don in his hiiitory of the revolution takes a sim- 
ilar view of the services of Warner on that oc- 
casion, and Dr. Thatcher in his Journal, in com- 
mencing his account of the actions, says, "On 
the 16th Gen. Stark, assisted by Col. Warner, 
matured his arrangements -lor the battle," and 
then describes it as was done by Stark. 

It is to the credit of the State of Connecticut, 
that its legislature have caused a neat and sub- 
stantial granite monument to be erected over his 
remains at Roxbury. It is an obelisk about 21 
feet in height, with appropriate base, plinth, die 
and mouldings, with the following inscriptions: 



East (front) side— "Col. Seth Waruer, of the 
army of the Revolutiori; bsrn in Eoxbury,Coun. 
May 17, 1743; a resident of Bennington, Vt., 
from 1765 to 1784; died in his native parish, 
Dec. 26, 1781.^' 

North side — "Captor of Crown Point, com- 
mander of the Green Mountain Boys in the re- 
pulse of Carlton at Lotigueil and in the battle 
of Hu'jbardton ; and the associate of Stark, in 
the victory at Bennington." 

South side — •" Distinguished as a successful 
defender of the New Hampshire Grants ; and 
for bravery, sagacity, energy and humanity, as 
a partisan officer in the war of the Revolution." 

West side — '' His remains are deposited un- 
der this monument, erected by order of the 
General Assembly at Connecticut, A. D. 1859." 

Col. Warner came to Bennington a single 
man in 1765, was married within a year or two 
afterwards to Hester Hurd of Roxbury, and set- 
tled in the northwesterly part of the town. He 
was a near neighbor of James Breakenridge, 
his house being on the corner oijposite the pres- 
ent school house at "Irish Corner." It was 
lately known as the Gibbs place, and the house 
erected by him was standing, though in a di- 
lapidated condition, until the fall of l8o8, when 
it v/as destroyed by fire. This residence of his 
was within three quarters of a mile of New 
Yoik line, on the outskirts of the settlement, 
where he appears to have lived in security 
throughout the New York controversy, notwith- 
standing numerous indictments were found 
against him as a rioter, and large rewards offer- 
ed for his apprehension. This feedom from at- 
tack is to be accounted for by the terror with 
which his boldness and resolution, and that of 
his brother Green Mountain Boys, inspired his 
land-claiming enemies, coupled with the well 
known fact that the great body of the inhabit- 
ants of the bordering county of Albany sympa- 
thized with him in his hofctility to the unjust 
demands of the speculators, and would sooner 
aid in his rescue than in his arrest. 


ETH.4N Allen came to the New Hampshire 
Grants about the year 1769, and made it his 
home in Bennington while within the territory, 
until he was taken prisoner at Montreal, Sept. 
25, 1775. After his return from captivity in the 
spring of 1778, he was at Bennington for a 
time, then at Arlington, then again at Benning- 
ton from about 1784 to 1786, when he removed 
to Burlington.* 

* We reserve a description of the Monument erected 
by the Legislature to the memory of Allen, which fol- 
lowed this paragraph, for the Burlington chapter. — Ed. 


Was born at Newark, N. J., Feb. 8, 1754, and 
educated at Prmceton College, then under the 
presidency of the celebrated Dr. Witherspoon, 
for whom and whose memory he always had 
the highest veneration. He jjraduated in 1775, 
and while pursuing the study of law at Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., he was early in 1777 appointed as- 
sistant to Jacob Cuyler, Deputy Commissary 
General of purchases for the Northern depart- 
ment, having for his field of service an exten- 
sive portion of the New England States. In 
this service he was obliged in behalf of his 
country to incur great pecuniary responsibilities, 
wliich occasioned Iiim serious embarrassment for 
many subsequent years. In the performance 
of his official duties he came to Bennington the 
14th of June, 1777, and was here superintending 
the collection of supphes for the army during 
the principal part of the summer of that year. 
On the 13th of August he left Bennington with 
a drove of cattle for Albany, and returned the 
16th by way of Williamstown, arriving on the 
battle ground about dark, just as the fighting 
had ceased. From this period his residence was 
in Bennington when not in actual service in the 
Commissary department. Not long after the 
close of the war he commenced the practice of 
law, and soon became active and prominent in 
public afiairs. He represented the town in 
the General Assembly in 17yl, 2, 3 ai.d 4, and 
was one year speaker of the House. He was 
agent of the State at Congress, in 17S2, and was 
the same year appointed by the legislature to 
visit Windham Co., and advocate the claims of 
the State with the Yorkers in that section, in 
which mission he appears to have met with 
considerable success. He was a member of the 
State Council for 5 years from 1787, a Judge of 
the Supreme Court from 1791 to 1796, tlie two 
latter \ears holding tke position of Chief Justice; 
a member of the Council of Censors in 1792, and 
again in 1813, was one of the Commissioners 
of the State for adjusting the controversy with 
New York, in 1791, and in 179G was chosen 
Senator in Congress to supply the vancancy oc- 
casioned by the resignation of Moses Robinson, 
he and also for the ensuing 6 years, which place 
resigned on being elected gorernor in Oct., 1797. 
He held the office of governor for 10 successive 
years, until October, 1807, when Israel Smith 
was his successful competitor. He was, how- 
ever, elected again in 1808, making his whole 
term of service in the executive chair 1 1 years. 
In 1814, he was again chosen Senator in Con- 
gress, which office he helduntil March 3, 1821, 
when he retired from public life. 
Gov. Tichenor was a man of good private 



character, of highly respectable talents and ac- 
quirements, of remarkablj fine personal appear- 
ance, of accomplished manners and insinuating 
address. Hia lacinating personal qualities early 
acquired for him the sobriquet of " Jersey 
Slick," by which he was long designated in fa- 
miliar conversation. He was a federalist in pol- 
itics, and his popularity was such that he was 
elected governor for several successive years 
after his party had become a minority in the 
State. His peculiar talent in commending him- 
self to the favor of others, is alleged to have 
been sometimes used with considerable effect 
for electioneering purposes. He is said to have 
had remarkable tact in discovering and lauding 
the extraordinary good qualities of the forms, 
horses, cattle and other property, and even of 
the not very promising children of t'ose whose 
support he desired to obtain. Many anecdotes 
in relation to this matter were formerly told of 
him, one of which may serve as a characteristic 
specimen. While travelling in a distant part of 
the State he contrived to pass the residence of 
a farmer of great influence in his town, who had 
formerly supported him for governor, but who 
was now supposed to bo wavering. On his ap- 
proach' to the place he discovered the farmer at 
some distance building stone wall by the road 
side. Leaving his carriage the governor began 
to examine the wall with great care and earnest- 
ness, looking over and along both sides of it 
and exhibiting signs of excessive admiration. 
On coming within speaking distance the gov- 
ernor exclaimed with much apparent emotion : 
"Bless me, Tiiend, what a beautiful and noble 
wall you are building — I don't believe there is 
another equal to it in the State." "Yes, gov- 
ernor,' was the reply of the farmer, "its a very 
good wall to be sure, but I can't vote for you 
this year.' 

Gov. Tichenor was very fond of hunting and 
fishing, and continued to range the mountains 
and streams in these pursuits, generally with 
some friend, until quite late in life. — He was 
very unwilling to come off second best in either 
(rf these sports. On one occasion when going 
out trout fishing with one of his neighbors they 
laid a small wager that each would catch the 
largest. "On weighing the fish at landlord 
Dewey's the governor was found to have lost 
the bet, which he readily paid, though consider- 
ably disappointed. "I don't see," said he to 
his friend M., "how your trout should weigh 
the most. Mine certainly looks the largest, and 
besides I filled it full of gravel stones." " Ah, 
governor," said his friend, "I was too much for 
you this time, I stuffed mine with shot." 

Gov. Tichenor was in easy pecuniary circum- 
stances, and during the latter years of his life, 

was in receipt of an ofiBcer's pension for revo- 
lutionary services. He continued to the last to 
enjoy the confidence and esteem of all who knew 
him, and died Dec. 11, 1838, aged 84. He was 
married early, but survived his wife many years, 
and left no descendants. 


"Was born at Norwich, Conn., April 14, 1737, 
and was one of the early settlers of Benning- 
ton. He took an active part in the land title 
controversy with New York, and on several oc- 
casions represented ihe town in conventions of 
the settlers for defence against the Yorkers, and 
also for forming the territory into a separate 
state. When the committees of the several 
towns met at Dorset in July, 1775 to nominate 
ofiBcers for the battalion of Green Mountain Boys 
recommended by Congress, he was named as 
Major, under Warner as Lieut. Colonel, and 
served in the corps with him in Canada. And 
when Warner's continental regiment was raised 
in 1776, he was commissioned by Congress as 
Lieut. Colonel, and served as such in the bat- 
tles of Hubbardton and Bennington and through- 
out the war. In 1781 he became a General of 
the Militia. He was a representative of the 
town in 1781 and 1782, and in 1783 was elected 
a State Councillor and served as such for 19 
years in succession, and for 26 successive years, 
ending in 1807, he was Chief Judge of the 
County Court for Bennington Co. He was an 
upright and intelligent man of sound judgment, 
and universally respected.. He died at Ben- 
nington, March 3, 1813, and some of his de- 
scendants are now inhabitants of this town. 


Son of Rev. Jedediah Dewey, was born at 
Westfield. Mass., Nov. 28, 1744, and came to 
Bennington with his father in the fall of 1763. 
His name is found among the privates in the 
first military company formed in town, in Octo- 
ber, 1764, he being then under 20 years of age. 
He was Captain of one of the Bennington com- 
panies early in the war of the Revolution, was 
at Ticonderoga with his company in the fall of 
1776, and again at the evacuation of that fort 
by St. Clair in July, 1777, and he was at the 
head of his company in the battle of Benning- 
ton, Aug. 16, 1777, He was also in service at 
Saratoga on the surrender of Burgoyne, in Oc- 
tober following. 

Capt. Dewey served the public in various 
stations in civil life. He represented the town 
in the General Assembly in 1786, '7 and '8, in 
1796, and again in 1812 and 1813, and was a 
member of the Council of Censors in 1792. 
Capt, Dewey was a federaUst in politics and 



beaded the list of Presideiiiial Electors of this 
State in 1797, and also ia 1801, voting on both 
occasions for John Adams. Capt. Dewey was 
a man of sound and discriminating judgment, 
and of undoubted integrity, who did well and 
faithfully whatever he undertook. He was 
uniformly respected, and died Oct. IG, 1818. 


Was an active and prominent man, in the early 
military affairs of the State. He came to Ben- 
nington prior to March, 1769, at which time his 
name is found on the town records, but from what 
place, and what had been liis previous historj', is 
not known. He left tlie town soon after the 
close of the Revolution, removing to Springfield, 
Montgomery Co., N. Y., and in regard to him 
since that time, notiiing has been ascertained. 
His residence here was in the west part of tiie 
town, at what lias lately been known as llie 
Dimick phice. l